# Statistics for Social Workers, 9th edition

- Robert W. Weinbach
- , Richard M. Grinnell

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**In this Section:**

I) Brief Table of Contents

II) Detailed Table of Contents

**I) Brief Table of Contents**

1. Introduction

2. Frequency Distributions and Graphs

3. Measures of Central Tendency and Variability

4. Normal Distributions

5. Testing Hypotheses

6. Sampling Distributions

7. t Tests and Analysis of Variance

8. The Chi-Square Test of Association between Variables

9. Correlation

10. Regression

11. Other Ways That Statistical Analyses Contribute to Evidence-Based Practice

**II) Detailed Table of Contents**

**1. Introduction**

Useful Terms You Will Need to Know

Measurement iSSUES

Additional Measurement Classifications

Research Hypotheses

Classification of Variables and Their Relationship

Categories of Statistical Analyses

Statistics and data collection

Research designs and statistics

**2. Frequency Distributions and Graphs**

Frequency Distributions

Grouped Frequency Distributions

Using Frequency Distributions to Analyze Data

Misrepresentation of Data

Graphs

A Caution: Computer-generated graphs

**3. Measures of Central Tendency and Variability**

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Variability

Other Uses for Central Tendency and Variability

**4. Normal Distributions**

Skewness

Kurtosis

The Normal Curve

The Standard Normal Distribution

Converting Raw Scores to z Scores and Percentiles

Deriving raw Scores From Percentiles

**5. Testing Hypotheses**

Alternative Explanations for Relationships Within Samples

Probability and Inference

Refuting Sampling Error

Statistical Significance

Testing the Null Hypothesis

Errors in Drawing Conclusions About Relationships

Statistically Significant Relationships and Meaningful Findings

The Hypothesis Testing process

**6. Sampling Distributions**

Sample Size and Sampling Error

What are Sampling Distribution?

Rejection Regions and hypothesis testing

Estimating Parameters

Selecting Statistical Tests

Deciding Which Test to use

**7. t Tests and Analysis of Variance**

The use of t Tests

The One-sample t Test

The Dependent t Test

The Independent tTest

Misuse of t tests

Simple Analysis of Variance (Simple Anova)

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

**8. The Chi-Square Test of Association between Variables**

When Chi-Square is Appropriate

Cross-Tabulation Tables

Using Chi-Square

When Chi-square is not appropriate

Using chi-square in social work practice

Cross-Tabulation With Three or More Variables

Special Applications of The Chi-Square Formula

**9. Correlation**

Uses of Correlation

Scattergrams

Nonperfect Correlations

Interpreting Linear Correlations

Using Correlation for inference

Pearson'S r

Nonparametric Alternatives to Pearson'S r

Correlation With Three or More Variables

Other Multivariate analyses That use Correlation

**10. Regression**

Prediction and Evidence-Based Practice

Prediction and Statistical Analysis

What is Simple Linear Regression?

Computation of the Regression Equation

More About the Regression Line

Interpreting Results

Using regression in social work practice

When is regression analysis appropriate

Regression With Three or More Variables

Other Types of Regression Analyses

**11. Other Ways That Statistical Analyses Contribute to Evidence-Based Practice**

Meta-analyses

Program evaluations

Single-System designs