Biology: Science for Life with Physiology

Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 6th edition

  • Colleen Belk, 
  • Virginia Borden Maier

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Overview

Biology: Science for Life explores topics like genetic testing, climate change, and the Zika virus, using a storyline to introduce biological concepts.

Published by Pearson (May 4th 2018) - Copyright © 2019

ISBN-13: 9780135214114

Subject: Biology

Category: Introductory Biology

Table of contents

1 Can Science Cure the Common Cold?

Introduction to the Scientific Method

1.1 The Process of Science
The Nature of Hypotheses
Scientific Theories
The Logic of Hypothesis Tests

1.2 Hypothesis Testing
The Experimental Method
Controlled Experiments
Minimizing Bias in Experimental Design
Using Correlation to Test Hypotheses

1.3 Understanding Statistics
What Statistical Tests Can Tell Us
Factors that Influence Statistical Significance
What Statistical Tests Cannot Tell Us

1.4 Evaluating Scientific Information
Primary Sources
Information from Anecdotes
Science in the News
Understanding Science from Secondary Sources
Is There a Cure for the Common Cold?
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION How do I know what to believe?
Review

UNIT ONE Chemistry and Cells

2 Science Fiction, Bad Science, and Pseudoscience

Water, Biochemistry, and Cells

2.1 A Definition of Life
2.2 The Properties of Water
The Structure of Water
Water Is a Good Solvent
Water Facilitates Chemical Reactions
Water Moderates Temperature
The Drinking-Water Hypothesis Requires More Substantiation

2.3 Chemistry for Biology Students
Chemical Bonds
The Bermuda Triangle Revisited

2.4 Biological Macromolecules
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Dietary Macromolecules and Behavior

2.5 An Introduction to Evolutionary Theory
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Does balanced reporting help us draw more accurate conclusions? Review

3 Is It Possible to Supplement Your Way to Better Performance and Health?

Nutrients and Membrane Transport

3.1 Nutrients
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
Antioxidants

3.2 Cell Structure
Plasma Membrane
Subcellular Structures

3.3 Transport Across Membranes
Passive Transport: Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis
Active Transport: Pumping Substances across the Membrane
Exocytosis and Endocytosis: Movement of Large Molecules across the Membrane
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should I routinely use detox products?
Review

4 Body Weight and Health

Enzymes, Metabolism, and Cellular Respiration

4.1 Enzymes and Metabolism
Enzymes
Metabolism

4.2 Cellular Respiration
Structure and Function of ATP
Cellular Respiration
Stages of Cellular Respiration
Metabolism of Other Nutrients
Metabolism without Oxygen: Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation

4.3 Body Weight and Health
Body Mass Index
Underweight Is Unhealthy
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION How unhealthy is anorexia?
Review

5 Life in the Greenhouse

Photosynthesis and Climate Change

5.1 The Greenhouse Effect
Earth Is a Greenhouse
Water, Heat, and Temperature

5.2 The Flow of Carbon

5.3 Can Photosynthesis Slow Down Global Climate Change?
Chloroplasts: The Site of Photosynthesis
The Process of Photosynthesis

5.4 How High Temperatures Might Reduce Photosynthesis

5.5 How We Can Slow Global Climate Change
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should global warming be kept below 4°C?
Review

UNIT TWO Genetics

6 Cancer

DNA Synthesis and Mitosis

6.1 What Is Cancer?
Tumors Can Be Cancerous
Risk Factors for Cancer

6.2 Passing Genes and Chromosomes to Daughter Cells
Genes and Chromosomes
DNA Replication

6.3 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis
Interphase
Mitosis
Cytokinesis

6.4 Cancer Prevention, Detection, and Treatment
Tumor Suppressors Help Prevent Cancer
Cancer Detection
Cancer Treatment
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Can I prevent myself from getting cancer?
Review

7 Fertility
Meiosis and Human Reproduction

7.1 Producing Sperm and Eggs: Meiosis
Interphase
Meiosis I
Meiosis II

7.2 Problems with Meiosis and Lowered Fertility

7.3 Bringing Sperm and Egg Together
Male Reproductive Anatomy
Female Reproductive Anatomy
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Does marijuana use impair fertility?
Review

8 Does Testing Save Lives?
Mendelian Genetics

8.1 The Inheritance of Traits
Genes and Chromosomes
Producing Diversity in Offspring

8.2 Basic Mendelian Genetics: When the Role of Genes Is Clear
Genotype and Phenotype
Genetic Diseases in Humans
Using Punnett Squares to Predict Offspring Genotypes

8.3 Extensions of Mendelian Genetics

8.4 Sex and Inheritance
Sex Determination and X-Linkage
Pedigrees
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should there be universal screening for killer diseases?
Review

9 Biology of Wrongful Convictions

Complex Genetic Traits, Heritability, and DNA Profiling

9.1 Eyewitness Testimony and Complex Genetic Traits
Polygenic Traits
Quantitative Traits

9.2 Genes, Criminality, and Implicit Bias
Studying Nature versus Nurture
The Use and Misuse of Heritability
Implicit Bias

9.3 Positive Identification
DNA Profiling
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sounds Right, But Is It?
The Big Question Should the death penalty be abolished in the United States?
Review

10 Genetically Modified Organisms

Gene Expression, Mutation, Stem Cells, and Cloning

10.1 Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression
From Gene to Protein
Transcription
Translation
Mutations
Gene Expression

10.2 Producing Recombinant Proteins
Cloning a Gene Using Bacteria
FDA Regulations

10.3 Genetically Modified Plants and Animals
Modifying Crop Plants
Modifying Animals
Gene Editing Using CRISPR in Plants and Animals

10.4 Genetically Modified Humans
Stem Cells
Gene Therapy
Gene Editing in Humans
Cloning Humans
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should anti-GMO activists give up the fight?
Review

UNIT THREE Evolution

11 Where Did We Come From?

The Evidence for Evolution
11.1 What Is Evolution?
The Process of Evolution
The Theory of Evolution

11.2 Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution
Early Views of Evolution
The Voyage of the Beagle
Developing the Hypothesis of Common Descent
Alternative Ideas on the Origins and Relationships among Organisms

11.3 Examining the Evidence for Common Descent
Linnaean Classification
Anatomical Homology
Developmental Homologies
Molecular Homology
Biogeography
The Fossil Record

11.4 Are Alternatives to the Theory of Evolution Equally Valid?
Weighing the Alternatives
The Best Scientific Explanation for the Diversity of Life
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should high school biology teachers be required to "teach the controversy"?
Review

12 An Evolving Enemy

Natural Selection

12.1 Return of a Killer
What Is Tuberculosis?
Treatment-and Treatment Failure

12.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution
Darwin's Observations
Darwin's Inference: Natural Selection Causes Evolution
Testing Natural Selection

12.3 Natural Selection Since Darwin
The Modern Synthesis
The Subtleties of Natural Selection
Patterns of Selection

12.4 Natural Selection and Human Health
Tuberculosis Fits Darwin's Observations
Selecting for Drug Resistance
Stopping Drug Resistance
Can Natural Selection Save Us from Superbugs?
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should I stop purchasing meats that are raised using antibiotics?
Review

13 Understanding Race

Speciation and Macroevolution

13.1 What Is a Species?
The Biological Species Concept
Speciation
Isolation and Divergence of Gene Pools
The Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

13.2 Are Human Races Biological?
The History of Human Races
The Morphological Species Concept
Modern Humans: A History
Genetic Evidence of Divergence
Human Races Are Not Isolated Biological Groups
Human Races Have Never Been Truly Isolated

13.3 Why Human Groups Differ
Natural Selection
Convergent Evolution
Genetic Drift
Sexual Selection
Assortative Mating
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Are affirmative action policies that favor black students applying for college admission good public policy?
Review

14 The Greatest Species on Earth?

Biodiversity and Classification

14.1 Biological Classification
How Many Species Exist?
Domains of Life

14.2 The Diversity of Life
The Domains Bacteria and Archaea
The Origin of the Domain Eukarya
The Protista
Kingdom Animalia
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Plantae
Not Quite Living: Viruses

14.3 Learning about Species
Reconstructing Evolutionary History
The Greatest Species on Earth
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should lab mice and rats have the same rights as other nonhuman animals?
Review

UNIT FOUR Ecology

15 Is the Human Population Too Large?

Population Ecology

15.1 Population Growth
Population Structure
Exponential Population Growth
The Demographic Transition

15.2 Limits to Population Growth
Carrying Capacity and Logistic Growth
Earth's Carrying Capacity for Humans

15.3 The Future of the Human Population
A Possible Population Crash?
Avoiding Disaster
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should the international community continue to provide food aid to populations experiencing food crises?
Review

16 Conserving Biodiversity

Community and Ecosystem Ecology
16.1 The Sixth Extinction
Measuring Extinction Rates
Causes of Extinction

16.2 The Consequences of Extinction
Loss of Resources
Predation, Mutualism, and Competition
Energy and Chemical Flows
Psychological Effects

16.3 Saving Species
Protecting Habitat
Small Populations Are Vulnerable
Conservation Genetics
Protecting Biodiversity versus Meeting Human Needs
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Is wind power good or bad for birds?
Review

17 The Human Footprint

Climate and Biomes

17.1 Climate Determines Habitability
Global Temperature and Precipitation Patterns
Local Influences on Climate

17.2 Terrestrial Biomes and the Human Footprint
Tundra
Desert
Forests and Shrublands
Grasslands

17.3 Aquatic Biomes and the Human Footprint
Freshwater
Saltwater
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Can my actions make a difference on global environmental issues?
Review

UNIT FIVE Animal Structure and Function

18 Organ Donation

Tissues and Organs

18.1 Tissues
Epithelial Tissue
Connective Tissue
Muscle Tissue
Nervous Tissue
Tissue Donation

18.2 Organs and Organ Systems

18.3 Regulating the Internal Environment
Negative Feedback
Positive Feedback
Growing and Printing Replacement Organs
Organ Donation Saves Lives
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should kidney donors be financially compensated?
Chapter Review

19 Binge Drinking

The Digestive and Urinary Systems

19.1 The Digestive System
Mechanical and Chemical Breakdown of Food
Absorption of Digested Foods
Regulation of Digestive Secretions

19.2 Removing Toxins from the Body: The Urinary System
Kidney Structure and Function
Engaging Safely with Alcohol
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Does alcohol make men more likely to commit sexual assault? Chapter Review

20 Clearing the Air

Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems

20.1 Effects of Smoke on the Respiratory System
What Happens When You Take a Breath?
Gas Exchange
The Role of Hemoglobin in Gas Exchange
Smoke Particles and Lung Function

20.2 Spreading the Effects of Smoke: The Cardiovascular System
Structure of the Cardiovascular System
Movement of Materials through the Cardiovascular System
Smoke and Cardiovascular Disease
The Precautionary Principle in Public Health
Sounds Right, But Is It?
The Big Question Should marijuana be legalized?
Chapter Review

21 Vaccination: Protection and Prevention or Peril?

Immune System, Bacteria, Viruses, and Other Pathogens

21.1 Infectious Agents
Bacteria
Viruses
Eukaryotic Pathogens

21.2 The Body's Response to Infection: The Immune System
First Line of Defense: Skin and Mucous Membranes
Second Line of Defense: Phagocytes and Macrophages, Inflammation, Defensive Proteins, and Fever
Third Line of Defense: Lymphocytes
Cell-Mediated and Antibody-Mediated Immunity
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Why are females vaccinated against human papilloma virus more often than males?
Chapter Review

22 Human Sex Differences

Endocrine, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems

22.1 The Endocrine System
Hormones
Endocrine Glands

22.2 The Skeletal System
Bone Structure and Remodeling
Sex Differences in Bone Structure

22.3 The Muscular System
Muscle Structure and Contraction
Muscle Interaction with Bones
Sex Differences in Muscle

22.4 Other Biology-Based Sex Differences
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Is sex selection an acceptable practice?
Chapter Review

23 Zika in Pregnancy

Developmental Biology, Menstruation, Birth Control, and Pregnancy

23.1 Early Development
Fertilization
Embryonic Development
Development of the Brain When Zika Is Present

23.2 Avoiding or Delaying Pregnancy
The Menstrual Cycle
Birth Control Methods

23.3 Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION When does human life begin?
Chapter Review

24 Study Drugs: Brain Boost or Brain Drain?

Brain Structure and Function

24.1 The Nervous System
Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
The Senses
Amphetamines Effects

24.2 The Human Brain
Cerebrum
Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Cerebellum and Brain Stem

24.3 Neurons
Neuron Structure and Function
Nonmedical Use of ADD Medications
Consequences of Using Nonprescribed ADD Medications
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Is drug addiction a disease of the brain?
Chapter Review

UNIT SIX Plant Biology

25 Feeding the World

Plant Structure and Growth

25.1 Plants as Food
The Evolution of Agriculture: Food Plant Diversity
Plant Structure
Plant Reproduction

25.2 Plant Growth Requirements
How Plants Grow
Maximizing Plant Growth: Water, Nutrients, and Pest Control
Designing Better Plants: Hybrids and Genetic Engineering

25.3 The Future of Agriculture
Modern Agriculture Causes Environmental Damage
How to Reduce the Damage
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should I purchase organically grown foods?
Chapter Review

26 Growing a Green Thumb

Plant Physiology

26.1 The Right Plant for the Place: Water Relations
Transpiration
Adaptations That Affect Transpiration
Water Inside Plant Cells

26.2 A Beautiful Garden: Translocation and Photoperiodism
Translocation of Sugars and Nutrients
Managing Translocation
Photoperiodism

26.3 Pleasing Forms: Tropisms and Hormones
Tropisms
Hormones
We Are All Gardeners
Sounds Right, But Is It?
THE BIG QUESTION Should I rip out my lawn?
Chapter Review

Appendix: Metric System Conversions A-1

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