Instruction: A Models Approach

Instruction: A Models Approach, 7th edition

  • Thomas H. Estes, 
  • Susan L. Mintz, 
  • Mary Alice Gunter

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Overview

Instruction will expand your instructional repertoire. The text offers 10 evidence- and standards-based instructional models and a range of cognitive approaches. Each example is made clear and relevant via a format that uses elementary and secondary examples, different content areas, and steps for implementation.

Published by Pearson (February 4th 2015) - Copyright © 2016

ISBN-13: 9780133986167

Subject: Curriculum & Instruction

Category: General Methods (K-12)

Table of contents

PART ONE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION

1. Standards and Content in Schools
Chapter Objectives
The Importance of Planning
How Learning Happens
Student Characteristics That Affect Learning
Standards and Academic Content
Analyzing Content
Ordering Content
Strategy Alert KWL
Elements of Instructional Planning
Scope
Focus
Sequence
Chunking Instruction: Units and Lessons
Developing Lesson Plans
Summary
Extensions

2. Objectives, Assessment, and Instruction
Chapter Objectives
The Purpose of Instructional Objectives
The KUD Format for Instructional Objectives
Know Objectives
Understand Objectives
Able to Do Objectives
Moving from Standards to Objectives
Instructional Alignment
Assessing Instructional Objectives
Formative Assessments
Summative Assessments
Summary
Extensions
Part One Summary

PART TWO: BASIC INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS

3. The Direct Instruction Model
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
Basis for the Direct Instruction Model
Steps in the Direct Instructional Model
Step 1: Review Previously Learned Material
Step 2: State Objectives for The Lesson
Strategy Alert Advance Organizers
Step 3: Present New Material
Step 4: Guide Practice, Assess Performance, and Provide Corrective Feedback
Step 5: Assign Independent Practice, Assess Performance, and Provide Corrective Feedback
Step 6: Review Periodically, Offering Corrective Feedback If Necessary
Summary of Steps in the Direct Instruction Model
Evaluating Learning in the Direct Instruction Model
Meeting Individual Needs in Direct Instruction
Flexible Grouping
Varying Questions
Benefits of the Direct Instruction Model
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Direct Instruction: Rhyming with Mother Goose
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Direct Instruction: Writing Haiku
Summary
Extensions

4. The Concept Attainment Model
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
Basis for the Concept Attainment Model
Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
Step 1: Select and Define a Concept through the Concept′s Essential Characteristics
Step 2: Develop Positive and Negative Examples
Step 3: Review the Concept Attainment Process with the Class
Step 4: Present the Examples
Step 5: Generate Hypotheses and Continue the Example/Hypothesis Cycle
Step 6: Develop a Concept Label and Definition
Strategy Alert Generating and Testing Hypotheses
Step 7: Provide Test Examples to Solidify the Definition
Step 8: Discuss the Process with the Class
Summary of Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
Variations on the Concept Attainment Model
Evaluating Learning in the Concept Attainment Model
Meeting Individual Needs with the Concept Attainment Model
Benefits of the Concept Attainment Model
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Concept Attainment: Hibernation
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Concept Attainment: Metaphors
Summary
Extensions

5. The Concept Development Model
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
Basis for the Concept Development Model
Steps in the Concept Development Model
Step 1: List as Many Items as Possible That Are Associated with the Subject
Strategy Alert Brainstorming
Step 2: Group the Items Because They Are Alike in Some Way
Step 3: Label the Groups by Defining the Reasons for Grouping
Step 4: Regroup or Subsume Individual Items or Whole Groups under Other Groups
Step 5: Synthesize the Information by Summarizing the Data and Forming Generalizations
Summary of Steps in the Concept Development Model
Evaluating Learning in the Concept Development Model
Meeting Individual Needs with the Concept Development Model
Benefits of Using the Concept Development Model
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Concept Development: Living and Nonliving Things
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Concept Development: Grudge
Summary
Extensions

6. The Cause-and-Effect Model
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
The Basis of the Cause-and-Effect Model
Steps in the Cause-and-Effect Model
Step 1: Choose the Data or Topic, Action, or Problem to Be Analyzed
Step 2: Ask for Causes and Support for Those Causes
Step 3: Ask for Effects and Support
Step 4: Ask for Prior Causes and Support
Step 5: Ask for Subsequent Effects and Support
Strategy Alert Flow Charts
Step 6: Ask for Conclusions
Step 7: Ask for Generalizations
Summary of Steps in the Cause-and-Effect Model
Evaluating Learning in the Cause-and-Effect Model
Meeting Individual Needs with the Cause-and-Effect Model
Benefits of the Cause-and-Effect Model
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Cause and Effect: Water Cycle, Blizzards, and The Long Winter
SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Cause and Effect: Hamlet and Claudius
Summary
Extensions

7. The Vocabulary Acquisition Model
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
The Basis of the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
The Spelling-Meaning Connection
Principles Underlying the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
How Vocabulary Is Acquired
Steps in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
Step 1: Pretest Knowledge of Words Critical to Content
Step 2: Elaborate and Discuss Spellings and Meanings
Step 3: Directly Teach Words on Which Comprehension Will Hinge
Strategy Alert Linking Strategies
Strategy Alert Think-Pair-Share
Step 4: Read and Study
Step 5: Evaluate and Posttest
Summary of Steps in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
Evaluating Learning in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
Meeting Individual Needs with the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
Benefits of the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Vocabulary Acquisition: Units of Measurement
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Vocabulary Acquisition: The Middle Ages
Summary
Extensions
Part Two Summary

PART THREE: TEACHING WITH ADVANCED INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS

8. The Integrative Model
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
Basis for the Integrative Model
Steps in the Integrative Model
Step 1: Planning for the Integrative Model
Step 2: Describe, Compare, and Search for Patterns in a Data Set
Step 3: Explain the Identified Similarities and Differences
Step 4: Hypothesize What Would Happen under Different Conditions
Step 5: Make Broad Generalizations about the Topic and the Discussion
Strategy Alert Summarizing
Summary of Steps in the Integrative Model
Evaluating Learning in the Integrative Model
Meeting Individual Needs with the Integrative Model
Strategy Alert Cubing
Benefits of the Integrative Model
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Integrative Model: Fractions
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Integrative Model: Societal Changes Affecting Families
Summary
Extensions

9. The Socratic Seminar Model
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
The Basis for the Socratic Seminar Model
Versions of the Socratic Seminar
Questioning
Examples of Question Types
Steps in the Socratic Seminar Model
Step 1: Choose the Text–Written, Visual, or Audio
Step 2: Plan and Cluster Several Questions of Varying Cognitive Demand
Step 3: Introduce the Model to the Students
Step 4: Conduct the Dialogue
Step 5: Review and Summarize the Seminar
Step 6: Evaluate the Seminar with the Students Based on Previously Stated Criteria
Summary of Steps in the Socratic Seminar Model
Strategy Alert Reciprocal Teaching
Evaluating Learning in the Socratic Seminar Model
Meeting Individual Needs with the Socratic Seminar Model
Benefits of the Socratic Seminar Model
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Socratic Seminar: Old Henry, by Joan W. Blos
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Socratic Seminar: The War Prayer and "Sullivan Ballou′s Letter to His Wife"
Summary
Extensions

10. Cooperative Learning Models
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
Basis of Cooperative Learning Models
The Cooperative Learning Model: The Template
Strategy Alert Numbered Heads
Planning Steps
Implementation Steps
Summary of Steps in the Cooperative Learning Template Model
Specific Cooperative Models
The Graffiti Model
The Jigsaw Model
The Structured Academic Controversy Model
The Student Teams-Achievement Division (STAD) Model
Evaluating Learning in the Cooperative Learning Models
Meeting Individual Needs with the Cooperative Learning Models
Benefits of the Cooperative Learning Models
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Cooperative Learning Jigsaw: Clouds
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Cooperative Learning Graffiti: Formal and Informal Speech
Summary
Extensions

11. Inquiry Models
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
The Basis for an Inquiry Approach to Instruction
Inquiry Model 1: The Suchman Inquiry Model
Step 1: Select a Problem and Conduct Research
Step 2: Introduce the Process and Present the Problem
Step 3: Gather Data
Step 4: Develop a Hypothesis and Test It
Step 5: Explain the Hypothesis and State the Rules Associated with It
Step 6: Analyze the Process
Step 7: Evaluate
Summary of Steps in the Suchman Inquiry Model
Inquiry Model 2: The WebQuest Model
Step 1: The Teacher Selects a Problem and Conducts Preliminary Research
Step 2: Present the Problem in the WebQuest Unit
Step 3: Students Gather Data and Information to Solve the Problem
Step 4: Students Develop and Verify Their Solutions
Summary of Steps in the WebQuest Model of Inquiry
Inquiry Model 3: The Problem-Based Inquiry Model
Step 1: Engage with a Problem
Strategy Alert Generating and Testing Hypotheses
Step 2: Explore the Problem with the PBL Inquiry Chart
Step 3: Explain and Share the Information
Step 4: Elaborate and Take Action
Step 5: Evaluate the Process
Summary of Steps in the Problem-Based Inquiry Model
Evaluating Learning in the Inquiry Models
Meeting Individual Needs with the Inquiry Models
Benefits of Inquiry Models
Connections between Models
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Problem-Based Inquiry: Monarch Butterflies and Stewardship
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Suchman Inquiry: Toxins
Summary
Extensions

12. The Synectics Model
Chapter Objectives
In the Elementary Classroom
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom
Basis for the Synectics Model
Making the Familiar Strange
Step 1: Describe the Topic
Step 2: Create Direct Analogies
Step 3: Describe Personal Analogies
Step 4: Identify Compressed Conflicts
Step 5: Create a New Direct Analogy
Step 6: Reexamine the Original Topic
Summary of Steps in Making the Familiar Strange
Making the Strange Familiar
Step 1: Provide Information
Step 2: Present the Analogy
Step 3: Use Personal Analogies to Create Compressed Conflicts
Step 4: Compare the Compressed Conflict with the Subject
Step 5: Identify Differences
Step 6: Reexamine the Original Subject
Step 7: Create New Direct Analogies
Summary of Steps in Making the Strange Familiar
The Synectics Excursion
Step 1: Present the Problem
Step 2: Provide Expert Information
Step 3: Question Obvious Solutions and Purge
Step 4: Generate Individual Problem Statements
Step 5: Choose One Problem Statement for Focus
Step 6: Question through the Use of Analogies
Step 7: Force Analogies to Fit the Problem
Step 8: Determine a Solution from a New Viewpoint
Summary of Steps in the Synectics Excursion
Evaluating Learning in the Synectics Model
Meeting Individual Needs with the Synectics Model
Strategy Alert Graphic Organizers
Benefits of the Synectics Model
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Synectics Model: The Civil War
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Synectics Model: Witches
Summary
Extensions
Part Three Summary

PART FOUR: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

13. A Fourth Grade Case Study
Chapter Objectives
Mrs. Evans' Plan
Lesson One: Words We Use to Talk about Angles
Lesson Two: Exploring Angles
Lesson Three: Measuring Angles
Epilogue
Summary
Extensions

14. A Middle School Case Study
Chapter Objectives
The Mumford Plan
Unit: Perspective–It All Depends on Where You Were When
Lesson One: Toward a Perspective on Point of View
Lesson Two: Perception–It Depends on Where You Are Coming from
Lesson Three: Relating Perception and Perspective
Epilogue
Summary
Extensions

15. A High School Case Study
Chapter Objectives
Mr. Samuels′s Plan
Unit: Macbeth–A Study in Ambition Turned to Avarice
Epilogue
Summary
Extensions

16. The Wisdom of Practice
Chapter Objectives
Good Teachers Are the Leaders of Their Classrooms
Good Teachers Create a Productive Environment for Learning
Relationship to Student Learning
Furniture Arrangement/Seating
Climate Control
Equipment and Displays
Good Teachers Manage Human Relations Effectively
Good Teachers Engage Learners in Their Own Learning
Good Teachers Teach Up
Capitalizing on What Students Know
Celebrating Differences between Students
Realizing That There Is More Than One Right Answer
Providing Appropriate, Quality Feedback
Good Teachers Are Good Learners
Recognizing the Importance of Professional Knowledge
Acting as Researchers
Good Teachers Develop Instructional Objectives with Learners
Good Teachers Find Out Why a Plan Is Not Working
Good Teachers Strive to Make Their Teaching Engaging
Good Teachers Give Learners Access to Information and Opportunity to Practice
Good Teachers Teach for Two Kinds of Knowledge
Summary
Extensions
Part Four Summary
Glossary
References
Index

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