Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Case Approach, 4th edition

  • Nancy L Murdock

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Overview

Brief Table of Contents
1. Theory Is a Good Thing  
2. Psychoanalysis  
3. Neoanalytic Approaches  
4. Individual Psychology
5. Person-Centered Therapy
6. Existential Therapy
7. Gestalt Therapy
8. Behavior Therapy
9. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
10. Cognitive Therapy
11. Reality Therapy
12. Feminist Therapy
13. Family Systems Theory
14. Solution-Focused Therapy
15. Narrative Therapy
16. Mindfulness Approaches  
17. Conclusion 

References
Name Index
Subject Index
Detailed Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Theory Is a Good Thing 
What is Theory? 
What is Psychotherapy? 
Why Bother With Theory? 
Theory Is Fun 
Theory Works 
Theory Is Essential to Human Life 
Counselors Who Don't Use Theory May Get Lost 
Your Task: Find Your Map 
Characteristics of Good Theory 
Precision and Testability 
Empirical Support 
Parsimony 
Stimulation 
Practicality 
So How Do I Choose a Theory? 
What About Me? 
How to Use Theory 
Ethics: The Role of Professional Values and
Standards 
Client Welfare 
Informed Consent 
Confidentiality 
Competence
Multiple Relationships 
The Critical Question: How to Decide? 
How Theory is Presented in This TEXT 
A Case Study 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 
Another Resource FOR Learning to Use Theory 
Closing Remark 

Chapter 2 Psychoanalysis 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Instinct Theory 
Topographic Model: The Iceberg Approach 
Structural Model: The Big Three 
Repression 
Symptoms as Symbols 
Defense Mechanisms 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor 
Goals 
Process of Therapy 
Insight 
Resistance 
Transference 
Countertransference 
Phases of Therapy
Therapeutic Techniques 
Free Association 
Interpretation 
Analysis of the Resistance 
Dream Analysis 
Analysis of the Transference 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 3 Neoanalytic Approaches
Background 
Ego Psychology: Id Loses the Limelight
Temporarily 
Overview 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Object Relations: The Lego Approach 
Overview 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Self Psychology-It's All About Me
Overview 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Relational Psychoanalysis 
Overview 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques
Evaluation of Neoanalytic Approaches 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 4 Individual Psychology 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Lifestyle 
Social Interest 
Inferiority Feelings 
Basic Tasks 
Basic Mistakes 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor 
Goals 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Interpretation 
Encouragement 
Natural and Logical Consequences 
Acting as If 
Pushing the Button 
Catching Oneself 
Creating Images 
Pleasing Someone 
Paradoxical Intention 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 5 Person-Centered Therapy 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Experience 
Actualizing Tendency 
Organismic Valuing Process 
Self 
Self-Actualizing Tendency 
Need for Positive Regard and Self-Regard 
Conditions of Worth 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor 
Goals 
Process of Therapy 
Congruence 
Unconditional Positive Regard 
Empathy 
A Fourth Condition? 
Stages of the Therapeutic Process 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 6 Existential Therapy 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Modes of Being 
Anxiety 
The Ultimate Concerns 
Defenses 
Theory Of The Person And Development Of The Individual 
Health And Dysfunction 
Nature Of Therapy 
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor 
Goals 
Process Of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Socratic Dialogue 
Bracketing 
Attention to Nonverbal Behavior 
Self-Disclosure 
Paradoxical Intention 
Dereflection 
Dream Analysis 
Guided Fantasy 
Evaluation Of The Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues Of Individual And Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 7 Gestalt Therapy 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Contact 
Needs 
Polarities
Contact Disturbance 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor Goals
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Experiments 
Therapist Self-Disclosure
Dialogues 
Playing the Projection 
Exaggeration 
Reversals
Dream Work 
Working with Polarities
Awareness Training or Bodywork 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 8 Behavior Therapy 
Background
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Classical Conditioning 
Operant Conditioning 
Observational Learning 
Theory Of The Person And Development Of The Individual 
Health And Dysfunction 
Nature Of Therapy 
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor 
Goals 
Process Of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Relaxation Training 
Exposure Therapy 
Systematic Desensitization 
Aversive Techniques 
Shaping 
Reinforcement 
Differential Reinforcement
Extinction 
Punishment 
Assertiveness Training
Stimulus Control 
Covert Conditioning 
Modeling 
Behavioral Self-Control 
Evaluation Of The Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues Of Individual And Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 9 Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
ABCs 
Beliefs 
Goals 
Human Worth Ratings and USA 
Secondary Disturbances 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor 
Goals 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Disputing 
Bibliotherapy 
Proselytizing 
Recordings 
Reframing 
Stop and Monitor 
Rational Coping Statements 
Rational Emotive Imagery 
Flamboyant Therapist Actions 
Humor 
Role Playing 
Rational-Irrational Dialogues 
Reinforcements and Penalties 
Skill Training 
In Vivo Desensitization 
Acting on Rational Beliefs 
Homework 
Shame Attacking 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 10 Cognitive Therapy 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
The Cognitive Model 
Schemas 
Beliefs 
Automatic Thoughts 
Modes 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor 
Goals 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Questioning 
Downward Arrow 
Thought Recording 
Behavioral Experiments 
Activity Scheduling 
Graded Tasks 
Social Skills Training 
Problem Solving 
Imagery 
Role Playing and Other Behaviorally Oriented Techniques 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 11 Reality Therapy 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Basic Needs 
Quality World 
Total Behavior 
Choice Theory
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual
Health and Dysfunction
Nature of Therapy
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere
Roles of Client and Counselor
Goals 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Questioning 
Bibliotherapy 
Doing the Unexpected 
Reframing 
Humor 
Self-Disclosure 
Metaphors 
Physical Activity and Meditation 
Allowing or Imposing Consequences 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 12 Feminist Therapy 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Gender 
The Personal Is Political 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor 
Goals 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Gender-Role and Power Analysis 
Self-Disclosure 
Assertiveness Training 
Bibliotherapy 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 13 Family Systems Theory 
Background 
The Satir Approach 
Overview 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 404
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy
Therapeutic Techniques 
Structural Family Therapy 
Overview 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques
Strategic Therapy 
Overview 
Central Constructs
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy
Therapeutic Techniques
Bowen Family Systems Theory
Overview 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Evaluation of the Family Systems Approaches 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 14 Solution-Focused Therapy 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs
Exceptions 
Change Talk 
Solutions 
Strengths and Resources 
Theory Of The Person And Development Of The Individual 
Health And Dysfunction 
Nature Of Therapy 
Assessment
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor
Goals 
Process Of Therapy
Therapeutic Techniques
Questions 
Normalizing the Problem 
Compliments 
Miracle Question 
Scaling Questions 
Fast-Forward Questions 
Asking About the Problem 
Externalizing 
First Session Formula Task 
Generic Task 
Breaking Patterns 
Surprise Task 
Write, Read, and Burn 
Structured Fight 
Do Something Different 
Solution-Oriented Hypnosis 
Evaluation Of The Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues Of Individual And Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 15 Narrative Therapy 
Background 
Basic Philosophy 
Human Motivation 
Central Constructs 
Stories 
Thinness and Thickness
Unique Outcomes 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Assessment 
Overview of the Therapeutic Atmosphere 
Roles of Client and Counselor 
Goals 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Questioning 
Double Listening 
Outsider Witness Practices 
Taking It Back Practices 
Written Artifacts 
Evaluation of the Theory 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 16 Mindfulness Approaches
Background 
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy 
Overview 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Dialectical Behavior Therapy 
Overview 
Central Constructs 
Theory of the Person and Development of the Individual 
Health and Dysfunction 
Nature of Therapy 
Process of Therapy 
Therapeutic Techniques 
Evaluation of Mindfulness Approaches 
Qualities of the Theory 
Research Support 
Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity 
The Case Study 

Chapter 17 Conclusion
Is This a Good Theory?
Empirical Support 
Stimulating 
Practical 
Your Philosophical Assumptions 
Your Beliefs About Human Behavior 
Your Personal Style: Approach and Technique 
The Role of Your Clients: Diversity is Here to Stay 
Eclectic and Integrative Approaches to Psychotherapy 
The Contextual Model 
Conclusion 

References R-01
Name Index NI-01
Subject Index SI-15

Published by Pearson (July 23rd 2021) - Copyright © 2017

ISBN-13: 9780137400195

Subject: Counseling

Category: Counseling Theory

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