Structural Isomerism

Jules Bruno
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Hey, guys, In this new video, we're gonna take a look at all the different types of structural ice MERS that are allowed with coordination compounds. So we're gonna say, first of all, that ice summers are compounds that possess the same molecular formula, which means they have the same exact atoms. But they differ in the location of each atoms, so they're connected in special ways. So I stammers. Same formula, Yeah, but different structures. So here we can organize it into different groups. So if we're talking about ice MERS that have different connections, they're connected differently. Then we refer to them as constitutional Isom er's For those of you who go into organic chemistry, you'll take a more in depth look at what we call constitutionalism Er's now constitutionalism. Er's fall into two categories. We have our coordination. I summers and then we have our linkage ice summers. So we're gonna say coordination Ice summers. This is Liggan and or counter ion swapping. So what does that mean? Basically, we're gonna say coordination. Ice MERS is when the composition of the complex ion changes, but not the compound overall. So basically, one example is when we have a lichen and encounter ion changing positions. For example, I could have platinum here. It's connected toe four means to chlorine. And then we have a counter ion out here you know to So coordination I stammers means I switch the positions of one of the Liggins and the counter Ion. So one of these Liggins I'll switch out on the chlorine with the counter ion. Okay, so now if we look, my cl licking is now a counter ion and my no to counter ion is now a Liggan. These would represent coordination Ice summers We've swamped the Liggins and a counter islands. Also, another way of thinking about this is if you're swapping different Liggins. So for example, so we can continue downward here. So another example of a coordination I summer is when Liggins switch positions. So we have chromium connected to the Amine Ion. Six of them. This is a positive counter Ion. It's connected toe a negative counter Ion. Now what happens? I can switch the Liggins. This Liggan can switch places with this Liggan. So now here We're gonna say cr is now with scion. Oh, and Cobalt now is now with the Imean group. Okay, so remember coordination. I summers means we can swap either the lichen with the counter ion or weaken switch Liggins. These both who represent two different examples of coordination. Ice summers now linkage. Ice swimmers are different. This is just difference in donor Adam. So basically, we're saying here, this is just the Liggins attaching in different ways and different ways. For example, let zinc, for example, file signing as CNN. Right, So we have final sign it here. Now, remember, with I'll sign it, this is a mono dent ated Liggan, meaning that it only has one Adam that can donate. But here's the thing. It can either be the sulfur donating, or it could be the nitrogen donating its lone pair to the central metal cat Ion. So what I could think of is I could say I have cobalt ear connected to S C. N. Okay, so we can say that. So in this example, the way I've written it, it's the ass with its lone pair that's connecting to my cobalt. Or I could write it a different way I could write it N c s like that in this example. It is the nitrogen now, with its long pair connecting to the cobalt. So linkage ice Summers just means that the link on the Ligon links in a different way. So that's if we have different connections. If we have the same connections, then they're referred to a stereo is a MERS. Now here. This is when they have stereos centers versus when they don't have stereos centers, we're gonna say stereo centers are also referred to as Kyrill centers. Ah Kyrill Center is when you have an element connected to four different groups. For those of you who haven't watched my organic chemistry chapter yet, probably a good idea to take a quick look at that to take a look at Cairo compounds. Chire Ality. That's just when an element is connected to four different groups. Now here. If they if you have a Carl center than your optical ice summers, that just means you have ah Liggan connected to four different things. So maybe it's connected to a chlorine, Ah, bro, mean and a mean and water. Okay, so that would be a Cairo molecule because the Cobalts connected to four different groups, okay, And in here, any nan tumors there just mirror images of each other. So pretend there's a mirror here. And if this thing is looking into the mirror, what does it see back? It's these back its reflection. It's mirror image. Okay, so that these guys here, the relationship to each other would be nan tumors. Then finally, if you don't have a Kyrill center, we refer to you as geometric ice summers. This is what we're talking about. CIS and trans ice Immers also called the dia stereo MERS. So, for example, I could have pt NH three to be our to. So we say that here the central metal is connected to four Liggins to a means, um and then to bro means so here I can write it as CIS or Trans. What exactly does that mean, Sis? Which just means that the platinum the to be ours on the same side together and the two NH three zehr on the same side together. So this will be my cyst configuration. Trans is when they're opposite of each other. So one BRS up here. The other br is down here. One NH three is up here. The other NH three is down here so this will be my trans configuration. I could also have another example where I have, let's say we use copper. It is connected to four waters and two for ins. So remember this is octahedron because it's connected to six Liggins, so the copper could be in the center. We could have the two florins bi trans to each other. One is on the top, ones on the bottom. And then remember we in with octahedron shapes. We have these four on the same plane with each other, so this would be Trans. I could also write it assists coppers in the center, okay, and I could have those two florins on the same plane with each other. So now they're cysts, and I'd still have the four waters involved as well. So these are the different types of ice MERS that are allowed when it comes to different types of coordination compounds again, you're just getting a taste of what ice tumors are when you get to organic chemistry or going greater detail. When it comes to constitutional ice summers in the different types of categorizations that exist in organic chemistry for them, we also talk in greater detail about stereo I summers for. Right now we're going over the simplest versions of these and how they relate to the coordination compounds. So take no, no, what we covered here remember the different types of examples that we talked about to classify these different categories. It's essential to knowing how to identify different groups.