Interactive Computer Graphics

Interactive Computer Graphics, 8th edition

  • EDWARD ANGEL, 
  • Edward Angel, 
  • Dave Shreiner, 
  • Dave Shreiner

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Overview

Interactive Computer Graphics uses a top-down, programming-oriented approach to help you create your own 3D graphics. The application programming interface (API) makes it easy to learn key graphics topics, such as 3D transformations, lighting and shading, client-server graphics, modeling and implementation algorithms.

Published by Pearson (September 15th 2020) - Copyright © 2020

ISBN-13: 9780135217160

Subject: Computer Graphics & Design

Category: Computer Graphics

Table of contents

1. GRAPHICS SYSTEMS AND MODELS
1.1 Applications of Computer Graphics
1.1.1 Display of Information
1.1.2 Design
1.1.3 Simulation and Animation
1.1.4 User Interfaces
1.2 A Graphics System
1.2.1 Pixels and the Framebuffer
1.2.2 The CPU and the GPU
1.2.3 Output Devices
1.2.4 Input Devices
1.3 Images: Physical and Synthetic
1.3.1 Objects and Viewers
1.3.2 Light and Images
1.3.3 Imaging Models
1.4 Imaging Systems
1.4.1 The Pinhole Camera
1.4.2 The Human Visual System
1.5 The Synthetic-Camera Model
1.6 The Programmer's Interface
1.6.1 The Pen-Plotter Model
1.6.2 Three-Dimensional APIs
1.6.3 A Sequence of Images
1.6.4 The Modeling -- Rendering Paradigm
1.7 Graphics Architectures
1.7.1 Display Processors
1.7.2 Pipeline Architectures
1.7.3 The Graphics Pipeline
1.7.4 Vertex Processing
1.7.5 Clipping and Primitive Assembly
1.7.6 Rasterization
1.7.7 Fragment Processing
1.8 Programmable Pipelines
1.9 Performance Characteristics
1.10 OpenGL Versions and WebGL
Summary and Notes
Suggested Readings
Exercises

2. GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING
2.1 The Sierpinski Gasket
2.2 Programming Two-Dimensional Applications
2.3 The WebGL Application Programming Interface
2.3.1 Graphics Functions
2.3.2 The Graphics Pipeline and State Machines
2.3.3 OpenGL and WebGL
2.3.4 The WebGL Interface
2.3.5 Coordinate Systems
2.4 Primitives and Attributes
2.4.1 Polygon Basics
2.4.2 Polygons in WebGL
2.4.3 Triangulation
2.4.4 Text
2.4.5 Vertex Attributes
2.5 Color
2.5.1 RGB Color
2.5.2 Color Tables
2.5.3 Setting of Color Attributes
2.6 Viewing
2.6.1 The Orthographic View
2.6.2 Two-Dimensional Viewing
2.7 Control Functions
2.7.1 The HTML Canvas
2.7.2 Aspect Ratio and Viewports
2.7.3 Application Execution
2.8 The Gasket Program
2.8.1 Sending Data to the GPU
2.8.2 Rendering the Points
2.8.3 The Vertex Shader
2.8.4 The Fragment Shader
2.8.5 Combining the Parts
2.8.6 The initShaders Function
2.8.7 The init Function
2.8.8 Reading the Shaders from the Application
2.9 Polygons and Recursion
2.10 The Three-Dimensional Gasket
2.10.1 Use of Three-Dimensional Points
2.10.2 Use of Polygons in Three Dimensions
2.10.3 Hidden-Surface Removal
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

3. INTERACTION AND ANIMATION
3.1 Animation
3.1.1 The Rotating Square
3.1.2 The Display Process
3.1.3 Double Buffering
3.1.4 Using a Timer
3.1.5 Using requestAnimationFrame
3.2 Interaction
3.3 Input Devices
3.4 Physical Input Devices
3.4.1 Keyboard Codes
3.4.2 The Mouse and the Trackball
3.4.3 Data Tablets,Touch Pads, and Touch Screens
3.4.4 Multidimensional Input Devices
3.4.5 Logical Devices
3.4.6 Input Modes
3.4.7 Clients and Servers
3.5 Programming Event-Driven Input
3.5.1 Events and Event Listeners
3.5.2 Adding a Button
3.5.3 Menus
3.5.4 Using Key Codes
3.5.5 Sliders
3.6 Position Input
3.7 Window Events
3.8 Gesture and Touch
3.9 Picking
3.10 Building Models Interactively
3.11 Design of Interactive Programs
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

4. GEOMETRIC OBJECTS AND TRANSFORMATIONS
4.1 Scalars, Points, and Vectors
4.1.1 Geometric Objects
4.1.2 Coordinate-Free Geometry
4.1.3 The Mathematical View: Vector and Affine Spaces
4.1.4 The Computer Science View
4.1.5 Geometric ADTs
4.1.6 Lines
4.1.7 Affine Sums
4.1.8 Convexity
4.1.9 Dot and Cross Products
4.1.10 Planes
4.2 Three-Dimensional Primitives
4.3 Coordinate Systems and Frames
4.3.1 Representations and N-Tuples
4.3.2 Change of Coordinate Systems
4.3.3 Example: Change of Representation
4.3.4 Homogeneous Coordinates
4.3.5 Example: Change in Frames
4.3.6 Working with Representations
4.4 Frames in WebGL
4.5 Matrix and Vector Types
4.5.1 Row Versus Column Major Matrix Representations
4.6 Modeling a Colored Cube
4.6.1 Modeling the Faces
4.6.2 Inward- and Outward-Pointing Faces
4.6.3 Data Structures for Object Representation
4.6.4 The Colored Cube
4.6.5 Color Interpolation
4.6.6 Displaying the Cube
4.6.7 Drawing by Elements
4.6.8 Primitive Restart
4.7 Affine Transformations
4.8 Translation, Rotation, and Scaling
4.8.1 Translation
4.8.2 Rotation
4.8.3 Scaling
4.9 Transformations in Homogeneous Coordinates
4.9.1 Translation
4.9.2 Scaling
4.9.3 Rotation
4.9.4 Shear
4.10 Concatenation of Transformations
4.10.1 Rotation About a Fixed Point
4.10.2 General Rotation
4.10.3 The Instance Transformation
4.10.4 Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis
4.11 Transformation Matrices in WebGL
4.11.1 Current Transformation Matrices
4.11.2 Basic Matrix Functions
4.11.3 Rotation, Translation, and Scaling
4.11.4 Rotation About a Fixed Point
4.11.5 Order of Transformations
4.12 Spinning of the Cube
4.12.1 Uniform Matrices
4.13 Smooth Rotations
4.13.1 Incremental Rotation
4.14 Quaternions
4.14.1 Complex Numbers and Quaternions
4.14.2 Quaternions and Rotation
4.14.3 Quaternions and Gimbal Lock
4.15 Interfaces to Three-Dimensional Applications
4.15.1 Using Areas of the Screen
4.15.2 A Virtual Trackball
4.15.3 Implementing the Trackball with Quaternions
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

5. VIEWING
5.1 Classical and Computer Viewing
5.1.1 Classical Viewing
5.1.2 Orthographic Projections
5.1.3 Axonometric Projections
5.1.4 Oblique Projections
5.1.5 Perspective Viewing
5.2 Viewing with a Computer
5.3 Positioning of the Camera
5.3.1 From the Object Frame to the Camera Frame
5.3.2 Two Viewing APIs
5.3.3 The Look-At Function
5.4 Parallel Projections
5.4.1 Orthogonal Projections
5.4.2 Parallel Viewing with WebGL
5.4.3 Projection Normalization
5.4.4 Orthogonal Projection Matrices
5.4.5 Oblique Projections
5.4.6 An Interactive Viewer
5.5 Perspective Projections
5.5.1 Simple Perspective Projections
5.6 Perspective Projections with WebGL
5.6.1 Perspective Functions
5.7 Perspective Projection Matrices
5.7.1 Perspective Normalization
5.7.2 WebGL Perspective Transformations
5.7.3 Perspective Example
5.8 Hidden-Surface Removal
5.8.1 Culling
5.9 Displaying Meshes
5.9.1 Displaying Meshes as Surfaces
5.9.2 Polygon Offset
5.9.3 Walking Through a Scene
5.10 Projections and Shadows
5.10.1 Projected Shadows
5.11 Shadow Maps
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

6. LIGHTING AND SHADING
6.1 Light and Matter
6.2 Light Sources
6.2.1 Color Sources
6.2.2 Ambient Light
6.2.3 Point Sources
6.2.4 Spotlights
6.2.5 Distant Light Sources
6.3 The Phong Lighting Model
6.3.1 Ambient Reflection
6.3.2 Diffuse Reflection
6.3.3 Specular Reflection
6.3.4 The Modified Phong Model
6.4 Computation of Vectors
6.4.1 Normal Vectors
6.4.2 Angle of Reflection
6.5 Polygonal Shading
6.5.1 Flat Shading
6.5.2 Smooth and Gouraud Shading
6.5.3 Phong Shading
6.6 Approximation of a Sphere by Recursive Subdivision
6.7 Specifying Lighting Parameters
6.7.1 Light Sources
6.7.2 Materials
6.8 Implementing a Lighting Model
6.8.1 Applying the Lighting Model in the Application
6.8.2 Efficiency
6.8.3 Lighting in the Vertex Shader
6.9 Shading of the Sphere Model
6.10 Per-Fragment Lighting
6.11 Nonphotorealistic Shading
6.12 Global Illumination
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

7. TEXTURE MAPPING
7.1 Buffers
7.2 Digital Images
7.3 Mapping Methods
7.4 Two-Dimensional Texture Mapping
7.5 Texture Mapping in WebGL
7.5.1 Texture Objects
7.5.2 The Texture Image Array
7.5.3 Texture Coordinates and Samplers
7.5.4 Texture Sampling
7.5.5 Working with Texture Coordinates
7.5.6 3D Texture Mapping
7.5.7 Multitexturing
7.6 Environment Maps
7.7 Reflection Map Example
7.8 Bump Mapping
7.8.1 Finding Bump Maps
7.8.2 Bump Map Example
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

8. WORKING WITH FRAMEBUFFERS
8.1 Blending Techniques
8.1.1 Opacity and Blending
8.1.2 Image Blending
8.1.3 Blending in WebGL
8.1.4 Antialiasing Revisited
8.1.5 Back-to-Front and Front-to-Back Rendering
8.1.6 Scene Antialiasing and Multisampling
8.2 Image Processing
8.2.1 Other Multipass Methods
8.3 GPGPU
8.4 Framebuffer Objects
8.5 Multi-pass Rendering Techniques
8.5.1 Ambient Occlusion
8.5.2 Deferred Lighting
8.6 Buffer Ping-Ponging
8.7 Picking
8.8 Shadow Maps
8.9 Projective Textures
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

9. MODELING AND HIERARCHY
9.1 Geometries and Instances
9.2 Hierarchical Models
9.3 A Robot Arm
9.4 Trees and Traversal
9.4.1 A Stack-Based Traversal
9.5 Use of Tree Data Structures
9.6 Animation
9.7 Graphical Objects
9.7.1 Methods, Attributes, and Messages
9.7.2 A Cube Object
9.7.3 Instancing in WebGL
9.7.4 Objects and Hierarchy
9.7.5 Geometric and Nongeometric Objects
9.8 Scene Graphs
9.9 Implementing Scene Graphs
9.9.1 three.js Examples
9.10 Other Tree Structures
9.10.1 CSG Trees
9.10.2 BSP Trees
9.10.3 Quadtrees and Octrees
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

10. PROCEDURAL METHODS
10.1 Algorithmic Models
10.2 Physically Based Models and Particle Systems
10.3 Newtonian Particles
10.3.1 Independent Particles
10.3.2 Spring Forces
10.3.3 Attractive and Repulsive Forces
10.4 Solving Particle Systems
10.5 Constraints
10.5.1 Collisions
10.5.2 Soft Constraints
10.6 A Simple Particle System
10.6.1 Displaying the Particles
10.6.2 Updating Particle Positions
10.6.3 Collisions
10.6.4 Forces
10.6.5 Flocking
10.7 Agent-Based Models
10.8 Using Point Sprites
10.9 Language-Based Models
10.10 Recursive Methods and Fractals
10.10.1 Rulers and Length
10.10.2 Fractal Dimension
10.10.3 Midpoint Division and Brownian Motion
10.10.4 Fractal Mountains
10.10.5 The Mandelbrot Set
10.10.6 Mandelbrot Fragment Shader
10.11 Procedural Noise
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

11. CURVES AND SURFACES
11.1 Representation of Curves and Surfaces
11.1.1 Explicit Representation
11.1.2 Implicit Representations
11.1.3 Parametric Form
11.1.4 Parametric Polynomial Curves
11.1.5 Parametric Polynomial Surfaces
11.2 Design Criteria
11.3 Parametric Cubic Polynomial Curves
11.4 Interpolation
11.4.1 Blending Functions
11.4.2 The Cubic Interpolating Patch
11.5 Hermite Curves and Surfaces
11.5.1 The Hermite Form
11.5.2 Geometric and Parametric Continuity
11.6 Be´ zier Curves and Surfaces
11.6.1 Be´ zier Curves
11.6.2 Be´ zier Surface Patches
11.7 Cubic B-Splines
11.7.1 The Cubic B-Spline Curve
11.7.2 B-Splines and Basis
11.7.3 Spline Surfaces
11.8 General B-Splines
11.8.1 Recursively Defined B-Splines
11.8.2 Uniform Splines
11.8.3 Nonuniform B-Splines
11.8.4 NURBS
11.8.5 Catmull-Rom Splines
11.9 Rendering Curves and Surfaces
11.9.1 Polynomial Evaluation Methods
11.9.2 Recursive Subdivision of Be´ zier Polynomials
11.9.3 Rendering Other Polynomial Curves by Subdivision
11.9.4 Subdivision of Be´ zier Surfaces
11.10 The Utah Teapot
11.11 Algebraic Surfaces
11.11.1 Quadrics
11.11.2 Rendering of Surfaces by Ray Casting
11.12 Subdivision Curves and Surfaces
11.12.1 Mesh Subdivision
11.13 Mesh Generation from Data
11.13.1 Height Fields Revisited
11.13.2 Delaunay Triangulation
11.13.3 Point Clouds
11.14 Graphics API support for Curves and Surfaces
11.14.1 Tessellation Shading
11.14.2 Geometry Shading
Summary and Notes
Code Examples
Suggested Readings
Exercises

12. FROM GEOMETRY TO PIXELS
12.1 Basic Rendering Strategies
12.2 Rendering Pipeline
12.2.1 Modeling
12.2.2 Geometry Processing
12.2.3 Rasterization
12.2.4 Fragment Processing
12.3 Clipping
12.3.1 Clipping
12.3.2 Bounding Boxes and Volumes
12.3.3 Clipping Against Planes
12.4 Rasterization
12.5 Polygon Rasterization
12.5.1 Inside -- Outside Testing
12.5.2 WebGL and Concave Polygons
12.6 Hidden-Surface Removal
12.6.1 Object-Space and Image-Space Approaches
12.6.2 Sorting and Hidden-Surface Removal
12.6.3 Scan Line Algorithms
12.6.4 Back-Face Removal
12.6.5 The z-Buffer Algorithm
12.6.6 Depth Sort and the Painter's Algorithm
12.7 Hardware Implementations
12.8 Antialiasing
12.9 Display Considerations
12.9.1 Color Systems
12.9.2 The Color Matrix
12.9.3 Gamma Correction
12.9.4 Dithering and Halftoning
Summary and Notes
Suggested Readings
Exercises

13. ADVANCED RENDERING
13.1 Going Beyond Pipeline Rendering
13.2 Ray Tracing
13.3 Building a Simple Ray Tracer
13.3.1 Recursive Ray Tracing
13.3.2 Calculating Intersections
13.3.3 Ray-Tracing Variations
13.4 The Rendering Equation
13.5 Global Illumination and Path Tracing
13.6 RenderMan
13.7 Parallel Rendering
13.7.1 Sort-Middle Rendering
13.7.2 Sort-Last Rendering
13.7.3 Sort-First Rendering
13.8 Implicit Functions and Contour Maps
13.8.1 Marching Squares
13.8.2 Marching Triangles
13.9 Volume Rendering
13.9.1 Volumetric Data Sets
13.9.2 Visualization of Implicit Functions
13.10 Isosurfaces and Marching Cubes
13.11 Marching Tetrahedra
13.12 Mesh Simplification
13.13 Direct Volume Rendering
13.13.1 Assignment of Color and Opacity
13.13.2 Splatting
13.13.3 Volume Ray Tracing
13.13.4 Texture Mapping of Volumes
13.14 Image-Based Rendering
13.14.1 Distance from Stereo Pairs
13.14.2 The Fundamental Matrix
13.15 Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality
13.16 A Final Example
Summary and Notes
Suggested Readings
Exercises

APPENDIX A: INITIALIZING SHADERS
A.1 Shaders in the HTML file
A.2 Reading Shaders from Source Files
APPENDIX B: SPACES
B.1 Scalars
B.2 Vector Spaces
B.3 Affine Spaces
B.4 Euclidean Spaces
B.5 Projections
B.6 Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization
Suggested Readings
Exercises
APPENDIX C: MATRICES
C.1 Definitions
C.2 Matrix Operations
C.3 Row and Column Matrices
C.4 Rank
C.5 Change of Representation
C.6 The Cross Product
C.7 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
C.8 Vector and Matrix Objects
Suggested Readings
Exercises
APPENDIX D: SAMPLING AND ALIASING
D.1 Sampling Theory
D.2 Reconstruction
D.3 Quantization

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