Jules Bruno
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Hey, guys, In this new video, we're gonna take a look at Liggins. So we're gonna say a ligand could be thought of is just simply a Lewis base. Because, remember, a Lewis base is an electron pair donor. So what happens here is that the transition metal in the middle is a cat ion, so it's positive, so it can easily accept negative electrons. The metal cat ion in the center is the Lewis acid, which is an electron pair. Except, er, the Liggan, which could be either neutral or negative, donates its lone pairs to the central metal. Now, I'm gonna say Liggins can be characterized by the number of elements in the molecule that can donate alone Pair. Now we're gonna say here that these compounds use their lone pairs to grab onto these metal cat ions and therefore they're referred to as key lading agents. Sochi lading, agents now key lading. Agents were gonna say that tequila is Greek and it means crab's claw. And basically, what happens here is that the lone pairs kind of act like teeth, that kind of chump into the metal cat aisles when it's donating its lone parents. Actually, um surrounding and holding on to that metal cat ion performing a strong bond. So that's where they'll turn key lading. Agent comes from Now we're gonna say Liggins that possess Onley one element able to donate a lone pair referred to as Mono Dent. Eight. Liggins. When we say Mano Dent eight Mono Dent, it means one tooth because again we think of them as claws or teeth that connect to the metal ion common ones. Here we have water, of course, Onley. One lone pair is being donated to form the bond, not both. Here. X X just stands for halogen. So we're talking about flooring, chlorine bro mean And I'd I or technically, since their negative. We're talking about fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide. Now, when you get to organic, for those of you are brave enough to go into organic, you'll learn that X is just the default symbol to represent all halogen. So take note of that When you see X in chemistry, it really just refers to some type of halogen. Next we have our cyanide ion. Now Nitrogen also has a lone pair, but it's the carbon that possesses the negative charge. It's the carbon. That's going to be attacking with its lone pair. Here we have our hydroxide ion. Good. We have ammonia. Now. Here. This one is basically similar to Sinai ion. Except now we have the possession of a sulfur in in in this compound. We're gonna say here that when it comes to the structure, this is called your file Sign eight ion. And here's the thing. The sulfur or the nitrogen can be the attacker, not both. It's one or the other. So that's why it's mano dented here. This is our nitrite I on we should realize hears about our nitrate ion is that it's the nitrogen or the oxygen that can donate. And technically you're nitride. Ion has resonance. We'll call when we talk about lewis dot structures. Certain compounds can do resonance. So another way I could have drawn this is I could have still drawn that nitrogen in the center, but it could have been the oxygen that's on the right. That was single, bonded, and then the oxygen on the left now is double bonded. So here it's still one or the other, the nitrogen or the oxygen. So these air mono dented Liggins here. Legends that possess two elements able to donate a lone pair referred to as by Dent. Eight. We don't say die. Dent. Eight Die, Dent. It does not exist. Okay, it's by dented. So here, by means to what we have here is we have our aqsa late I on which will sometimes see written as C 204 to minus. So this is one where we could have drawn it. This also is resonances. Well, we could draw it a different way. We could draw still those carbons in the center. But now it's the oxygen's on top that are both single bonded, and then the oxygen's on the bottom are double bonded. Okay? Or we could just mix and match. Maybe this one here single, bonded and maybe that one there single bonded. So it all depends how you want to look at it, but just realize Oxlade ion is also residents. Um, stabilized here, this other one that we have here. This is called ethylene. Die a mean. Let me take myself out of the image guys. So that's ethylene. Die me. F a lien just means you have to ch two groups. And when we're saying a mean here. We're talking about nitrogen ins. But remember, Nitrogen likes to make three bonds. It's each one only making one bond right now. So each one will have to hydrogen is involved their in group five days. So they have five valence electrons. So that's where the lone pairs come from. Right here. We're gonna say that by Dent eight, and Polident Liggins Because they have more than one element with a lone pair, they conform rings when they attached to the metal cat ions. So we're gonna say that by Dent eight and Polident eight Liggins, would you be on the next page? They form rings in the complex Ion later on, we'll be seeing examples of this now. Here. If our Liggins possess mawr than to elements that are able to donate Ah, long pear Then they're referred to as Polident Tape Liggins, Polly Meaning many tooth. So here we have triphosphate now notice. Although these oxygen's here are also negative, it is not them that donate their electrons. It's these three here that donate their electrons. Then we have here die ethylene. So dai means to remember ethylene means ch two ch two So here goes one ethylene. Here goes a second ethylene. That's why it's diethylene. Tri means three. Three. What three means here goes. And a mean here goes in a mean and here goes into mean notice that here at the ends, nitrogen again wants to make three bonds. Each one's making one bond toe a carbon, meaning that they need to make two more bonds. So that's why each one has to hydrogen. This one here in the center, though, is already making to bonds one to this carbon and one to this carbon, so it only needs one more hydrogen to have three. Now, finally, this last one here, this is called Ethylene di amine tetra acetate ion or simply e d t. A. So let's look at the naming ethylene ethylene because we're going to say it's ethylene because we have, uh, this ethylene park right here. Here goes our ethylene die a mean dia mean means we have to nitrogen and then tetra means four tetra acetate. Here's our acetate ion. This part right here is acetate, and how many of them are there? There's four of them now. Technically, here there are six groups that can donate electrons, so this is technically a hex, a dent. Eight Liggan. But here's the thing. Usually what happens is it's these four. Since their negatively charged, they have an excess of electrons, so they're the ones most likely to donate electrons. Okay, these nitrogen is here are neutral so they're less likely to donate their electrons. They could, but more than likely it will be the acetate oxygen's that are negative that are donating their electrons now. E t A. You may say I've never heard of e d T. A. But the thing about E. T. A is e. D. T. A. Is found in a lot of every day. Um, products. You'll find it in processed fruits and vegetables, even if you look at certain shampoos in the grocery store. If you look at certain ones, they have e d. T. A. In them as an active ingredient, you'll see it in mayonnaise. You'll see it in salad dressings, your seat in sweeteners. It's in a lot of things that we either use, um, to clean ourselves or to clean our homes or to even eat. Here's the thing. Why, why they found in everything basically for example, if you have a can of fruits, right, What happens here is that during the process of packaging certain foods, there are trace amounts of metal shavings that can be found in the food, which isn't good. So how do you make sure you basically soak up these metal ions so that we don't? We don't get sick from them. You poor little bit of e d. T. A. In these processed cans. What happens here is that the DDT it binds to any traces of metals left behind in the food. And what it does here is it gets rid of those metal ions from your food and at the same time, it stops your food from spoiling too quickly. So it acts kind of like a preservative. It also acts as a way of protecting us from free floating metal ions. So there's a huge science involved in terms of this compound e t. It's found in ah lot of things. So it's a very, very, very important Liggan, um that you may not have heard of until today, but it's found in almost everything that we use. So remember we're talking about Liggins here. Liggins are just simply lewis basis. They connect to the metal ion in order to form are complex ion. Remember, your complex ion is made up of your metal ion in the center which acts as a lewis acid. And then you're Liggins that surround it. These Liggins can either be negatively charged or they could be neutral as in case off ethylene dia me. So just remember the different types we have mono bi and poly e t a. Being the most popular Polident ated like it.