The size and shape of the vertebrate skull can reveal a great deal about an animal’s lifestyle and evolutionary relationships. Consider your own skull. If you put your finger in your ear and move your jaw up and down, you can feel the space near the hinge of your jaw. Nestled in this space are the tiny bones that make your hearing possible: the malleus, incus, and stapes. All mammals have these three ear bones, but reptiles such as this T. rex don’t. Where did ear bones come from?
Evolution often results in the co-option of a preexisting structure for a new use. Cite three examples from this chapter to support this statement. Evolution can also result in the loss of a trait. Cite three examples from this chapter.
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