Fire Dynamics, 2nd edition

  • Gregory E. Gorbett, 
  • James L. Pharr, 
  • Scott Rockwell

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Overview

Preface xv
New to This Edition xvii
Acknowledgments xix
About the Authors xxiii

Chapter 1 Introduction 
1.1 Introduction to Fire 
1.2 Changes That Affect Fire Dangers 
1.3 Fire Dynamics: The Link to Collaborative Fire Protection 
1.3.1 Fire Suppression Personnel 
1.3.2 Fire Protection Engineering and Code Enforcement Personnel 
1.3.3 Fire and Explosion Investigator Personnel 
1.4 Outline of the Text 
Summary 
Case Studies 
Review Questions 
Reference 

Chapter 2 Fire Basics 
2.1 Definition of Fire 
2.2 The Fire Triangle and Fire Tetrahedron 
2.3 Classification of Fuels in Fire 
2.3.1 Class A 
2.3.2 Class B 
2.3.3 Class C 
2.3.4 Class D 
2.3.5 Class K 
2.4 Fire Hazards Related to the U.S. Department of Transportation Hazard Classification System 
2.4.1 Class 1-Explosives 
2.4.2 Class 2-Compressed Gas 
2.4.3 Class 3-Flammable and Combustible Liquids 
2.4.4 Class 4-Flammable Solids 
2.4.5 Class 5-Oxidizing Agents 
2.4.6 Class 6-Poisons 
2.4.7 Class 7-Radioactive Materials 
2.4.8 Class 8-Corrosives 
2.4.9 Class 9-Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials 
2.5 Flames 
2.6 Fire Plume 
2.7 Flame Spread 
2.8 Heat and Temperature 
2.9 Energy, Work, and Thermodynamics 
2.10 Heat of Combustion 
2.11 Combustion Efficiency 
Summary 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 3 Math Review for Basic Fire Science Applications 
3.1 Algebra 
3.1.1 Algebraic Expressions 
3.1.2 Order of Operations 
3.1.3 Rate 
3.1.4 Flux 
3.1.5 Significant Integers 
3.1.6 Coordinate System 
3.2 Units of Measure 
3.2.1 Length 
3.2.2 Area 
3.2.3 Volume 
3.2.4 Temperature 
3.2.5 Energy 
3.2.6 Mass 
3.2.7 Pressure 
3.2.8 Time 
3.3 Conversion Between Units 
3.4 Scaling Images 
Summary 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 4 Fires from Gas Phase Fuels 
4.1 Matter 
4.1.1 Vapor Density 
4.2 General Physical Properties of the Gaseous State 
4.2.1 Boyle's Law 
4.2.2 Charles's Law 
4.2.3 Combined Gas Law 
4.3 Pressure and Its Measurement 
4.4 General Chemistry Concepts 
4.4.1 Chemical Reactions and Equations 
4.4.2 Polymers 
4.4.3 Balancing Chemical Equations 
4.5 Oxidation Reactions 
4.5.1 Combustion of Methane 
4.6 Smoke 
4.6.1 Toxicity of Smoke 
4.6.2 Visibility Effects of Smoke 
4.7 Gaseous Combustion 
4.8 Dependence of Flammability Limits on Temperature, Pressure, and Oxygen
Concentration 
4.9 Ignition Energy 
4.10 Flame Propagation 
4.11 Warning About Flammable Gases 
Summary 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 5 Fires from Liquid Phase Fuels 
5.1 Liquid Matter 
5.2 General Physical Properties of the Liquid State 
5.2.1 Specific Gravity 
5.2.2 Miscibility and Solubility 
5.2.3 Vapor Pressure 
5.3 Altering Phase Change Temperatures 
5.3.1 Solutions and Compounds 
5.3.2 Pressure Change 
5.3.3 Specific Heat 
5.4 Change in States of Matter 
5.4.1 Volume Expansion 
5.4.2 Expansion of Matter (Solids and Liquids) 
5.5 Liquid Ignitability 
5.5.1 Flash Point and Fire Point 
5.5.2 Classification of Ignitable Liquids 
5.5.3 Ignition Concepts 
5.6 Combustible Liquids 
5.6.1 Mixtures 
5.6.2 Aerosols 
5.6.3 Thin Film 
5.6.4 Wicking 
5.7 Pool Fires 
5.7.1 Burning Duration 
5.7.2 Application of Knowledge 
5.7.3 Frothing, Slopover, and Boilover 
Summary 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 6 Fires from Solid Phase Fuels 
6.1 Solid Matter 
6.2 Pyrolysis 
6.3 CHAR 
6.4 Smoldering Combustion 
6.5 Melting 
6.6 Dehydration 
6.7 Characteristics of Cellulosic Fuels 
6.8 Characteristics of Upholstered Furniture 
6.9 Characteristics of Polymer Fuels 
6.10 Characteristics of Combustible Metals
6.11 Flame Spread 
6.12 Variables Affecting Solid Combustion 
6.12.1 Surface Area--to--Mass Relationship 
6.12.2 Orientation 
6.12.3 Thermal Inertia 
6.13 Fire Retardants 
6.13.1 Potential Toxicity of Fire Retardants 
Summary 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 7 Heat Release Rate 
7.1 Importance of Heat Release Rate 
7.2 General Introduction 
7.3 Methods for Determining Heat Release Rate 
7.3.1 Heat of Combustion 
7.3.2 Combustion Efficiency 
7.3.3 Mass Burning Flux (Mass Flux) 
7.3.4 Area 
7.4 Heat Release Rate Curves 
7.5 Heat Release Rate of Some Objects 
7.6 Methods of Applying Heat Release Rate Curves 
7.6.1 Simplified Shapes for Fire Growth Curves 
7.6.2 t2 Fire Growth Curves 
7.6.3 Combining Multiple Fuel Packages into a Single Fire Growth Curve 
7.7 Some Practical Applications 
7.7.1 Pool Fires 
7.7.2 Solid Fuels: Upholstered Furniture 
7.8 Flame Height 
7.8.1 Method of Thomas 
7.8.2 Method of Heskestad 
7.9 Relationship of Heat Release Rate and the Plume 
7.10 Measuring Heat Release Rate and Its Effects 
7.10.1 Measurement of Heat Release Rate Using Oxygen Consumption Calorimetry 
7.11 Basic Fire Testing Instrumentation 
7.11.1 Thermocouple 
7.11.2 Heat Flux Gauge 
7.11.3 Bi-Directional Probe (BDP) 
Summary 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 8 Ignition 
8.1 Fire Triangle/Fire Tetrahedron Revisited 
8.2 Fire Ignition Statistics 
8.3 Ignition Energy 
8.3.1 Minimum Ignition Energy 
8.3.2 Piloted Ignition 
8.3.3 Autoignition (Autogenous Ignition) 
8.3.4 Differences and Similarities between Ignition Concepts 
8.4 Energy of the Ignition Source 
8.5 Heat Transfer 
8.6 Historical Background on Heat 
8.7 Conduction 
8.8 Convection 
8.9 Radiation 
8.9.1 Empirical Approach to Heat Flux 
8.9.2 Point Source Model for Heat Flux 
8.9.3 View Factor Model for Heat Flux 
8.9.4 Emissive Power 
8.10 Relationship to the Flame 
8.11 Material Properties 
8.11.1 Surface Area--to--Mass Ratio 
8.11.2 Geometry 
8.11.3 Density 
8.11.4 Orientation 
8.12 Time to Ignition Calculations for Solid Fuels 
8.12.1 Ignition of Thermally Thin Solids
8.12.2 Ignition of Thermally Thick Solids 
8.13 Spontaneous Ignition 
8.14 Ignitability and Flammability Testing 
Summary 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 9 Enclosure Fire Dynamic Basics
9.1 Introduction 
9.2 Ignition 
9.3 Growth 
9.3.1 Plume Formation 
9.3.2 Ceiling Jet 
9.3.3 Upper Layer Development 
9.3.4 Sprinkler and Heat Detector Activation 
9.3.5 Ventilation Openings 
9.4 Progression of a Fuel-Controlled Enclosure Fire 
9.4.1 Curve Number 1 
9.4.2 Curve Number 2 
9.4.3 Components That Control Flashover 
9.4.4 Indicators of Flashover 
9.4.5 Flashover Calculations 
9.4.6 Curve Number 3
9.5 Progression of a Ventilation-Controlled Enclosure Fire
9.5.1 Curve Number 4 
9.5.2 Curve Number 5 
9.6 Impact of Changing Ventilation Conditions 
9.6.1 Curve Number 6 
9.7 Misconceptions Regarding Backdraft 
9.7.1 Misconception: "Backdraft Is Fueled by Carbon Monoxide" 
9.8 Full-Room Involvement 
9.9 Combustion Products for Occupant Safety 
9.9.1 Fire Environment Exposure (Toxicity) 
9.9.2 Smoke, Irritants, and Visibility 
9.9.3 Asphyxiant Gases 
9.10 Calculations 
9.11 Decay 
9.12 Effects of Smoke in Compartments 
9.12.1 Stack Effect (Buoyancy Effects on Smoke Movement) 
9.12.2 Smoke Control Methods 
9.11.3 Amount of Smoke Produced by a Fire 
9.11.4 Smoke Fill Rate in a Compartment 
9.13 Reaching the LFL within a Compartment 
Summary 
Case Study 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 10 Extinguishment
10.1 Extinguishment of Fire
10.2 Removal of Fuel 
10.2.1 Turn Off Fuel Supply 
10.2.2 Separation of Fuel 
10.2.3 Fire Consumes Fuel 
10.3 Removal of Heat
10.3.1 Air Movement 
10.3.2 Water 
10.3.3 Volume Expansion 
10.3.4 Fog Fire Streams 
10.4 Water Volume Calculations 
10.5 Fire Suppression Calculations 
10.6 Sprinkler Systems 
10.7 Water Summary 
10.8 Foam Extinguishing Agents 
10.8.1 Environmental Concern for Foam Use 
10.9 Removal of Oxygen 
10.10 Oxygen Displacement 
10.11 Cooling Effect of Inert Gas 
10.12 Class D Fires 
10.13 Interrupting a Chemical Chain Reaction 
Summary 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 11 Explosions 
11.1 Introduction to Explosions 
11.2 Gas Explosions 
11.2.1 Common Fuel Gases 
11.3 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosions (BLEVE) 
11.4 Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion (UVCE) 
11.5 Fire and Explosion Dangers in Concentrated Dust Environments 
11.6 Blast Effects and Overpressure Effects 25011.6.1 Blast Damage to Buildings 
11.6.2 Blast Injuries 
11.7 TNT Equivalency 
11.7.1 Relationship of TNT Equivalence to Overpressure 
11.7.2 Relationship of Overpressure to Damage 
Review Questions 
References 

Chapter 12 Introduction to Fire Modeling
12.1 History and Basics of Fire Testing and Modeling 
12.2 Computer Fire Modeling Applications 
12.2.1 Fire Protection Engineering 
12.2.2 Fire Investigation 
12.3 Types of Models 
12.3.1 Hand Calculations 
12.3.2 Spreadsheet Models 
12.3.3 Zone Models 
12.3.4 Computational Fluid Dynamics Models (Field Models) 
12.4 Input Data Needed for Computer Fire Modeling 
12.5 Testing of an Origin Hypothesis with Computer Fire Models
12.6 Modeling Fire Suppression Activities 
12.7 Verification and Validation of Computer Models 
Summary 
Review Questions 
References 

Appendix A Digital Resources 
Appendix B 
Appendix C Reference Tables 
Glossary
Index 

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2017

ISBN-13: 9780137402441

Subject: Emergency Services (BRADY)

Category: Fire Science

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