Introductory Chemistry, 6th edition

  • Nivaldo J. Tro

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Introductory Chemistry shows how chemistry manifests in your daily life. As an award-winning instructor, author Nivaldo Tro draws on his classroom experience to engage you, capture your attention with relevant applications and extend chemistry to your world.

The 6th Edition features new questions, data and sections designed to help in building 21st-century skills for success in the course and beyond. New Conceptual Checkpoints emphasize understanding rather than calculation, and Data Interpretation and Analysis questions present real data in real life situations.

Published by Pearson (May 4th 2018) - Copyright © 2018

ISBN-13: 9780135214015

Subject: Chemistry

Category: Introduction to Chemistry


1. The Chemical World

  • 1.1 Sand and Water
  • 1.2 Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things
  • 1.3 The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think
  • 1.4 Analyzing and Interpreting Data
  • 1.5 A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed

2. Measurement and Problem Solving

  • 2.1 The Metric Mix-up: A $125 Million Unit Error
  • 2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers
  • 2.3 Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision
  • 2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations
  • 2.5 The Basic Units of Measurement
  • 2.6 Problem Solving and Unit Conversion
  • 2.7 Solving Multistep Unit Conversion Problems
  • 2.8 Unit Conversion in Both the Numerator and Denominator
  • 2.9 Units Raised to a Power
  • 2.10 Density
  • 2.11 Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies and the Solution Map

3. Matter and Energy

  • 3.1 In Your Room
  • 3.2 What Is Matter?
  • 3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas
  • 3.4 Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
  • 3.5 Differences in Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
  • 3.6 Changes in Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes
  • 3.7 Conservation of Mass: There Is No New Matter
  • 3.8 Energy
  • 3.9 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change
  • 3.10 Temperature: Random Motion of Molecules and Atoms
  • 3.11 Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity
  • 3.12 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations

4. Atoms and Elements

  • 4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon
  • 4.2 Indivisible: The Atomic Theory
  • 4.3 The Nuclear Atom
  • 4.4 The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
  • 4.5 Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons
  • 4.6 Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
  • 4.7 Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons
  • 4.8 Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies
  • 4.9 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element's Atoms

5. Molecules and Compounds

  • 5.1 Sugar and Salt
  • 5.2 Compounds Display Constant Composition
  • 5.3 Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds
  • 5.4 A Molecular View of Elements and Compounds
  • 5.5 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
  • 5.6 Nomenclature: Naming Compounds
  • 5.7 Naming Ionic Compounds
  • 5.8 Naming Molecular Compounds
  • 5.9 Naming Acids
  • 5.10 Nomenclature Summary
  • 5.11 Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit

6. Chemical Composition

  • 6.1 How Much Sodium?
  • 6.2 Counting Nails by the Pound
  • 6.3 Counting Atoms by the Gram
  • 6.4 Counting Molecules by the Gram
  • 6.5 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors
  • 6.6 Mass Percent Composition of Compounds
  • 6.7 Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula
  • 6.8 Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds
  • 6.9 Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds

7. Chemical Reactions

  • 7.1 Grade School Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents
  • 7.2 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction
  • 7.3 The Chemical Equation
  • 7.4 How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations
  • 7.5 Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water
  • 7.6 Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid
  • 7.7 Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations
  • 7.8 Acid-Base and Gas Evolution Reactions
  • 7.9 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
  • 7.10 Classifying Chemical Reactions

8. Quantities in Chemical Reactions

  • 8.1 Climate Change: Too Much Carbon Dioxide
  • 8.2 Making Pancakes: Relationships between Ingredients
  • 8.3 Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions
  • 8.4 Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions
  • 8.5 More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield
  • 8.6 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Masses of Reactants
  • 8.7 Enthalpy: A Measure of the Heat Evolved or Absorbed in a Reaction

9. Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table

  • 9.1 Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom
  • 9.2 Light: Electromagnetic Radiation
  • 9.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • 9.4 The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits
  • 9.5 The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms with Orbitals
  • 9.6 Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals and Electron Configurations
  • 9.7 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
  • 9.8 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model
  • 9.9 Periodic Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Metallic Character

10. Chemical Bonding

  • 10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs
  • 10.2 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots
  • 10.3 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred
  • 10.4 Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared
  • 10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds
  • 10.6 Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule
  • 10.7 Predicting the Shapes of Molecules
  • 10.8 Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil and Water Don't Mix

11. Gases

  • 11.1 Extra-Long Straws
  • 11.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases
  • 11.3 Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions
  • 11.4 Boyle's Law: Pressure and Volume
  • 11.5 Charles's Law: Volume and Temperature
  • 11.6 The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
  • 11.7 Avogadro's Law: Volume and Moles
  • 11.8 The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature, and Moles
  • 11.9 Mixtures of Gases
  • 11.10 Gases in Chemical Reactions

12. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces

  • 12.1 Spherical Water
  • 12.2 Properties of Liquids and Solids
  • 12.3 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity
  • 12.4 Evaporation and Condensation
  • 12.5 Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation
  • 12.6 Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, and Ion-Dipole
  • 12.7 Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular, Ionic, and Atomic
  • 12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule

13. Solutions

  • 13.1 Tragedy in Cameroon
  • 13.2 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures
  • 13.3 Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy
  • 13.4 Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz
  • 13.5 Specifying Solution Concentration: Mass Percent
  • 13.6 Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity
  • 13.7 Solution Dilution
  • 13.8 Solution Stoichiometry
  • 13.9 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze Colder and Boil Hotter
  • 13.10 Osmosis: Why Drinking Saltwater Causes Dehydration

14. Acids and Bases

  • 14.1 Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies
  • 14.2 Acids: Properties and Examples
  • 14.3 Bases: Properties and Examples
  • 14.4 Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases
  • 14.5 Reactions of Acids and Bases
  • 14.6 Acid-Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution
  • 14.7 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
  • 14.8 Water: Acid and Base in One
  • 14.9 The pH and pOH Scales: Ways to Express Acidity and Basicity
  • 14.10 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change

15. Chemical Equilibrium

  • 15.1 Life: Controlled Disequilibrium
  • 15.2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
  • 15.3 The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium
  • 15.4 The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure of How Far a Reaction Goes
  • 15.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid
  • 15.6 Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants
  • 15.7 Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Châtelier's Principle
  • 15.8 The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium
  • 15.9 The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium
  • 15.10 The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium
  • 15.11 The Solubility-Product Constant
  • 15.12 The Path of a Reaction and the Effect of a Catalyst

16. Oxidation and Reduction

  • 16.1 The End of the Internal Combustion Engine?
  • 16.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions
  • 16.3 Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping
  • 16.4 Balancing Redox Equations
  • 16.5 The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions
  • 16.6 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity
  • 16.7 Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry
  • 16.8 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions

17. Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

  • 17.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis
  • 17.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity
  • 17.3 Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay
  • 17.4 Detecting Radioactivity
  • 17.5 Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life
  • 17.6 Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts
  • 17.7 The Discovery of Fission and the Atomic Bomb
  • 17.8 Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity
  • 17.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun
  • 17.10 The Effects of Radiation on Life
  • 17.11 Radioactivity in Medicine

18. Organic Chemistry

  • 18.1 What Do I Smell?
  • 18.2 Vitalism: The Difference between Organic and Inorganic
  • 18.3 Carbon: A Versatile Atom
  • 18.4 Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrogen
  • 18.5 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
  • 18.6 Isomers: Same Formula, Different Structure
  • 18.7 Naming Alkanes
  • 18.8 Alkenes and Alkynes
  • 18.9 Hydrocarbon Reactions
  • 18.10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • 18.11 Functional Groups
  • 18.12 Alcohols
  • 18.13 Ethers
  • 18.14 Aldehydes and Ketones
  • 18.15 Carboxylic Acids and Esters
  • 18.16 Amines
  • 18.17 Polymers

19. Biochemistry

  • 19.1 The Human Genome Project
  • 19.2 The Cell and Its Main Chemical Components
  • 19.3 Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Fiber
  • 19.4 Lipids
  • 19.5 Proteins
  • 19.6 Protein Structure
  • 19.7 Nucleic Acids: Molecular Blueprints
  • 19.8 DNA Structure, DNA Replication, and Protein Synthesis

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