Female reproductive structures. In this video, we will identify in the cat the structures of the female reproductive system, identify the ligamentous supports for the uterus, and illustrate the homologies and the differences in urogenital anatomy in cats and humans. To expose and identify the internal reproductive structures, the pubic symphysis has been cut to open the pelvic cavity. The digestive tract has been removed to better illustrate the reproductive system organs. We'll begin our review of female reproductive structures with the ovaries, the primary organs of reproduction in females. The ovaries are small, bean-sized structures located at the distal end of each uterine horn. The duct that receives the oocyte from each ovary is the uterine tube. The small uterine tube extends from the distal end of the uterine horn, curves over the ovary, and ends in the wide opening called the infundibulum. The oocyte is typically fertilized in the uterine tube. Here is the ovary, uterine tube, and infundibulum. From the uterine tube, the fertilized oocyte moves into the uterus. In the cat, the uterus is a Y-shaped structure. The two "arms" of the Y are the uterine horns, the portion of the uterus that houses the developing kittens. The base of the Y where the two uterine horns meet is the body of the uterus. The cervix is a thickened region at the base of the uterus indicating where the uterus opens into the vagina. In the female cat, the vagina and the urethra, which drains the urinary bladder, meet and form the urogenital sinus, which opens externally at the urogenital opening. Here we have the uterine horns, body of uterus, cervix, vagina, urethra, urogenital sinus, and urogenital opening. The urinary bladder and urethra are labeled for orientation. Humans have a single midline uterus. The uterine tubes extend laterally from the uterus. Each uterine tube ends in a wide opening, the infundibulum. The oocyte is released from the ovary and drawn into the uterine tube. As in the cat, in humans the uterus ends inferiorly at the cervix. The cervix opens into the vagina. In humans the urethra, which drains the urinary bladder, has a separate external opening located anterior to the opening of the vagina, the vaginal orifice. Folds of the peritoneum support the female reproductive organs. In the cat, these folds include the broad ligament, which attaches to the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovary. Broad ligament. The round ligament, which extends from the uterus to the anterior body wall. Round ligament. And the ovarian ligament, which extends from the uterine horn to the ovary. Ovarian ligament. These same ligamentous folds help support the female reproductive organs in humans: broad ligament, round ligament, and ovarian ligament. To review, the female reproductive organs in the cat are the ovary, uterine tube, uterine horns, body of uterus, cervix, vagina, urogenital sinus, and urogenital opening. The ligamentous supports for the reproductive organs are the broad ligament, round ligament, and ovarian ligament.