Now before we can talk about temperature, we first need to talk about the overall idea of energy. Energy is the capacity to do work or to produce heat. Now heat is sometimes confused with temperature. They are not the same thing. What they are different subsets of what we call thermal energy. Now thermal energy is one of the subsets of energy itself. It's the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all atoms in an object. Remember, kinetic energy is the energy of motion, potential energy is the energy of position. So we have energy, which can be broken down into thermal energy. Thermal energy can be further broken down into temperature and heat. Temperature is just the average kinetic energy of an object that is a measurement of thermal energy. So when I say the temperature is 100 degrees Celsius, which is pretty high, that is what we refer to as temperature. It is a measurement of thermal energy. Heat, though, is not the same thing. Heat is just the flow of thermal energy from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature. Remember, heat always moves from hotter to colder. So just remember, when we're talking about temperature and heat, they're not the same thing. Temperature is a measurement of thermal energy. Heat is the flow of thermal energy.

- 1. The Chemical World9m
- 2. Measurement and Problem Solving2h 25m
- 3. Matter and Energy2h 15m
- Classification of Matter18m
- States of Matter8m
- Physical & Chemical Changes19m
- Chemical Properties8m
- Physical Properties5m
- Temperature (Simplified)9m
- Law of Conservation of Mass5m
- Nature of Energy5m
- First Law of Thermodynamics7m
- Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions7m
- Heat Capacity16m
- Thermal Equilibrium (Simplified)8m
- Intensive vs. Extensive Properties13m

- 4. Atoms and Elements2h 33m
- The Atom (Simplified)9m
- Subatomic Particles (Simplified)12m
- Isotopes17m
- Ions (Simplified)22m
- Atomic Mass (Simplified)17m
- Periodic Table: Element Symbols6m
- Periodic Table: Classifications11m
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- Periodic Table: Main Group Element Charges12m
- Atomic Theory9m
- Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment9m

- 5. Molecules and Compounds1h 50m
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- Naming Monoatomic Cations6m
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- Polyatomic Ions25m
- Naming Ionic Compounds11m
- Writing Formula Units of Ionic Compounds7m
- Naming Acids18m
- Naming Binary Molecular Compounds6m
- Molecular Models4m
- Calculating Molar Mass9m

- 6. Chemical Composition1h 23m
- 7. Chemical Reactions1h 43m
- 8. Quantities in Chemical Reactions1h 16m
- 9. Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table2h 32m
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- Electronic Structure4m
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- The Electron Configuration (Simplified)20m
- The Electron Configuration: Condensed4m
- Ions and the Octet Rule9m
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- Periodic Trend: Metallic Character4m
- Periodic Trend: Atomic Radius (Simplified)7m
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- Periodic Trend: Electron Affinity (Simplified)7m
- Electron Arrangements5m
- The Electron Configuration: Exceptions (Simplified)12m

- 10. Chemical Bonding2h 10m
- Lewis Dot Symbols (Simplified)7m
- Ionic Bonding6m
- Covalent Bonds6m
- Lewis Dot Structures: Neutral Compounds (Simplified)8m
- Bonding Preferences6m
- Multiple Bonds4m
- Lewis Dot Structures: Multiple Bonds10m
- Lewis Dot Structures: Ions (Simplified)8m
- Lewis Dot Structures: Exceptions (Simplified)12m
- Resonance Structures (Simplified)5m
- Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (Simplified)4m
- Electron Geometry (Simplified)7m
- Molecular Geometry (Simplified)9m
- Bond Angles (Simplified)11m
- Dipole Moment (Simplified)14m
- Molecular Polarity (Simplified)7m

- 11 Gases2h 15m
- 12. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces1h 11m
- 13. Solutions3h 1m
- 14. Acids and Bases2h 14m
- 15. Chemical Equilibrium1h 27m
- 16. Oxidation and Reduction1h 33m
- 17. Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry53m

# Temperature (Simplified) - Online Tutor, Practice Problems & Exam Prep

Energy is the capacity to do work or produce heat, with thermal energy being the sum of kinetic and potential energies of atoms. Temperature measures the average kinetic energy, while heat is the flow of thermal energy from hot to cold. Temperature can be measured in Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin, with key conversion formulas: $K=C+273.15$ and $F=1.8C+32$. Remember to memorize these formulas for conversions.

**Temperature** is a measurement of how hot or cold a substance is based on its kinetic energy.

## Heat vs Temperature

### Temperature (Simplified) Concept 1

#### Video transcript

### Temperature (Simplified) Example 1

#### Video transcript

Hey everyone. So here in this example question it says, from the image provided below, determine which part of the cubes represent temperature and which part represents heat. So remember, heat itself just represents the flow of thermal energy from an object that's hotter to an object that's colder. If we take a look here, we have these two cubes and we can see that we have a set of wavy lines between them. These set of wavy lines themselves represent our heat. Temperature itself is a result of the movement of molecules within a given structure. So if we take a look here, we can see that in the first cube, let's call it cube 1, we can see that we have these little balls that are moving around. And in the second cube, cube 2, we have the same balls, but they aren't moving as vigorously. We're going to say here temperature is really just the movement in each cube. So you could say that temperature is represented by the molecules moving in this cube as well as in this cube. Remember we said that heat is the flow of energy from a hotter object to a colder object. The objects in the first cube we can see them moving more vigorously, more actively, therefore they would generate a higher temperature. So we'd say that cube 1 would have a higher temperature and the balls in the second cube are moving slower so they have a lower temperature. This reinforces the idea that heat, which we said are these wavy lines, would go from cube 1 to cube 2. They're going from a higher temperature to a lower temperature. So keep this in mind when learning the distinction between heat and temperature.

Which of the following containers would have the greatest flow of thermal energy in the form of heat?

### Temperature (Simplified) Concept 2

#### Video transcript

Now temperature can be measured in units of Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin. And when it comes to these temperature units, we can convert between them. In order to convert between them, we just have to utilize certain formulas. Now here we have purple boxes, and when we have these purple boxes, that means that, that's a term or formula you have to memorize. You have to commit it to memory because oftentimes it's not given to you on an exam or quiz. Now, the first one connects Kelvin to degrees Celsius, and it's that Kelvin equals degrees Celsius plus 273.15. Oftentimes, professors will drop the 0.15 part, but to be as accurate as possible, it's important that you use the whole number, 273.15. From this equation, we can see that Kelvin directly connects to degrees Celsius and we can go between them.

The next equation connects degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius and the equation is degrees Fahrenheit equals 1.8 times degrees Celsius plus 32. So this formula here shows us that degrees Celsius is connected to degrees Fahrenheit. So from these three units, we can see that Celsius is in the middle. Celsius acts as the bridge that connects Kelvin to degrees Fahrenheit.

So just remember, when it comes to temperature, we have 3 units that we can use, and when it comes to changing between them, these are the two formulas you need to commit to memory. Anytime you see a purple box, remember, that means you're gonna have to memorize either that term, that definition, or in this case, a formula.

### Temperature (Simplified) Example 2

#### Video transcript

Let's take a look at the following example question. Here it says, one of the hottest recorded days in the country was 128 degrees Fahrenheit in Lake Havasu City, Arizona. If the melting point of phosphorus is 44.15 degrees Celsius, would it exist as a solid or liquid on this extremely hot day? Alright. So we see that in the question, we're dealing with units of Fahrenheit and Celsius. From the equations up above, we know it's the second one we're going to have to use in some way. So we have degrees Fahrenheit equals 1.8 × degrees Celsius + 32. They're giving me the temperature in Lake Havasu in Fahrenheit, but I need to compare it to this melting point of phosphorus, which is in Celsius. If the temperature I find is equal to or greater than 44.15 degrees Celsius, that means that phosphorus will melt, and it will be in its liquid form. If the temperature on this extremely hot day is not at least 44.15 degrees Celsius, then it won't be hot enough and phosphorus will not melt and remain a solid. So I'm going to plug in what I have for Fahrenheit, which is 128, and this is 1.8 degrees Celsius + 32. Subtract 32 from both sides. So when we do that we get 96 = 1.8 × degrees Celsius. Divide both sides now by 1.8, and now we'll have the temperature in Lake Havasu in degrees Celsius. So our degrees Celsius here equals 53.3. Now we needed the temperature to be at least 44.15 degrees Celsius for phosphorus to melt. This answer is much greater than it. So, yes, it's hot enough for phosphorus to melt. Therefore, it will exist in its liquid form. Now that we've seen this example on how to relate Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, move on to the next video, and let's take a look at the practice question.

At what temperature is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit equal to the temperature in degrees Celsius?

### Here’s what students ask on this topic:

What is the difference between temperature and heat?

Temperature and heat are often confused but are distinct concepts. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. It is a scalar quantity and can be measured in degrees Celsius (°C), Fahrenheit (°F), or Kelvin (K). Heat, on the other hand, is the transfer of thermal energy from one object to another due to a temperature difference. It flows from a hotter object to a cooler one and is measured in joules (J). While temperature indicates how hot or cold an object is, heat represents the energy transfer that occurs because of the temperature difference.

How do you convert Celsius to Kelvin?

To convert a temperature from Celsius (°C) to Kelvin (K), you can use the following formula:

$K=C+273.15$

For example, if you have a temperature of 25°C and you want to convert it to Kelvin, you would calculate:

$25+273.15=298.15$

So, 25°C is equal to 298.15 K.

What are the formulas for converting between Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin?

To convert between Celsius (°C), Fahrenheit (°F), and Kelvin (K), you can use the following formulas:

1. Celsius to Kelvin:

$K=C+273.15$

2. Celsius to Fahrenheit:

$F=1.8C+32$

3. Fahrenheit to Celsius:

$C=\frac{F-32}{1.8}$

These formulas allow you to convert temperatures between the three units commonly used in science and everyday life.

Why is it important to differentiate between temperature and heat in chemistry?

In chemistry, differentiating between temperature and heat is crucial because they describe different aspects of thermal energy. Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance, indicating how hot or cold it is. Heat, however, refers to the transfer of thermal energy between substances due to a temperature difference. Understanding this distinction helps in studying reactions and processes where energy transfer is involved. For example, exothermic and endothermic reactions involve heat transfer, not just changes in temperature. Accurate differentiation ensures proper interpretation of experimental data and theoretical concepts.

What units are used to measure temperature, and how are they related?

Temperature is measured in three main units: Celsius (°C), Fahrenheit (°F), and Kelvin (K). These units are related through specific conversion formulas:

1. Celsius to Kelvin:

$K=C+273.15$

2. Celsius to Fahrenheit:

$F=1.8C+32$

3. Fahrenheit to Celsius:

$C=\frac{F-32}{1.8}$

These relationships allow for the conversion of temperature values between different units, facilitating scientific calculations and everyday applications.

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