23. Chemistry of the Nonmetals
The Carbon Family represents Group 4A of the periodic table.
The Carbon Family
Group 4A shows a diverse range in chemical and physical properties because it contains all three classifications for elements:nonmetals, metalloids and metals.
The Carbon Family
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Hey everyone. So in this video we're gonna take a look at the carbon family. Now here we're gonna say for the carbon found family, this is the column containing carbon and it's unique because it has all three classifications for the elements. It's composed of non metals, it's composed of metal lloyds and it's composed of metals. So here we can talk about some of the physical and chemical behaviors. So going down here we have carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead and Flora V. Um Now here, what type of bonding exists with these different types of elements? Well with carbon, it's a non metal, we can say that carbon in nature has what we call co violent network bonds which are the strongest naturally occurring bonds that we have. And it's not only for carbon, this is also true for silicon, silicon. And we're gonna abbreviate as CN. And that's also true for germanium. Now notice with colvin network bonds you have pretty high melting points because again it's some of the strongest natural bonds that exist with it. We have very high entropy of fusion. Remember fusion is just another name for melting, going from a solid to liquid fates with tin and lead. Both of these are metals. So their type of bonding is metallic. And then finally for Flora V. Um it is at the very bottom of our periodic table that row from elements from like 1 13 to 1 18. A lot of them are synthetic, they're made by men, they're very unstable since they're very heavy types of elements. So here we don't talk about the type of bonding that exists with it. In fact in the reason that there's like not a lot of information for it is because again it's developed in a lab by humans. So it's very unstable and the half life for it is actually about 2.6 seconds. Which means that every 2.6 seconds half of it disappears. Now here it used to be called mm So it's blow roe v um It used to be called on quad. Ium on means one And quad means four. So 114 which is also its atomic number. So its name, its old name represented its atomic number. And we're going to say if we look at this chart in terms of physical and chemical behavior, we're gonna say the general trend is as we go down the group for four a we're gonna say as we go down this group, the trend that we should see is that the hardness of a lot of these structures, their hardness decreases, which is why their entropy of fusions are decreasing and also their melting points are decreasing. One other thing that we should notice as we go down the group is that the their densities increase. So now With this whole thing of carbon, carbon four on carbon families and group foray we have what's called elect trumpism. Now electro prism is the ability of some elements to exist in different forms while in the same physical state, Carbon for instance has two predominant forms. So in nature, carbon can exist as carbon solid graphite and it can exist as carbon solid and we all know what these are diamonds. So graphite, where do you see that? You see that in your pencils? We stop using lead in pencils because lead is pretty toxic. So we replaced it with graphite diamonds of course we know are expensive types of jewelry or whatever. Like they're just a type of a form of carbon, carbon atoms alia trumpism and we're going to say here that there are differences in form can lead to vastly different properties. Now we're gonna say here that graphite is represented as a soft black conductor of electricity. So here we find it typically in pencils and we're gonna say diamonds, it's considered one of the hardest natural materials in nature that is colorless and as an insulator of electricity. So both of them are carbon, but based on the way they bond their internal bonding structures, they have very different properties from one another. Now, besides these two forms of carbon, we're gonna say in the 19 eighties mass spectroscopic spectroscopic examinations of sub discovered another elite trophy for carbon known as Buckminster Fuller ring or simply buckyball. So buckyball looks like this and it also has co violent network bonds. Just like carbon graphite and carbon diamond if you wanted to know what it kind of looks like it looks like a soccer ball. So we have all these carbons here as these fears. And they're connected by Covalin network bonds. And we'd say that within the structure, some of them are shaped as hexagons and then we also have some that are shaped as pentagons. And so it makes this shape for buckyball Buckyball itself is just 60 carbons together. So it's C60. Now, here we have, we're gonna draw phase diagram to help us understand what forms are typical of carbon. So here, if we take a look at this phase diagram, we're gonna say that, let's say our temperature here is zero degrees Celsius, we're gonna say this is around 4000 degrees Celsius. And then over here we have 8000 degrees Celsius. Now we're going to say here that just below our 4000, we have this small section here which exists as the vapor form of carbon. And then up to here, we have our liquid form of carbon. Now, this isn't drawn perfectly the scale here, we're just concerned of what's the most normal type of carbon that we can see in nature. We're going to say that we have one atmosphere here, which is normal pressure And then all the way up here, we're gonna have 1.0 times 10 to the four atmospheres. So this is incredibly high pressure. We're going to say that at that extreme pressure and above we have the diamond form of carbon. And we know that carbon diamonds are rare. They're expensive because of their rarity and they're rare because the amount of extreme pressure and high temperatures that are needed to form them. We know it comes from the compression of coal and extreme pressures that helped to make these diamonds below this extreme pressure is graphite and we can see that graphite takes up a huge portion of this phase diagram. This means that carbon graphite is the most natural and most abundant form of carbon. Okay, so just remember alia trumpism is just different forms that an element can take when they're in the same physical state. In this case they're solid states. Right? So keep that in mind and looking at carbon and keep in mind some of the trends that we saw with the carbon family.
Allotropism is the ability of an element to exist in multiple forms while in the same physical state. This is common with the element carbon.
Carbon is a rather unique element on the periodic table because it is able to covalently bond with itself.
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in this video, we're gonna take a look at some of the features and reactions common to carbon. So we're gonna stay here. Carbon is one of the most unique elements of the periodic table because of its ability to form coagulant bonds with other carbon atoms in a process called Caddo Nation. So, basically, you could just connect a bunch of carbons together and a long chain. Now, we're gonna say, by incorporating other non metals, it is possible to create diverse organic compounds found in nature. So if we take a look here in the first structure we have two carbons connected together by Cattle Nation. And then we've connected hydrogen is to it, as well as an O H group. The name of the structures called ethanol ethanol is just the big component of alcohol. For the next one, we have cinema Nick Alga hide from the first part of the name Cinnamon. You can tell that this is an important compound within the formation of cinnamon itself. We're gonna say here we have carbons that are double bonded to each other. We have this carbon Now remember, from functional groups that when we say the term alga hide and Aldo Hide is Ah, carbon. That's double bonded to oxygen and then single bonded toe a hydrogen. This is your alga hide group right here. We're gonna stay here that this ring is called a benzene or aromatic ring. Each corner actually represents a carbon. And those carbons we need to make four bonds so they have Ah, hydrogen each. This carbon here doesn't need ah hydrogen because it's already making four bonds. Then here we have finally acetic acid. So let me take myself out so you can see it better. Acetic acid. Now here acetic acid is what we call a car basilica acid. And remember the part of it that makes it a car. Pacific acid. It is a carbon double bonded to and oh, and connected to a ohh similar to an alga hide accepting alga Hide has an H instead of an O. H. That part there makes it a car basilica Acid acetic acid is the dominant component of vinegar. Now we're gonna say as you move down the groups of Group four A, you're going to see that the atomic radius will increase. Now, what effect does this have on the other elements in the periodic table in Group four. Basically, as we go down, the atomic radius increases which causes and creates longer bonds that are weaker and more open to reactions. So as a result, none of the other elements form stable chemical chains, so it's harder for us to connect Ah, bunch of silicon altogether. It's hard to connect a bunch of Jermaine Ian's altogether cada nation does not happen with them. It only happens really with carbon in this group. Now, some of the key reactions that deal with carbon For example, we're gonna say in organic carbon compounds are commonly found in carbonates. So in this question, this reaction here we have calcium carbonate reacting with sulfuric acid. Remember here this is made up of two plus C 03 to minus. This is hpe plus and this is s +04 to minus Here. This two plus and this to minus are attracted to one another. So they combined to give me calcium sulfate solid. Then here the two from here and the one from here will crisscross instead of canceling out. Initially, what we make is we make carbonic acid. But if you could remember earlier reactions. Carbonic acid is unstable and we do not create this. At the end, it quickly undergoes gas evolution, so breaks down and decomposes to give me water as a liquid plus co two gas. So this reaction here is a good way to produce carbon dioxide as a byproduct. So this is not isolated all it quickly breaks down to give me these two new compounds. Now talking about gas is we move on to carbon monoxide, which is just CEO here, represents another gashes oxide and is commonly used in industrial production of methanol. Methanol is this, and methanol Methanol is this. It also plays a disruptive effect in displacing oxygen from hemoglobin. Remember carbon monoxide poisoning. If you try on your car in the garage and you leave it long enough and you're in there, the carbon monoxide will displace the oxygen from your hemoglobin and you'll basically die now. Another common thing with carbons is that they tend to form hallow meth eins. So hala methane is just means we have a carbon, okay, And then we replaced the hydrogen with a halogen X. They're just means halogen. We can either replace one of the hydrogen is with the halogen or all of them. We're going to stay here. Carbons conform strong chemical bonds with Callejon's toe form. Chloral floral carbons. Okay, so these things have been linked to the deterioration of the ozone layer. So years ago, they started taking them out of a lot of like aerosol cans to basically prevent further deterioration of the ozone layer. Because of that, Ah, lot of the ozone layer has been like regenerated. I mean, there's still a hole in the ozone layer, but it's not as big as it could have been once they started eliminating this byproduct from chemicals and stuff. That's because it attacks the ozone, which is 03 and what it does is it converts the ozone into just regular 02 which is oxygen, which is great. But we need the ozone up there to protect us from UV rays. Now, these are just some of the key features that are dealing with carbon. Later on, we'll take a look at some common types of silicon chemistry and silicon reactions
The Silicon Chemistry
The chemistry of silicon is dominated by the formation of silicon-oxygen bonds.
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Hey everyone. So in this video we're gonna take a look at silicon chemistry. Now in Group four A. At the very top, we have the carbon atom, carbon atoms can connect each other directly across, known as coordination. Now, this is not the same for the other Group four elements. In fact, we're gonna say the chemistry of silicon is dominated by the formation of silicon oxygen bonds. Silicon atoms cannot directly connect to each other and the fuze oxygen as an intermediate. And in this way we directly indirectly connect the silicon atoms together. Now here we're going to say, these long repeating chains can be formed naturally into what are called silicates or synthetically created into other structures called silicones. So it's all in the way they orient themselves these silicon oxygen bonds. So if you look at silicates first, we're going to say here, the building block unit for silicates is the Ortho silicate, Which is represented by S. i. -. So here is what he represented now because it possesses a tetrahedron geometry, we can depict it as a pyramid. So here we're showing silicon in the center with the four oxygen atoms on in four different positions to help make our pyramid, we can also say that these ions can orient themselves to form an even larger structure known as an Ortho silicate complex. Now, this is important because about 80% of all the inorganic connections on the Earth's surface is a result of this structure. And this is important because it's found in minerals and hard materials such as quartz. Now, when we look at silicone, what's the difference? Well here, within these structures, we have two hydro carbon atoms connected to each silicon atom. So our hydrocarbons are just structures made up of only carbons and hydrogen. So we're talking about these ch three groups and were there each connected to silicon atom. Right? So we have two of them connected to a silicon atom here, and those silicon atoms are connected to one another by an oxygen atom. Remember, silicon atoms cannot directly connect to each other. So we still have our silicon oxygen bonds, oxygen serving as an intermediate to connect the two silicon atoms. Now here, we're going to say that the organic hydrocarbon groups. So organic hydrocarbon groups of the silicon are held by weak intermediate inter molecular forces. And so experience increased flexibility. So they allow a little bit of wiggling in terms of this chain. While we're going to say, the silicon oxygen bond gives rigidity and stability to the compound. So we're going to say that our stability is found here to the connection of our silicon oxygen's and our flexibility as a result of the hydrocarbon groups attached on the tops and the bottoms. So just remember that silicon reacts differently than carbon. We can't directly connect them to one another. We have to utilize oxygen as an intermediate to indirectly connect the silicon together. And that gives rise to these two types of structures are silicates and are silicones