Hey, guys, In this new video, we're gonna take a look at the concept of Al Kiel groups. So we're gonna say the removal of a hydrogen from an out king compound creates what we call an Al Kiel group. Now, remember, these out kill groups are the first step in learning how to name organic compounds. Now, if we take a look at this first compound ch four ch four is an out cane. Remember, Al Keynes have the formula of C N. H two n plus two. Where n is the number of carbons. It has one carbon. So and is one. Okay, then I'll be H two times one plus two. So that's how we got the formula ch four. So this is our saturated, hydrocarbon saturated, meaning the carbon has the maximum amount of hydrogen is possible. Now, what do I decide to do? I decided to remove ah, hydrogen from the methane. Now here. I've removed it. So now it's just a ch three. What is this line here mean? This line here means that this CH three is connected to some other structure. I don't know. Maybe it could be a no h. Maybe it could be a larger carbon chain. I have no idea. And it doesn't matter. What we need to realize here is I'm connecting this carbon to something different. Carbon cat make five bonds. I couldn't have the carbon connect to that thing beforehand because carbon can only go up to four bonds. That's why I needed to remove the h from it so that it could connect to some new thing. Now notice the difference between the two structures. Obviously we go from CH four, which is methane to ch three, which is metal. But what other things you should notice here is that the end of the name changes when we come in out Kill group If you take ah hydrogen from an N carbon, the ending changes toe y el So here, going from a nine thio ill Okay, so when we make and I'll kill group the ending changes from Anne toe y el Now here methane ch four meth Elice ch three. Here we can say that ch two just means we have a carbon connected to two hydrogen and then it's connected to two other things. I don't know what they are. I don't really care here. I'm showing you these guys now because we get to organic. Professors tend to gloss over them and never talk about what their names are. So here they always focus on what a methane is and what a methyl is, but they never explain what a CH two is called or what a CH is called. Yes, CH. It's connected to three things. We don't know what they are because remember, Carbon must make four bonds. We're going to say that a CH two is called a methylene group, so that's methylene And a C H is called methane here. It's not too important in terms of Gen Camp, but just realized later on we get to organic one. You will have to know what the names of all four of these are. Professors tend to gloss over methylene and I find a lot, and you basically have to figure out on your own. That's what they're called. But I'm telling you that now. So make a mental note, write a little note somewhere so that you could remember when you get to organic one that hey, Jules told me that CH two is methylene and ch is methane. So if I'm reading and I see those names, I know what the heck I'm looking at. All right, So if we taken h off of methane, it gives us methyl, Then what else could we take in each off of and name as an L kill group? So we're gonna say when you have a two carbon chain and the al que name will be So let's see two carbons saturated the prefixes f. And it is an al cane. So the ending is a nine. Remember, we're taking off in age from one of the end carbons. When we do that, we create an Al Kiel group and the ending changes from a nine thio ill. So it changes from a any toe y el so the prefix name stays the same. So it's f and the ending changes to ill. So becomes Ethel. So this is Ethel. And again, we don't know what it's connected to be connected to something. I don't know what it is, but it's connected to it somehow. So that's what an ethyl would look like later on. You'll take a look at it in terms off skeletal formulas for right now we won't Won't worry too much about that. Do tackle that more so when you get to organic one. Now if we get take it off of ah to carbon chain what could we do when we're taking off a three carbon chain? So here three carbons is pro pope. It's an Al cane. So it's propane here, this is an end Carbon, This is an end carbon I could taken h from either end. Remember, when you're taking off in h from either end, it just changes the ending from ain't toe y el So this becomes propel. But now we finally have a new situation. But we don't only have end carbons. We also have a middle carbon here, which means that can remove the H from the middle is well, now the ending still is ill. But now it's not gonna be pro Paul because we're taking it from the middle. This structure is called Izel proper. I still just means sane in the carbon that is having its H remove so it could be connected to something else is connected to two of the same groups, which basically means these two ch threes. So is a means sane, so be making purple or isopropyl. Now let's say you have a four carbon chain. So we're going to say here that this four carbon chain here is called butane. Okay, so that's butane. You could take it from either one of the end carbons again when you take it from the end. Carbon It just changes the ending toe y el So this becomes beautiful. But we also have a new situation where we can take it off from one of the middle guys, which are the same. We're gonna stay here When you take it off of one of the middle guys. It becomes sec beautiful. What the heck does sec mean here? So think of SEC meaning secondary. But what does that mean? What does a secondary carbon? A secondary carbon is a carbon connected to two other carbons. Okay, so the carbon that has the bond, this carbon, it is connected to two other carbons. Namely, it's connected to this ch three in this ch two. So it's a second dairy, carbon or sec carbon. And because of the secondary carbon, that's what we call it Sucked beetle. So it's a point that You know what? What a beauty looks like and what a suck beauty group looks like. So we figured out half of the name, but where the other two come from? Well, the other to come from the constitutional Isom er off beauty. What the heck does constitutional I sturmer mean or structuralism? Er so I'm gonna say constitutional or structural? Ice summer. So constitutionalism or structuralism remains. You have the same exact molecular formula, but different connections on because you have different connections. You have different names. So on the previous page you saw that butane was this right here. So this was beauty. And if you count the number of carbon and hydrogen, it was C four h 10. This one here is called is a beauty. It is a structural or constitutional is, um er of butane? Because if you look at it, how many carbon does it have? It has Fouras Well. And how many hydrogen does it have? It has 10 as well. So is a butane is a constitutional ice. Summer of butane. Same formula, different connections. Now here this is an end Carbon. This is an end carbon and technically appears an end carbon. So if we remove from any one of those, it changes the ending to just while. So the beginning states is Aw, I saw, but And then the ending changes toe while so this would be called Is so beautiful. Now, here we don't only have those options, but we can remove it here from this middle Carbon. It's not one of the end carbon, so we can't just simply say is a beautiful anymore. Here, we're gonna say that it's called TERT beautiful or t beautiful. Okay, so what does TERT mean? TERT equals tertiary. What does tertiary mean? Tertiary mean that you are a carbon connected toe. Three other carbons So tertiary means you are carbon connected to three other carbons. So if we look at this carbon here it is connected to 123 other carbons. So what is a tertiary carbon? So the name is tertiary beautiful or Turk beautiful, short or t beautiful, even shorter. So a carbon connected to two carbons is secondary. Ah, carbon connected to three carbons. Tertiary ah, carbon connected toe. One carbon is called a primary carbon and primary is usually, um denoted by a one with a degree sign. Tertiary is usually three, with the degree sign secondaries to with the degree sign. So carbon connected toe one carbon is primary while carbon connected to two carbons is secondary while carbon connected to three carbons is tertiary. What do you think of carbon connected to four Carbons is called well, a carbon connected to four carbons would be called Quaternary and we tend not to talk too much about Quaternary carbons. There are a few places here and there in organic that they ever talk about them. But just realize that a coronary carbon is a carbon connected toe, four other carbons and the whole sec beautiful and terp. Udal kind of go off of this idea of that carbon that's making a bond how maney carbons are connected to it. So that's where their names come from. Now, knowing this is important, because knowing this will help us answer this following question or being asked, Oh, draw the three ice summers off painting. So basically, I'm asking us to draw the constitutional ice MERS of painting What are three different ways I can draw this formula and it be correct. So we're going to take a look at this question in the following video, so make sure you come back and attempt to do it alongside me and see what strategy I use in order to draw this correctly. And here's a huge hint, but we just went over in terms of al killed groups will help us tremendously when it comes to naming this compound or actually drawing these compounds. They provide shortcuts to get to the answer very quickly. Shortcuts that are gonna help you a lot in the beginning of organic one because a typical question is draw the constitutionalism er's from the given formula. So look at the strategies that I used to help guide you to the answer, so come back and look at the next video.