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General Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Chemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

23. Chemistry of the Nonmetals

Alkaline Earth Metals

The Alkaline Earth Metals represent the elements found in Group 2A of the Periodic Table. 

Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals

The Alkaline Earth Metals are named for the basic solutions that they create and the fact they remain solid ("earth") in thermal reactions. 


Physical and Chemical Properties of the Alkaline Earth Metals

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Hey, guys, In this new video, we're gonna take a look at the alkaline Earth Metals. So here, when we talk about the alkaline earth metals, we're gonna say they're alkaline because they help to make basic solutions. And they get the name Earth from the fact that at high temperatures they can still remain solids. So that's where the name originates from. We're gonna stay here when we're talking about alkaline earth metals. We're talking about group two way. Now, remember, in group two way, what do we have? We have beryllium, We have magnesium, We have calcium, strong tea, um, barium. And then we have radio. Now, Barium barium is a little bit out there. We're gonna say here that barium is a rare form of group to A. There's actually not that much barium as opposed to the other forms. And when it comes to radium, we're gonna say radium, unlike the others, is radioactive. Remember, when it's radioactive, it's hard to predict what it might do. And we're gonna say here because beryllium is higher up than the others. And because of its rarity, we're gonna say it uncharacteristically forms co violent bonds, so it kind of acts like a non metal. It shares electrons with other non metals, which is very odd because metals tend to lose. Electrons become positive so that they could become a noble gas. Beryllium is different. It doesn't lose electrons like the others, it shares electrons. Now here, we're going to say when it comes to their physical properties, we're gonna say they're higher temperatures is the result of an additional Valence electron. Remember their in group two way and they're still in the s block of the periodic table. So here there s, too, so they have two electrons in the outer shell. Now, what effect does this have? So if we just imagine it? Adam, here's your Adam here, in the middle of the nucleus, very small. And we have two electrons in the in this shell spinning around. We're gonna say here the addition of an extra electron means the addition of an additional proton within the nucleus. We're gonna see if we have if we have more protons. Okay, so the size isn't changing. All I'm doing here is let's take, for example, we're talking about beryllium, right? So brilliant would be one s two to us, too. So here all I'm doing is adding an additional electron as opposed to group. One day it had to s one. All I'm doing is adding an additional electron to this show to this second show. But I'm not increasing the size. So you're adding an additional electron without increasing it toe another shell, which means you're adding additional proton to the nucleus. Were going to say, As a result of this, there's gonna be a stronger attraction for the electrons to the nucleus. And remember this attraction that the nucleus has for the electrons. We call this our effective nuclear charge, so that means it's harder for me to remove that electron. Uh, then it would be for a Group one A. And if it's harder for me to remove that electron, this results in stronger metallic bonding. Metallic bonding is just a sea of electrons on the surface of the metal. And here, if they're stronger, effective nuclear charge, there's a strong attraction for those electrons to the nucleus, which means it's harder for me to remove those electrons, which results in a stronger metallic bond, which results in higher temperatures. Okay, so just remember additional electron means greater attraction between the electrons and the nucleus, which we call effective nuclear charge. The higher this is, the stronger the bond is. That's why they exist as solids at higher temperatures. Now here, Chemical properties. We're going to stay here. We kind of mentioned already. We're gonna see all the alkaline earth metals, except for, of course, beryllium form Ionic bonds when bonding to non metals. So, for example, would say magnesium with chlorine. Right, So here, magnesium and group to a. So it's plus two Chlorine here is in group 78 So it's minus one. Okay, one goes to goes there, one comes here, so get em. Gcl too. So this would be magnesium chloride. Now this is different than beryllium because in beryllium it has to valence electrons. So would share those electrons with the two chlorine chlorine Zarin Group seven A. So they have seven valence electrons, so they get to share those electrons. Chlorine are able to attain their octet rule beryllium because it becomes it comes before carbon on the periodic table. It's not going to reach the octet rule. So this comes withdrawing lewis dot structures. If you haven't seen those videos yet Make sure you eventually do just realize that when it comes to Ionic versus Covalin bonding. Even though beryllium is an alkaline earth metal, it tends to form Covalin bonds, meaning it shares electrons with non metals.