Alright. Now let's decompose our return on equity ratio using what's called the DuPont Model. Let's check it out. So remember, return on equity, we've talked about this before. It measures the income a company earns, so we're talking about net income that we're earning compared to the level of equity, right, the return on the equity. So return on equity ROE, it's a common profitability ratio. Shows how profitable the company is, right? And remember, investors, they want to make as much money as possible. They want that ROE to be high. They want a really good, really high ROE. So what we're going to do here is we're going to break up the ROE using 3 ratios. 3 different ratios that together form ROE, okay? So we're going to use 3 ratios that give us better information on how ROE is derived. Alright? So let's review real quick what we know about ROE. Remember that ROE, we learned as net income in the numerator divided by average common equity, right? Whenever we're talking about return on equity, we're talking about the common shareholders, alright? Because that's the usually the stock that you're going to buy on the market. It's going to be the common shareholders compared to the preferred shareholders, right? So we're focused on common equity here. So this is the formula we learned. Net income in the numerator above average common equity in the denominator. So we're going to break it down now into these 3 ratios. We’re going to use profit margin, total asset turnover, and then what's called the equity multiplier, which is also known as the leverage ratio. It has to do with the level of debt. Okay? So let's see how these three ratios help us understand the return on equity a little better. So underneath there, I have the ratios written out as we've we learned them before. Okay? So our profit margin, that's net income over net sales, right? So what does that tell us? What is our profit margin tell us? Well, it tells us the amount of net income we get per dollar of sales, right? Remember, sales is the top of the income statement. This is the money worth bringing in from customers Then we have all of our expenses, cost of goods sold, operating expenses, other expenses we run around. And then we finally get our net income. Right? So for every dollar that we sell, every dollar that we bring in as revenue, how much of it is left at the end of the day as net income? Right, that's what the profit margin tells us. Now the next one, total asset turnover. Well, this one's telling us, right, For every how for every dollar of assets, right? Our denominator, how many dollars of sales we earn per dollar of assets? So we want this to be high too. Right? We want to be turning our assets into sales as much as we possibly can. Okay. So net sales divided by averagetotalassets. that's our total asset turnover and what you might remember, you might have learned that these two together, the profit margin times total asset turnover, well, this is our return on assets, our ROA ratio, return on assets. Okay. So the profit margin times total asset turnover is our return on assets. Remember that return on assets is net income divided by average total assets. And if you look at just these first two, these first two ratios, We've got net sales in the denominator in the first one. Net sales in the numerator in the second one. So, if you remember from algebra, we can cancel those out. Right? If it's in the numerator and the denominator, they cancel out. And what's left? We've got net income in the numerator and average total assets in the denominator. That is our return on assets ratio. And that's why these two ratios together equal return on assets. But we take it a step further here in the DuPont model. We don't just think about that, we are talking about return on equity. So we take our return on assets and we use our equity multiplier to get to return on equity. So what is our equity multiplier? That's this last ratio right here and that's our average total assets divided by our average common equity, right? So this is going to give us information about how levered the company is, right? If we have a lot of average total assets, but just a little bit of common equity, well, that means that we've got a lot of liabilities, right? Remember that assets equal liabilities plus equity. So we're going to have to finance our assets with either liabilities or equity. So if we have only a little bit of equity, that means we have a lot of liabilities. And that means we're highly levered, we're a riskier company, but we can make a lot more money too. Okay? So the more debt that we have, the riskier we are, but in general, that means we have the potential to make more money or lose more money. Okay? So this equity multiplier, it deals with the riskiness of the company, the leverage that they have, how much debt they have outstanding. That's what it tells us. This is called the leverage ratio also, by the way. So the equity multiplier is also the leverage ratio. And what it does is it takes that ROA from the first two ratios, and it magnifies it. Right? Based on the level of equity. Okay? So that's what we've got going on here, and in the end we're going to multiply the 3 of them together. The profit margin, times the total asset turnover, times the equity_multiplier, that equals our return on equity. Okay? So why did we go through all this trouble? What does this mean to us? Well, what it tells us is there are 3 ways that the company can increase its return on equity. First, it can increase its profit margin, right? If it focuses on increasing its profit margin, well it's increasing part of that multiple, right? We're multiplying 3 things together. If we increase one of them, well that's going to be a bigger number. So guess what? The next way we can increase our ROE is by increasing total asset turnover. Right? So by increasing total asset turnover, ROE is going to go up in the same way. And the third way, now this one's kind of interesting. Is by increasing the amount of debt that the company uses. By focusing more on using more liabilities and less equity, well, like I said, this levers the company, right? Now there's less equity. There's the net income that we get is shared by a smaller group of people, right? When we compare the level of assets that we keep to the amount of equity. Well, in essence, we're able to make more money because we've taken on this debt, we can grow our business, but we're riskier too, right? We've got these interest payments, we're going to have this debt, but, in the end, it's another way to increase our return on equity by making the company in essence riskier, right? So it's a riskier company, when we increase the level of debt. Cool? So that's those are the 3 ways we can increase our ROE. So this gives the company better information and better things they can focus on. Maybe they'll think, hey, we can focus on our profit margin and really try and cut down on our expenses to increase our return on equity. Or we can really drive sales for our level of assets and increase the total asset turnover. Or let's just take on more debt and increase the company that way, but we'll be riskier, but we can have higher returns on equity. Cool? And one last note here is that, we can obviously have a negative return on equity. Right? And that's only going to occur when we have a net loss. That's generally the main reason here. Right? Because when you think about net, return on equity, we can have a negative net income. Right? If we have a negative net income, that's a net loss, and we're going to have a negative return on equity in that case. Cool? So one more thing before we move on to some practice problems is I want to show you why this ratio equals our return on equity above. So just like we did with return on assets, when I showed you how that equals return on assets with the first two ratios. Well, if we look at all 3 ratios together, right? We have net sales in the denominator and net sales in the numerator for the first and second ratio. So we could cross those out, right? Because the numerator and the denominator, they cancel out. And look at the next two. Average total assets in the denominator and average total assets in the numerator. We can cancel those out, and what are we left with? Net income in the numerator. Average Common Equity in the denominator. And what did we learn above? Return on Equity is equal to Net Income Divided by Average commonequity. So that's why this ratio makes sense. For the most part in this class, you're just going to maybe have a problem where they give you these ratios, you have to multiply them together to get to return on equity. Just to show that you know how to use the DuPont model. Or you might have an analysis project where you're analyzing all sorts of ratios. You have a company you're looking at. And you're going to use this information, this analysis we just went through to give better information on the return on equity. Cool? So let's go ahead and do some practice problems. The way you might see this on an exam. Alright? Let's do that now.

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# Ratios: DuPont Model for Return on Equity (ROE) - Online Tutor, Practice Problems & Exam Prep

Return on Equity (ROE) is a key profitability ratio that measures a company's net income relative to its average common equity. The DuPont Model decomposes ROE into three components: profit margin (net income/net sales), total asset turnover (net sales/average total assets), and equity multiplier (average total assets/average common equity). By enhancing profit margin, increasing asset turnover, or leveraging debt, a company can boost its ROE. Understanding these relationships helps investors assess profitability and risk, as a higher equity multiplier indicates greater financial leverage and potential returns.

### Ratios: DuPont Model for Return on Equity (ROE)

#### Video transcript

XYZ Company had a profit margin of 8.8%, total asset turnover of 0.77, and an equity multiplier of 1.8. What is XYZ's Return on Equity using the DuPont Model?

A company had a profit margin of 6.1%. The company's net sales were $3,600,000 and Cost of Goods Sold was $600,000. If total assets were $3,450,000 at the beginning of the year and $4,210,000 at the end of the year, and total equity was $2,500,000 at the beginning of the year and $3,100,000 at the end of the year, what is the company's return on equity using the DuPont model?

A company with net sales of $820,000 and net income of $210,000, average total assets of $1,400,000 and average common equity of $940,000 is using the DuPont Model for financial analysis. What is the company's ROE?

### Here’s what students ask on this topic:

What is the DuPont Model for Return on Equity (ROE)?

The DuPont Model for Return on Equity (ROE) decomposes ROE into three components: profit margin, total asset turnover, and equity multiplier. The formula is:

$\frac{\mathrm{Net}\mathrm{Income}}{\mathrm{Average}\mathrm{Common}\mathrm{Equity}}=\frac{\mathrm{Net}\mathrm{Income}}{\mathrm{Net}\mathrm{Sales}}\times \frac{\mathrm{Net}\mathrm{Sales}}{\mathrm{Average}\mathrm{Total}\mathrm{Assets}}\times \frac{\mathrm{Average}\mathrm{Total}\mathrm{Assets}}{\mathrm{Average}\mathrm{Common}\mathrm{Equity}}$

This model helps in understanding how profit margin, asset efficiency, and financial leverage contribute to a company's ROE.

How does the profit margin affect Return on Equity (ROE) in the DuPont Model?

The profit margin, calculated as $\frac{\mathrm{Net}\mathrm{Income}}{\mathrm{Net}\mathrm{Sales}}$, affects ROE by indicating how much net income is generated per dollar of sales. A higher profit margin means the company is more efficient at converting sales into actual profit, which directly increases ROE. Improving profit margin can be achieved by reducing costs or increasing sales prices, thereby enhancing overall profitability.

What is the role of the equity multiplier in the DuPont Model?

The equity multiplier, calculated as $\frac{\mathrm{Average}\mathrm{Total}\mathrm{Assets}}{\mathrm{Average}\mathrm{Common}\mathrm{Equity}}$, measures financial leverage. It shows how much of the company's assets are financed by equity. A higher equity multiplier indicates more debt relative to equity, which can amplify ROE. However, it also increases financial risk, as the company must manage higher debt levels and associated interest payments.

How can a company increase its Return on Equity (ROE) using the DuPont Model?

A company can increase its ROE by focusing on three areas: improving profit margin, increasing total asset turnover, and leveraging more debt. Improving profit margin involves enhancing operational efficiency to generate more net income per dollar of sales. Increasing total asset turnover means generating more sales per dollar of assets. Leveraging more debt (higher equity multiplier) can boost ROE by using borrowed funds to finance growth, though it also increases financial risk.

What is the relationship between Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) in the DuPont Model?

In the DuPont Model, Return on Assets (ROA) is a component of ROE. ROA is calculated as $\frac{\mathrm{Net}\mathrm{Income}}{\mathrm{Average}\mathrm{Total}\mathrm{Assets}}$ and represents the efficiency of asset use in generating profit. ROE is derived by multiplying ROA by the equity multiplier, which adjusts ROA for financial leverage. Thus, ROE = ROA × Equity Multiplier, linking asset efficiency and financial leverage to overall equity returns.