Learners with Mild Disabilities: A Characteristics Approach

Learners with Mild Disabilities: A Characteristics Approach, 5th edition

  • Eileen B. Raymond

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Overview

Learners with Mild Disabilities lays the foundation for addressing the needs of special learners with high-prevalence disorders or low-incidence, milder disabilities. You'll focus on addressing individual strengths and needs with respect to cognitive, language, academic and social/emotional characteristics.

Published by Pearson (January 25th 2021) - Copyright © 2017

ISBN-13: 9780134256658

Subject: Special Education

Category: Mild / Moderate Disabilities

Table of contents

Brief Table of Contents

UNIT I: SETTING THE STAGE
1. Perspectives on Disability
2. Issues in Assessment and Identification
3. Issues in Instruction and Placement

UNIT II: WHO ARE THE LEARNERS WITH MILD DISABILITIES?
4. Learners with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
5. Learners with Learning Disabilities
6. Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
7. Learners with Difficulties in Attention, Communication, and Physical and Sensory Functioning
8. Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders

UNIT III: WHAT ARE LEARNERS WITH MILD DISABILITIES LIKE?
9. Cognitive and Perceptual Characteristics
10. Language Characteristics
11. Academic Learning Characteristics
12. Social-Emotional Characteristics

Detailed Table of Contents

UNIT I: SETTING THE STAGE

1. Perspectives on Disability
Meet Benny
Studying High-Prevalence Disabilities
Mild Does not Mean "not Serious"
The Power of Language
Labeling, Classifying, and Identifying
To Classify or Not to Classify
Additional Thoughts on Labeling
The Historical Context of Disability
Early History of Disability
The Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the Enlightenment
Disability Services in the United States (1800-1950)
Eugenics in Europe and the United States
The Testing Movement in Europe and the United States
Serving Children Identified as Having Disabilities
Disabilities in the United States from 1950 to the Present
Legislative and Legal Supports
Overview of the IDEA Principles
History of Rights Won in U.S. Courts
Special Needs Education Internationally
Trends in History
A Case Study Patty

2. Issues in Assessment and Identification
Meet Jeffrey
Assessment and Evaluation Requirements in Idea
Universal Design and Assessment
Purposes of Assessing Students with Special Educational Needs
Types of Assessment Instruments and Techniques
Norm-Referenced Assessment
Criterion-Referenced and Curriculum-Based Assessment
Performance Assessment
Portfolio Assessment
Functional Behavioral Assessment
Reporting on Student Progress: The Report Card
Best Practices in Assessment of Learners with Disabilities
Issues in Disability Identification
Categories as Social Constructions
Noncategorical Models of Service as an Alternative?
Response to Intervention: A Noncategorical Strategy For Assessment and Identification
Response to Intervention
A Prevention Framework as Support
A Case Study Sharon

3. Issues in Instruction and Placement
Meet Enrico
Curriculum and Learners with Mild Disabilities
Alternatives to Instructional Accommodations
Instructional Strategies to Enhance Curricular Access
Explicit Teaching
Peer-Mediated Instruction
Cognitive Strategies
Positive Behavioral Supports
Instruction and Individualized Education Program Planning
Alternative Curricula and Assessments
Idea 2004 and the Location of Services
Least Restrictive Environment
Models of Service Commonly Used for Students with Mild Disabilities
Inclusion: A Continuing Issue in Special Education
A Case Study Angie

UNIT II: WHO ARE THE LEARNERS WITH MILD DISABILITIES?

4. Learners with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Meet Caroline
Naming This Group of Learners
Historical Foundations of Intellectual Disabilities
Development of the Definition of Intellectual Disabilities in the United States
Idea Definition of Intellectual Disabilities
Additional Perspectives on Defining Intellectual Disabilities
The New Generation of AAMR/AAIDD Definitions
Developmental Disabilities and Delay
An Alternative Definition with an Instructional Perspective
Levels of Severity
Educational Terminology
Supports and Intensity of Support Needs
Prevalence of Intellectual Disabilities
Conditions Associated with Risk of Intellectual Disabilities
Biomedical Risk Factors
Environmental (Social, Behavioral, Educational) Risk Factors
Nature or Nurture?
Typical Characteristics of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities
A Case Study Donald

5. Learners with Learning Disabilities
Meet Peter
Naming this Group of Learners
Historical Development of the Concept of Learning Disabilities
IDEA Definition of Specific Learning Disabilities
Assessment and Identification Issues
Issues with Discrepancy Determination (1965-2004)
IDEA 2004 and Changes in Identification Procedures
Response to Intervention as an Identification Process
An Alternative Definition of Learning Disabilities
Prevalence of Learning Disabilities
Conditions Associated with Learning Disabilities
Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities
A Case Study Grace

6. Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Meet Nicki
Terms to Refer to This Group of Learners
Historical Foundations of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Idea Definition of Emotional Disturbance
Social Maladjustment: Definition and Exclusion
An Alternative Definition of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Assessment and Identification Issues
Response to Intervention
Levels of Severity
Prevalence of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Factors Associated with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Biological Factors
Family Factors
Environmental, Social, and School Factors
Types of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
A Case Study Carter

7. Learners with Difficulties in Attention, Communication, and Physical and Sensory Functioning
Meet Nancy
Learners With Attention Problems
Naming This Group of Learners
Historical Development of the Concept of ADHD
ADHD and the IDEA
Current ADHD Definition in the DSM-5
Identification of Learners with ADHD
Presentations of ADHD
Levels of Severity
Prevalence of ADHD
Factors and Conditions Associated with ADHD
Characteristics of Individuals with ADHD
Issue: Should ADHD Be a Separate Category in IDEA?
Communication Disorders
Physical And Sensory Disabilities
Physical and Health Disabilities
Sensory Disabilities
Traumatic Brain Injury
Medication: A Persistent Issue
A Case Study Frank

8. Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Meet Jacob
Naming This Group of Learners
Historical Development of The Concept of Autism Spectrum Disorders
IDEA Definition of Autism Spectrum Disorders
The Psychiatric/Medical Definition of Autism Spectrum Disorders (DSM-5 )
Assessment and Identification Issues
Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Levels of Severity
Conditions Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Characteristics of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Social Communication and Interaction
Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors, Interests, or Activities
Other Related Characteristics and Behaviors
Diagnostic Conditions Previously Included on the Spectrum
A Case Study Sara

UNIT III: WHAT ARE LEARNERS WITH MILD DISABILITIES LIKE?

9. Cognitive and Perceptual Characteristics
Meet Robert
Cognitive Theory and Approaches to Mild Disabilities
Constructivist Perspectives
Piaget and Biological Constructivism
Vygotsky and Social Constructivism
Cognitive Styles Research
Field Dependence/Independence
Impulsivity and Reflectivity
Information-Processing Theory
Structural Storage Components
Strategic Control Components
Executive Functions
A Case Study Charlene

10. Language Characteristics
Meet Tom
Definition of Language
Impairments in Speech and Language
Language Components and Skills
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Semantics
Pragmatics
Receptive and Expressive Language Channels
Language Functions
Listening
Speaking
Reading
Writing
Common Language Characteristics of Learners With Mild Disabilities
Language Difference or Disability?
Implications of Language Characteristics for Thinking and Learning
A Case Study Gavin

11. Academic Learning Characteristics
Meet Barbara
What Is Learning?
Stages of Learning
Acquisition and Reversion
Proficiency and Automaticity
Maintenance
Generalization
Adaptation
Critical Learning Needs of Students with Disabilities
The Role of Motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
Locus of Control and Attributions of Success or Failure
External Causal Attributions and Locus of Control
Internal Causal Attributions and Locus of Control
Spirals of Failure or Success
Learned Helplessness
Adolescents with Disabilities in Behavior and Learning
Self-Determination
Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences
Learning Styles
Multiple Intelligences
Universal Design for Learning
Instructional Needs of Learners with Disabilities
Time Allowed for Instruction
Persistence or Motivation
Pupils' Aptitude for Instruction
Ability to Understand Instruction
Quality of Instruction
A Case Study Allison

12. Social-Emotional Characteristics
Meet Eddie
Perspectives on Social-Emotional Characteristics
Developmental Perspectives
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Emotional Development
Development of Social Perspective Taking
Social Competence and Cognitive Development
Social Intelligence
Emotional Competence
Social Cognitive Delay
The Relationship Between Problems in Behavior and Problems in Learning
Behavior from an Ecological Perspective
Risk and Resilience
Maladaptive Behavior
Patterns of Maladaptive Behavior
Externalizing Behaviors
Internalizing Behaviors
Idea 2004 and Serious Discipline Problems
A Case Study Sammy

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