Transition Metals:Oxidation States

by Jules Bruno
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So as we stayed in the past, oxidation involves removing electrons. Now, one of the most common features of transition metals is that they possess multiple oxidation states. So they have potential for multiple charges. Remember transition metals? We call type two metals because they have multiple positive charges. Main group metals we call group type won medals because they only have one type of charge, for example calcium and group to A. It's always plus two aluminums in group three A. Its charges always plus three. Now here if we look at the periodic table, we know these are our group A elements From 1 8, 8, 8. And then we have our transition metals here Which is 3B five B, 6 B, seven b. And then 8, 9 and 10. These are eight b. This would be one b. n two b. And we're gonna say with our transition metals some of them do act as type one medals. For example, silver is always plus one in charge. We say cadmium is always plus two, Zinc is always plus two. Here we have a graph which basically shows our first row transition metals. So we have scanned him all the way to zinc and with it we can see all the different types of charges they can possess. We can see that a lot of them have multiple charges. A lot of these charges come into play if these transition metals are connected to something very electro negative, such as oxygen or flooring. But there are certain patterns we can take a look and see. So first of all, when we say zero here, we mean they're neutral face. All of them have a neutral phase where they have no charge. What we need to see here is that the most common type of charge amongst them is a plus two charge. So we'd say all of them are Argon four S. 23 D. X. X. Depends on which element is scandal would be three D. One, zinc would be three D. 10. But what are the trends? Can we pick up from this truck While the charges extend from 0 to Plus seven. This tells us that plus seven is the maximum positive charge these transition metals can have, we can't go plus eight or higher. We can also see that manganese has the most charges. It can be any charge from zero to plus seven. This has to do with its placement on the periodic table. If we were to do its electron configuration, it's three D. Would have five unpaid electrons. This type of arrangement opens up the possibility of all these different possible charges for manganese. Another trend we can notice here is that for groups three B 27 B. The highest possible positive charge the element can possess is equal to its group. So group three B scandia three B. Highest charge you can have is plus three, four b. Highest charge, titanium have is plus four Vanadium five B plus five chromium plus six. And of course manganese plus seven. This trend breaks away once we go past group seven B. Because eight B. And the one B's they don't really follow that pattern because again, we can't go beyond plus seven. Another trend that we can see from here has to do with their oxidation states. So with these transition metals they can have two types of bonding. They can have ionic bonding and they can have special type of covalin bond. When we say covalin bonding, we mean like they can take on molecular solid form and basically ionic bonding is possible when they have a lower oxidation state. And covalin or molecular solid form as possible if they have a higher oxidation state. Now what do I mean by higher oxidation state? I mean an oxidation or a charge of plus three or higher. So if we take two, for example, take a look at titanium and let's say we did titanium, new chloride versus titanium for chloride. So this to here came from titanium. So this is titanium too. So its oxidation state is not but plus actually it's not plus three. Higher, it's greater than plus three. Sorry, Greater than Plus three. So, titanium too doesn't have a charge that's greater than plus three. So it would be ionic bonding involved with titanium to chloride titanium for chloride, it has a charge of plus four. That's where this four came from. That would mean that maintaining for chloride has covalin bonding and this structure would exist as a molecular solid. So these are just some of the things that looking at transition metal oxidation states can tell us. Okay, so just remember the trend in terms of the highest possible charges that exist for Groups three B, 27 B. Remember here, the difference between ionic bonding and also co violent bonding, which leads to molecular solids for these transition metals. Also remember here, manganese, because it's unique placement on the periodic table, it has the most possible oxidation states associated with it.