Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 15th edition

  • Frederick E. Giesecke, 
  • Shawna Lockhart, 
  • James E. Novak, 
  • Cindy Johnson, 
  • Ivan L. Hill, 
  • Alva Mitchell, 
  • John T. Dygdon, 
  • Marla Goodman, 
  • Henry C. Spencer, 
  • R O. Loving

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This full-color text offers a clear, complete introduction and detailed reference for creating 3D models and 2D documentation drawings. Building on its reputation as a trusted reference, this edition expands on the role that 3D CAD databases now play in design and documentation. Superbly integrated illustrations, text, step-by-step instructions, and navigation make it easier than ever to master key skills and knowledge. Throughout, the authors demonstrate 3D and 2D drawing skills and CAD usage in real-world work practice in today’s leading disciplines. They combine strong technical detail, real-world examples, and current standards, materials, industries, and processes–all in a format that is efficient, colorful, and visual.


  • Splash Spread: Appealing chapter opener provides context and motivation.
  • References and Web Links: Useful weblinks and standards provided upfront in each chapter.
  • Understanding Section: Foundational introductions, tabbed for easy navigation, outline each topic’s importance, use, visualization tips, and theory.
  • Detail Section: Detailed, well-tested explanations of drawing techniques, variations, and examples–organized into quick-read sections, numbered for easy reference.
  • CAD at Work Section: Breakout pages offer tips on generating drawings from 2D or 3D models.
  • Portfolio Section: Examples of finished drawings show how techniques are applied in the real world.
  • Key Words: Italicized on first reference, summarized after each chapter.           
  • Chapter: Summaries and Review Questions: Efficiently reinforce learning.
  • Exercises: Outstanding problem sets with updated exercises, including parts, assembly drawings from CAD models, sketching problems, and orthographic projections.



Published by Peachpit Press (July 6th 2021) - Copyright © 2017

ISBN-13: 9780137400140

Subject: General Engineering

Category: Engineering Design

Table of contents

Chapter One The Worldwide Language for Graphic Design

Understanding the Role of Technical Drawings

1.1Graphics Tools in Action

1.2Rapid Prototyping

1.3Drafting Standards

1.4Creativity Techniques

1.5Product Definition

1.6Showing the Design Process in a Portfolio

Chapter TWO Layouts and Lettering

Understanding Projections

2.1Alphabet of Lines

2.2Freehand Lines

2.3Measurement Systems

2.4Drawing Scale

2.5Specifying the Scale on a 



2.7Lettering Standards

2.8Using Guidelines for Hand 


2.9Vertical and Inclined Letters and Numerals41


2.11Spacing of Letters and Words

2.12Lettering for Titles

2.13Drawing Pencils


2.15CAD Tools

2.16Sketching and Drawing Media

2.17Standard Sheets

2.18Standard Layout Elements


2.20Planning Your Drawing or Sketch

Chapter Three Visualization and Sketching

Understanding Solid Objects

Understanding Sketching Techniques

3.1Technique of Lines

3.2Sketching Straight Lines

3.3Sketching Circles, Arcs, and Ellipses

3.4Maintaining Proportions

3.5One-View Drawings

3.6Pictorial Sketching

3.7Projection Methods

3.8Axonometric Projection

3.9Isometric Projection

3.10Isometric Drawing

3.11Making an Isometric Drawing

3.12Offset Location Measurements

Isometric Drawings of Inclined Surfaces

3.13Hidden Lines and Centerlines

3.14Angles in Isometric

3.15Irregular Objects

3.16Curves in Isometric

3.17True Ellipses in Isometric

3.18Orienting Ellipses in Isometric Drawings

3.19Drawing Isometric Cylinders

3.20Screw Threads in Isometric

3.21Arcs in Isometric

3.22Spheres in Isometric

3.23Oblique Sketches

3.24Length of Receding Lines

3.25Choice of Position in Oblique Drawings

3.26Ellipses for Oblique Drawings1

3.27Angles in Oblique Projection

3.28Sketching Assemblies

3.29Sketching Perspectives

3.30Curves and Circles in Perspective


3.32Computer Graphics

3.33Drawing on Drawing

Chapter Four Geometry for Modeling and Design

Coordinates for 3D CAD Modeling

Geometric Entities130

4.1Manually Bisecting a Line or Circular Arc

4.2Drawing Tangents to Two Circles

4.3Drawing an Arc Tangent to a Line or Arc and Through a Point

4.4Bisecting an Angle

4.5Drawing a Line Through a Point and Parallel to a Line

4.6Drawing a Triangle With Sides Given

4.7Drawing a Right Triangle With Hypotenuse and One Side Given

4.8Laying Out an Angle

4.9Drawing an Equilateral Triangle


4.11Drawing a Regular Pentagon

4.12Drawing a Hexagon


4.14Spline Curves

4.15Geometric Relationships

4.16Solid Primitives

4.17Recognizing Symmetry

4.18Extruded Forms

4.19Revolved Forms

4.20Irregular Surfaces

4.21User Coordinate Systems


Chapter Five Modeling and Design

Refinement and Modeling

Kinds of Models

5.12D Models

5.23D Models

5.3Types of 3D Models

5.4Constraint-Based Modeling

5.5Constraints Define the Geometry

5.6Planning Parts for Design Flexibility

5.7Sketch Constraints

5.8The Base Feature

5.9Editing the Model

5.10Constraint-Based Modeling Modes

5.11Choosing the Right Modeling Method

Chapter Six Orthographic Projection

Understanding Projections

6.1Hidden Line Technique

6.2Precedence of Lines


6.4Laying Out a Drawing

6.5Developing Views from 3D Models


6.7Views of Surfaces

6.8Normal Surfaces

6.9Inclined Surfaces

6.10Oblique Surfaces


6.12Normal Edges

6.13Inclined Edges

6.14Oblique Edges

6.15Parallel Edges



6.18Interpreting Points

6.19Interpreting Lines

6.20Similar Shapes of Surfaces

6.21Interpreting Views


6.23Projecting a Third View

6.24Becoming a 3D Visualizer

Chapter Seven 2D Drawing Representation

Practices for 2D Documentation Drawings

7.1Visualizing and Drawing Complex Cylindrical Shapes

7.2Cylinders When Sliced

7.3Cylinders and Ellipses

7.4Intersections and Tangencies

7.5Fillets and Rounds


7.7Conventional Edges

7.8Necessary Views

7.9Partial Views

7.10Alignment of Views

7.11Removed Views

7.12Right-Hand and Left-Hand Parts

7.13Revolution Conventions

Chapter Eight Section Views

Understanding Sections

8.1Placement of Section Views

8.2Labeling Cutting Planes

8.3Line Precedence

8.4Rules for Lines in Section Views

8.5Cutting-Plane Line Style

8.6Section-Lining Technique

8.7Half Sections

8.8Broken Out Sections

8.9Revolved Sections

8.10Removed Sections

8.11Offset Sections

8.12Ribs in Section

8.13Aligned Sections

8.14Partial Views

8.15Intersections in Sections

8.16Conventional Breaks and Sections

8.17Assembly Sections

Chapter Nine Auxiliary Views

Understanding Auxiliary Views

9.1Using Triangles to Sketch Auxiliary Views

9.2Using Grid Paper to Sketch Auxiliary Views

9.3Using CAD to Create Auxiliary Views

9.4Circles and Ellipses in Auxiliary Views

9.5Hidden Lines in Auxiliary Views

9.6Partial Auxiliary Views

9.7Half Auxiliary Views

9.8Reverse Construction

9.9Auxiliary Sections

9.10Viewing-Plane Lines and Arrows

9.11Uses of Auxiliary Views

9.12True Length of a Line

9.13Point View of a Line

9.14Edge View of a Plane

9.15True Size of an Oblique Surface of an Oblique Surface

9.16Dihedral Angles

Understanding Developments and Intersections


9.18Hems and Joints for Sheet Metal and Other Materials

9.19More Examples of Developments and Intersections

9.20Transition Pieces


9.22Developing a Transition Piece Connecting Rectangular Pipes on the Same Axis

9.23Developing a Plane and a Sphere


9.25Primary and Successive Revolutions

9.26True Length of a Line: Revolution Method

Chapter Ten Modeling for Manufacture and Assembly

Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service

10.1Assembly Models

10.2Assemblies and Design

10.3Assemblies and Simulation

10.4Parts for Assemblies

10.5Using Your Model to Check Fits

10.6Manufacturing Processes

10.7Dos and Don’ts of Practical Design

10.8Manufacturing Materials

10.9Appearance, Service Life, and Recycling

10.10Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish

10.11Net-Shape Manufacturing

10.12Computer-Integrated Manufacturing

10.13Shared Manufacturing

10.14Manufacturing Methods and the Drawing

10.15Modeling for Testing and Refinement

10.16Determining Mass Properties

10.17Exporting Data from the Database

10.18Downstream Applications

10.19Prototyping Your Design

Chapter Eleven Dimensioning 

Understanding Dimensioning

11.1Lines Used in Dimensioning

11.2Using Dimension and Extension Lines



11.5Drawing Scale and Dimensioning

11.6Direction of Dimension Values and Notes

11.7Dimension Units

11.8Millimeter Values

11.9Decimal-Inch Values

11.10Rules for Dimension Values

11.11Rules for Rounding Decimal Dimension Values

11.12Dual Dimensioning

11.13Combination Units

11.14Dimensioning Symbols

11.15Placing and Showing Dimensions Legibly

11.16Superfluous Dimensions

11.17Dimensioning Angles

11.18Dimensioning Arcs

11.19Fillets and Rounds

11.20Size Dimensioning: Prisms

11.21Size Dimensioning: Cylinders

11.22Size Dimensioning: Holes

11.23Applying Standard Dimensioning Symbols

11.24Dimensioning Counterbores and Spotfaces with Fillets

11.25Dimensioning Triangular Prisms, Pyramids, and Cones

11.26Dimensioning Curves

11.27Dimensioning Curved Surfaces

11.28Dimensioning Rounded-End Shapes

11.29Dimensioning Threads

11.30Dimensioning Tapers

11.31Dimensioning Chamfers

11.32Shaft Centers

11.33Dimensioning Keyways

11.34Dimensioning Knurls

11.35Finish Marks

11.36Surface Roughness

11.37Location Dimensions

11.38Mating Dimensions

11.39Coordinate Dimensioning

11.40Tabular Dimensions

11.41Dimensioning for Numerically-Controlled Machining

11.42Machine, Pattern, and Forging Dimensions

11.43Sheet Metal Bends



11.46Dos and Don’ts of Dimensioning

Chapter Twelve Tolerancing

Understanding Tolerance

12.1Specifying Tolerances

12.2General Tolerance Notes

12.3Limit Tolerances

Single-Limit Dimensioning

12.4Plus-or-Minus Tolerances

12.5Tolerance Stacking

12.6Using American National Standard Limits and Fit Tables

12.7Tolerances and Machining Processes

12.8Metric System of Tolerances and Fits

12.9Preferred Sizes

12.10Preferred Fits

12.11Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

12.12Symbols for Tolerances of Position and Form

12.13Datum Features

12.14Positional Tolerances

12.15Maximum Material Condition

12.16Tolerances of Angles

12.17Form Tolerances for Single Features

12.18Orientations for Related Features

12.19Using Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

12.20Tolerances and Digital Product Definition

12.21Computer Graphics

Chapter Thirteen Threads, Fasteners, and Springs

Understanding Threads and Fasteners

13.1Thread Notes

13.2External Thread Symbols606

13.3Internal Thread Symbols606

13.4Detailed Representation: Metric, Unified, and American National Threads

13.5Threads in Assembly

13.6Modeling Thread

13.7American National Standard Pipe Threads

13.8Use of Phantom Lines

13.9Tapped Holes

13.10Bolts, Studs, and Screws

13.11Standard Bolts and Nuts

13.12Drawing Standard Bolts

13.13Specifications for Bolts and Nuts

13.14Locknuts and Locking Devices

13.15Standard Cap Screws

13.16Standard Machine Screws

13.17Standard Set Screws

13.18American National Standard Wood Screws

13.19Miscellaneous Fasteners


13.21Machine Pins



13.24Drawing Helical Springs

13.25Modeling Springs

Chapter Fourteen Working Drawings

Working Drawings or Construction Drawings



14.3Parts Lists

14.4Assembly Sections

14.5Working Drawing Assembly

14.6Installation Assemblies

14.7Check Assemblies

14.8Working Drawing Formats

14.9Drawing Numbers


14.11Checking Drawings

14.12Drawing Revisions

14.13Simplifying Drawings

14.14Patent Drawings

Chapter Fifteen Drawing Control and Data Management

Documentation and the Design Database

15.1Requirements for Engineering Documentation

15.2Drawing Control Methods

15.3Good Practices for Electronic Drawing Storage

15.4Drawing Standards

15.5Permission and Ownership

15.6Backing Up Drawing Files

15.7Storage Media

15.8Using the 3D Design Database in Concurrent Engineering

15.9Quality Management

15.10Product Data Management

15.11Managing Work Flow

15.12Data Management and the Web

Chapter Sixteen Gears and Cams

Understanding Gears

16.1Constructing a Base Circle

16.2The Involute Tooth Shape

16.3Approximate Involute Using Circular Arcs

16.4Spacing Gear Teeth

16.5Rack Teeth

16.6Working Drawings of Spur Gears

16.7Spur Gear Design

16.8Worm Gears

16.9Working Drawings of Worm Gears

16.10Bevel Gears

16.11Bevel Gear Definitions and Formulas

16.12Working Drawings of Bevel Gears


16.14Displacement Diagrams

16.15Cam Profiles

16.16Offset and Pivoted Cam Followers

16.17Cylindrical Cams

16.18Other Drive Devices

Chapter Seventeen Electronic Diagrams

Understanding Electronic Diagrams

17.1Drawing Size, Format, and Title

17.2Line Conventions and Lettering

17.3Standard Symbols for Electronic Diagrams


17.5Grouping Parts

17.6Arrangement of Electrical/Electronic Symbols

17.7Connections and Crossovers

17.8Interrupted Paths


17.10Color Coding

17.11Division of Parts

17.12Electron Tube Pin Identification

17.13Reference Designations

17.14Numerical Values

17.15Functional Identification and Other Information

17.16Integrated Circuits

17.17Printed Circuits

17.18Computer Graphics

Chapter Eighteen Structural Drawing

Structural Drawings

18.1Wood Construction

18.2Structural Steel

18.3Structural Steel Shapes


18.5Welded and Bolted Connections

18.6Riveted Connections

18.7Frame Beam Connections


18.9High-Strength Bolting for Structural Joints

18.10Accuracy of Dimensions

18.11Concrete Construction

18.12Reinforced Concrete Drawings

18.13Structural Clay Products

18.14Stone Construction

Chapter Nineteen Landform Drawings

Understanding Landform Drawings 





19.5City Maps

19.6Structure Location Plans

19.7Highway Plans

Chapter Twenty Piping Drawings

Understanding Piping Drawings

20.1Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe

20.2Cast Iron Pipe

20.3Seamless Brass and Copper Pipe

20.4Copper Tubing

20.5Plastic and Specialty Pipes

20.6Pipe Fittings

20.7Pipe Joints


20.9American National Standard Code for Pressure Piping

Chapter Twenty-One

Welding Representation

Understanding Weldment Drawings

Understanding a Welding Symbol

21.1Types of Welded Joints

21.2Types of Welds

21.3Welding Symbols

21.4Fillet Welds

21.5Groove Welds

21.6Back or Backing Welds

21.7Surface Welds

21.8Plug and Slot Welds

21.9Spot Welds

21.10Seam Welds

21.11Projection Welds

21.12Flash and Upset Welds

21.13Welding Applications

21.14Welding Templates

21.15Computer Graphics

CHAPTER Twenty-Two

Axonometric Projection

Understanding Axonometric Projection

22.1Dimetric Projection

22.2Approximate Dimetric Drawings

22.3Trimetric Projection

22.4Trimetric Scales

22.5Trimetric Ellipses

22.6Axonometric Projection Using Intersections

22.7Computer Graphics

22.8Oblique Projections

22.9Ellipses for Oblique Drawings

22.10Offset Measurements

22.11Oblique Dimensioning

22.12Computer Graphics

CHAPTER Twenty-Three Perspective Drawings

Understanding Perspectives

23.1Perspective from a Multiview Projection

23.2Nonrotated Side View Method for Perspective

23.3Drawing an Angular Perspective

23.4Position of the Station Point

23.5Location of the Picture Plane

23.6Bird’s-Eye View or Worm’s-Eye View

23.7The Three Types of Perspectives

23.8One-Point Perspective

23.9One-Point Perspective of a Cylindrical Shape

23.10Two-Point Perspective

23.11Three-Point Perspective

23.12Measurements in Perspective

23.13Direct Measurements along Inclined Lines

23.14Vanishing Points of Inclined Lines

23.15Inclined Lines in Perspective, Joining Endpoint Method

23.16Curves and Circles in Perspective

23.17The Perspective Plan Method

23.18Perspective Diagram


23.20Computer Graphics


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