Clinical Phonetics, 5th edition

  • Lawrence D. Shriberg, 
  • Raymond D. Kent, 
  • Tara McAllister, 
  • Jonathan L. Preston

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Overview

Clinical Phonetics was written for readers who require phonetic knowledge and skills for clinical purposes in speech-language pathology. The text covers the basics of American English phonetics. It also focuses on clinical application with articulatory descriptions and speech samples from individuals with speech disorders or who use regional dialects.

The 5th Edition features insights from 2 new co-authors. It also offers more opportunities for clinical transcription, significantly updated content, and an improved organization to maximize clarity and ease of learning.

Published by Pearson (September 18th 2020) - Copyright © 2019

ISBN-13: 9780136945529

Subject: Communication Sciences & Disorders

Category: Phonetics & Linguistics

Overview

1. Overview of Clinical Phonetics
Welcome
Clinical Phonetics
The Knowledge Domain of Clinical Phonetics
The Skill-Based Domain of Clinical Phonetics
Conclusion
Chapter Summary Exercises

2. Linguistic Phonetics
Language, Speech, and Dialect
The Morpheme
The Phoneme
Spelling versus Phonetic Transcription
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
Phonemes and Allophones
Phonetics and Phonology
The Syllable
Positional and Contextual Terminology for Phonetic Descriptions
Conclusion
Chapter Summary Exercises

3. The Three Systems of Speech Production
The Respiratory System
The Laryngeal System
The Supralaryngeal System
Velopharynx: Velum and Pharyngeal Walls
Jaw
Tongue
Lips
Technologies for the Study of Phonetics: X-ray Imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Electromagnetic Articulography
Ultrasound
Electropalatography
Fiberoptic Endoscopy
Aerodynamic Analysis
Acoustic Analysis
Conclusion
Chapter Summary Exercises

4. Vowels: Monophthongs and Diphthongs
Tongue Height
Tongue Advancement (the Front–Back Dimension of Tongue Position)
Tenseness or Length
Lip Configuration
Vowel Description: Tongue Height, Tongue Advancement, Tenseness, and Lip Rounding
The Front Vowels
Vowel /i/ (He)
Vowel /8/ (Hid)
Vowel /3/ (Chaotic—First Syllable)
Vowel /2/ (Head)
Vowel /q/ (Had)
Vowel /u/ (Who)
Vowel /7/ (Hook)
Vowel /o/ (Hoe)
Vowel /9/ (Hall)
Vowel /e/ (Hot)
The Central Vowels
Vowel /4/ (Hub)
Vowel /1/ (Above, Sometimes Called Schwa)
Vowel /6/ (Her)
Vowel /5/ (Mother, Sometimes Called Schwar)
Diphthong Articulation
Diphthong /e]/ (Bye)
Diphthong /9]/ (Boy)
Diphthong /e[/ (Bough)
Diphthong /3]/ (Bay)
Diphthong /o[/ (Bow)
R-colored Vowels
R-colored Vowel /e r/ (Far)
R-colored Vowel /9 r/ (Four)
R-colored Vowel /8 r/ (Fear)
R-colored Vowel /2 r/ (Fair)
Special Notes on the Phonetic Properties of Vowels
Some Cautions about Vowel Terminology
Tongue and Jaw Interaction
Lip and Jaw Interaction
Some Common Articulatory Modifications of English Vowels
Nasalization
Reduction
Other Modifications
Allographs of English Vowels
Frequency of Occurrence for English Vowels
Vowels around the World
The Acoustic Properties of Vowels
The Vocal Tract as a Resonator
Primary Acoustic Properties of Vowels
Conclusion
Chapter Summary Exercises

5. Consonants
Manner of Articulation
Stops
Fricatives
Affricates
Nasals
Liquids
Glides
Place of Articulation
Bilabials
Labiodentals
Interdentals (or Dentals)
Alveolars
Palatals
Velars
Glottals
The Voicing Contrast
Summary of Manner, Place, and Voicing
Manner of Articulation
Place of Articulation and Voicing
Allographs of the Consonant Phonemes of English
Frequency of Occurrence and Place of Articulation
Summary Classification of Consonants
Consonant Acoustics
Acoustic Features of Consonant Classes
Sounds in Sequence
Conclusion
Chapter Summary Exercises

6. Suprasegmentals and Prosody
The Units of Prosody
Syllables The Prosodic Foot
The Intonational Phrase
Intonation
Stress
Lexical Stress
Stress beyond the Word Level
Timing
Tempo
Pause (Juncture)
Boundary or Edge Effects
Timing, Juncture, and Intonation Symbols
Lengthened [s iQ]
Shortened [w i W]
Close Juncture [e] d 8 d 8 t]
Open Juncture [1 n e] s + m q n] versus [1 n + e] s m q n]
Internal Open Juncture [l 2 t s h 2 l p R j 3] n]
Falling Terminal Juncture [t 7 d 3] T]
Rising Terminal Juncture [t 7 d 3] Y]
Checked or Held Juncture [t 7 d 3] U]
Selected Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet
Paralinguistics
Examples of Prosodic Variations
Motherese
Clear Speech
Other Prosodic Variations
Role of Prosody in Typical and Atypical Development of Speech and Language
Clinical Assessment of Suprasegmentals
Prosody Profile (PROP)
Prosody-Voice Screening Profile (PVSP)
Profiling Elements of Prosodic Systems—Child Version (PEPS-C)
Conclusion
Chapter Summary Exercises

7. Narrow Transcription
Coarticulation
Uses of Narrow Transcription
Conventions for Diacritic Marks in This Text
Onglide and Offglide Symbols
Nasal Symbols
Nasalized [b q! d]
Nasal Emission [s@ m e] l]
Denasalized [r q# n]
Lip Symbols
Rounded (or Protruded) Vowel [s w i$ t]
Unrounded (or Unprotruded) Vowel [h u% ]
Labialized Consonant [k^ w i n]
Nonlabialized Consonant [w& i d]
Inverted Lip [b* i n]
Tongue Symbols
Dentalized [w 8 dI ']
Palatalized [sO i l]
Lateralized [sP l i p]
Retroflex (or Rhotacized) [h e r c{ 5]
Velarized [f i l}]
Fronted or Advanced [p e E t]
Retracted [b qA t]
Raised [b 2F d]
Lowered [h 2G d]
Derhotacized [rK 2 d]
Sound Source Symbols
Partially Voiced [q b sL 1 n t]
Partially Devoiced [d 9 g:]
Glottalized (or Creaky Voice) [b e" k s]
Breathy (or Murmured) [p l 3Z] 8 a]
Whistled (or Hissed) [sC i]
Trilled [th rV e]]
Syllabic Symbol
Stop Release Symbols
Aspirated [t( e p]
Unaspirated [s t) e p]
Unreleased [l q p_]
Frictionalized (or Spirantized) [s tX e p]
Other Symbols
Synchronic Tie [d+z u]
Unintelligible Syllable [\]
Questionable Segment e| or =|
Conclusion
Chapter Summary Exercises

8. Practicing Broad and Narrow Phonetic Transcription of Children’s Speech
Part A: Transcription of Vowel Sound Changes

Background Information
Training Modules
Vowels Module 1: Vowel Substitutions
Vowels Module 2: Vowel Modifications
Vowels Module 3: Central Vowels
Vowels Module 4: Vowel Substitutions, Modifications, and Central Vowels
Vowels Module 5: Vowel Additions
Vowels Module 6: Vowel Lengthening
Vowels Module 7: Vowel Nasalization
Vowels Module 8: Summary Quiz

Part B: Transcription of Stop Sound Changes
Background Information
Description of Stops
Training Modules
Stops Module 1: Stop Substitutions
Stops Module 2: Voicing of Voiceless Stops
Stops Module 3: Devoicing of Voiced Stops
Stops Module 4: Glottal Stop Substitutions
Stops Module 5: Stop Deletions
Stops Module 6: Frictionalized Stops
Stops Module 7: Summary Quiz

Part C: Transcription of Nasal Sound Changes
Background Information
Description and Distribution of Nasals
Training Modules
Nasals Module 1: Nasal Deletions
Nasals Module 2: Summary Quiz

Part D: Transcription of Fricative and Affricate Sound Changes
Background Information
Description of Fricatives
Distribution and Frequency of Occurrence of Fricatives
Training Modules
Overview
Fricatives and Affricates Module 1: /f/ and /v/ Changes
Fricatives and Affricates Module 2: /h/ Deletions
Fricatives and Affricates Module 3: Voiceless and Voiced Interdental Changes
Fricatives and Affricates Module 4: Fricative and Affricate Voicing Changes
Fricatives and Affricates Module 5: Fricative and Affricate Substitutions
Fricatives and Affricates Module 6: Dentalized Sibilants
Fricatives and Affricates Module 7: Lateralized Sibilants
Fricatives and Affricates Module 8: Retroflexed and Palatalized Sibilants
Fricatives and Affricates Module 9: Sibilants Quiz
Fricatives and Affricates Module 10: Summary Quiz

Part E: Transcription of Glide and Liquid Sound Changes
Background Information
Description of Glides and Liquids
Distribution and Frequency
Training Modules
Glides and Liquids Module 1: Glide Changes
Glides and Liquids Module 2: /l/ Substitutions
Glides and Liquids Module 3: Velarized /l/
Glides and Liquids Module 4: Derhotacized /r/, /6/, /5/
Glides and Liquids Module 5: /r/ Quiz
Glides and Liquids Module 6: Velarized /r/
Glides and Liquids Module 7: Summary Quiz
Grand Quiz

9. Preparing to Collect and Transcribe Clinical Speech Samples
Eliciting and Recording Speech Samples
Eliciting the Sample
The Recording Environment
Recording Equipment
Factors that Influence Scoring and Transcription
Client Factors
Task Factors
Approaches to Clinical Transcription and Scoring
Transcription and Scoring Systems
What Level of Detail Should Be Represented?
Should I Use Video Recording?
Should I Use Headphones?
Should I Preview the Recording?
What if I’m Not Sure What I’m Hearing?
How Many Times Should I Listen?
What Are Some Strategies for Difficult Words?
Some Final Suggestions
Conclusion

10. Phonetics in the Clinical Setting
Single-Word Tests of Articulation and Phonology
Transcribing Nonwords
Two-Way Scoring and Deep Testing
Two-Way Scoring in Larger Speech Samples
Scoring /s/ in Continuous Speech
Scoring Rhotics in Continuous Speech
Transcription in Larger Speech Samples
Transcribing Imitated Phrases
Transcribing Read Sentences
Transcribing All Sounds in Continuous Speech
Transcribing Children with Motor Speech Disorders
Motor Speech Disorders: Imitated Single Words
Motor Speech Disorders: Imitated Words in Phrases
Motor Speech Disorders: Imitated Sentences
Motor Speech Disorders: Conversational Speech
Conclusion

11. Phonetic Variation
Part A: Phonetic Aspects of Dialect Variation
What is Phonetic Variation?
Dialect as a Source of Phonetic Variation
Studying Dialect
Is There a Standard Dialect?
Why Do Dialects Differ?
Difference versus Disorder

Part B: Regional Dialects of American English
Southern Dialect Region
Location
Major Features
Western Dialect Region
Location
Major Features
Midlands Dialect Region
Location
Major Feature
Northern Dialect Regions
Location
Major Features
Dialects of the Northeastern United States
Location
Major Features
Practice Discriminating Regional Variation in Vowels
Regional Variation in Consonants
International Englishes

Part C: Beyond Regional Dialects
African American English
Origins of AAE
Features of AAE
L1-Influenced English
Working with Speakers from Unfamiliar Language Backgrounds
Spanish-Influenced English
Features of Spanish-Influenced English
Conclusion
Further Reading
Other Resources
Transcription Exercises
Appendix A Phonetics Symbols and Terms
Appendix B Distributional, Structural, and Proportional Occurrence Data for American English Sounds, Syllables, and Words
Answers to Exercises

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