Applying Educational Research: How to Read, Do, and Use Research to Solve Problems of Practice

Applying Educational Research: How to Read, Do, and Use Research to Solve Problems of Practice, 7th edition

  • M D. Gall, 
  • Joyce P. Gall, 
  • Walter R. Borg

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Overview

Applying Educational Research focuses on relating research to practice. Current problems of practice — issues for teachers, students and schools — are presented with accompanying research methods, examples and articles to show how research impacts practice.

Published by Pearson (January 1st 2021) - Copyright © 2015

ISBN-13: 9780137416080

Subject: Educational Psychology

Category: Educational Research

Table of contents

PART 1: INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1: Using Research Evidence to Improve Educational Practice
Evidence-Based Professional Practice  
Evidence-Based Practice in Education  
The Purpose of Educational Research  
Characteristics of Research as an Approach to Inquiry  
Quantitative and Qualitative Research  
Collaborating with Researchers  
A Personal Note: The Research “Spark”   
An Example of How Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test  
Article: How Students’ Sleepy Brains Fail Them   

Chapter 2: Doing Your Own Research: From Proposal to Final Report
Identifying a Research Problem  
Outlining a Research Proposal    
Other Steps in the Research Process  
Self-Check Test  
Sample Outline of a Quantitative Research Proposal
Sample Outline of a Qualitative Research Proposal

PART 2: APPLYING THE RESEARCH LITERATURE TO PROBLEMS OF PRACTICE

Chapter 3: Conducting and Writing Your Own Literature Review
Informal Literature Reviews  
Formal Literature Reviews  
Professional Literature Reviews
A Systematic Procedure for Doing Formal Literature Reviews    
Parts and Presentation of a Literature Review  
Self-Check Test  
Article: The Case For and Against Homework
Article: The Process Writing Approach: A Meta-Analysis

Chapter 4: Using Search Engines and Available Literature Reviews
The Purpose of Search Engines  
Selecting a Useful Search Engine  
Using Search Engines    
Obtaining a Publication after a Literature Search  
Locating Published Literature Reviews
Criteria for Evaluating Published Literature Reviews
An Example of How Literature Reviews Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice
Self-Check Test    

PART 3: USING QUANTITATIVE METHODOLOGY TO STUDY PROBLEMS OF PRACTICE

Chapter 5: Analyzing and Evaluating Reports of Quantitative Research Studies
Organization of a Quantitative Research Report  
Abstract and Introduction  
Method Section: Sampling Procedures  
Method Section: Measures  
Method Section: Research Design and Procedures  
Results Section  
Discussion Section  
An Example of How Quantitative Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  Self-Check Test 
Article: Developing a Measure of Behavior Change in a Program to Help Low-Income Parents Prevent Unhealthful Weight Gain in Children

Chapter 6: Using Descriptive Statistics to Study Problems of Practice
Constructs, Variables, and Measurement Scales  
Statistical Analysis of Data  
Descriptive Statistics  
Multivariate Descriptive Statistics  
Calculating Descriptive Statistics  
An Example of How Descriptive Statistics Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  Self-Check Test 

Chapter 7: Tests of Statistical Significance
The Logic of Statistical Significance and Confidence Intervals  
Inferential Statistics  
Tests of Statistical Significance  
Calculating Statistics  
Using Statistics to Improve Professional Practice  
An Example of How Tests of Statistical Significance Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test  

Chapter 8: The Practical Significance of Statistical Results
The Practical Significance of Statistical Results  
Comparisons with Personal and Organizational Standards  
Comparisons with Ideal Standards  
Comparisons with Curriculum Standards 
Comparisons Based on Rankings  
Comparisons Involving Tables of Norms 
Comparisons Involving Standard Scores  
Effect Sizes  
Gain Scores 
Practical Significance as an Interpretive Process  
An Example of How Determining the Practical Significance of Statistical Results Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test
Article: Can Growth Ever Be beside the Point?   

Chapter 9: Descriptive Research
The Relevance of Descriptive Research to Educational Practice  
Examples of Descriptive Research
Features of a Descriptive Research Report  
Evaluating a Descriptive Research Study  
An Example of How Descriptive Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  Self-Check Test  
Article: Examining the Extent and Nature of Online Learning in American K-12 Education: The Research Initiatives of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Chapter 10: Group Comparison Research
Classification of Quantitative Research Designs  
The Relevance of Group Comparison Research to Educational Practice  
Examples of Group Comparison Research  
Features of a Group Comparison Research Report  
Evaluating a Group Comparison Research Study  
An Example of How Group Comparison Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test 
Article: Jordanian Prospective and Experienced Chemistry Teachers’ Beliefs about Teaching and Learning and their Potential for Educational Reform

Chapter 11: Correlational Research
Comparison of Correlational and Group Comparison Research Designs  
Examples of Correlational Research 
Correlation between Two Variables  
Correlation Involving More Than Two Variables 
Features of a Correlational Research Report  
Evaluating a Correlational Research Study  
An Example of How Correlational Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test  
Article: The Measurement and Predictive Ability of Metacognition in Middle School Learners

Chapter 12: Experimental Research
The Relevance of Experimental Research to Educational Practice  
Characteristics of Experiments  
Examples of Experimental Research  
Features of a Report of a Pretest-;Posttest Control-Group Experiment with
Randomization  
Other Group Experiment Designs  
Threats to the Internal Validity of Experiments  
Threats Directly Involving the Experimental Intervention 
Threats to the External Validity of Experiments  
Single-Case Experiments  
Features of a Report of a Single-Case Experiment  
Evaluating an Experimental Research Study  
An Example of How Experimental Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test  
Article: After-School Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children  
Article: Increasing On-Task Behavior in the Classroom: Extension of Self-Monitoring Strategies   

PART 4: USING QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY TO STUDY PROBLEMS OF PRACTICE

Chapter 13: Case Studies in Qualitative Research
How Qualitative Case Study Research Can Help Educators Solve Problems of Practice  
Key Characteristics of Case Studies  
Examples of Case Studies  
The Nature of Qualitative Research  
Qualitative Research Traditions  
Features of a Case Study Report 
Checking the Applicability of Case Study Findings  
Evaluating the Quality and Rigor of a Case Study  
An Example of How Case Study Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  Self-Check Test  
Article: Teaching Secrets: Ask the Kids!   
Article: Exemplary Social Studies Teachers’ Use of Computer-Supported Instruction in the Classroom  

Chapter 14: Ethnography and Critical Research
The Use of Critical Ethnography to Study Problems of Practice in Education  
The Characteristics of Ethnographic Research 
Differences between Ethnographies and Basic Case Studies 
Examples of Ethnographic Research  
Critical Research as a Field of Inquiry and Practice  
Foundations of Critical Research in Education  
Features of a Critical Ethnographic Research Report  
Evaluating Ethnographies and Critical Ethnographies  
An Example of How Ethnography and Critical Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test 
Article: A Visual Ethnography on Pedagogy, Aesthetics, and the Spatial Experience of Growing Up Urban

Chapter 15: Narrative Research
Narratives as a Focus for Research  
Examples of Narrative Research in Education  
Features of a Narrative Research Report  
Evaluating a Narrative Research Study  
An Example of How Narrative Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  Self-Check Test 
Article: Teacher Identity and Early Career Resilience: Exploring the Links  

Chapter 16: Historical Research
The Nature of Historical Research  
The Role of Historical Research in Education  
Methods of Historical Research  
Identifying Historical Sources  
Validating Historical Evidence  
Interpreting Historical Data  
Features of a Historical Research Report  
Evaluating Historical Research  
An Example of How Historical Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test 
Article: Go To the Principal’s Office: Toward a Social History of the School Principal in North America  

PART 5: COMBINING QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGIES TO STUDY PROBLEMS OF PRACTICE

Chapter 17: Mixed-Methods Research
The Need for Multiple Research Methods  
Types of Mixed-Methods Research  
Reading a Mixed-Methods Research Report  
Evaluating Reports of Mixed-Methods Studies  
An Example of How Mixed-Methods Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test  
Article: A Portrait of Administrator, Teacher, and Parent Perceptions of Title I School Improvement Plans

PART 6: USING OTHER RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES TO STUDY PROBLEMS OF PRACTICE

Chapter 18: Action Research
The History of Action Research  
Using Action Research to Address Problems of Practice  
Examples of Action Research Studies  
Design Features of Action Research  
How Action Research Differs from Educators’ Other Approaches to Problem Solving  
Purposes and Benefits of Action Research  
Applying Action Science to Action Research  
The Insider-;Outsider Perspective in Collaborative Action Research 
Evaluating the Credibility and Trustworthiness of Action Research Projects 
An Example of How Action Research Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test  
Article: Recognizing a “Different Drum” Through Close-Reading Strategies

Chapter 19: Evaluation Research
The Use of Evaluation Research in Educational Decision Making  
Examples of Evaluation Research  
Programs as a Focus of Evaluation Research  
Evaluation Research as a Political Activity  
Models of Evaluation Research  
How to Read an Evaluation Research Report  
Evaluating an Evaluation Research Study and Uses of Evaluation in Educational Practice  
An Example of How Program Evaluations Can Help in Solving Problems of Practice  
Self-Check Test 
Article: What Did the Teachers Think? Teachers’ Responses to the Use of Value-Added Modeling as a Tool for Evaluating Teacher Effectivenes
Self-Check Test Answers  

Appendix 1 Guide for Outlining a Quantitative or Qualitative Research Proposal  
Appendix 2 Search Options in the ERIC Search Machine
Appendix 3 Questions To Ask Yourself When Evaluating a Report of a Quantitative Study  
Appendix 4 Questions to Ask Yourself When Evaluating a Report of a Qualitative Study  
Appendix 5 Design-Specific Questions to Ask Yourself When Evaluating a Research Report  
Glossary  

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