Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics, 16th edition

  • Charles D. Ghilani

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Overview

Elementary Surveying presents basic concepts and practical material in each of the areas fundamental to modern surveying (geomatics) practice. While introductory, its depth and breadth also make it ideal for self-study and preparation for licensing examinations.

Published by Pearson (May 5th 2021) - Copyright © 2022

ISBN-13: 9780137453740

Subject: Civil Engineering

Category: Surveying

Table of contents

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    • 1.1 Definition of Surveying
    • 1.2 Geomatics
    • 1.3 History of Surveying
    • 1.4 Geodetic and Plane Surveys
    • 1.5 Importance of Surveying
    • 1.6 Specialized Types of Surveys
    • 1.7 Surveying Safety
    • 1.8 Land and Geographic Information Systems
    • 1.9 Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies
    • 1.10 The Surveying Profession
    • 1.11 Professional Surveying Organizations
    • 1.12 Surveying on the Internet
    • 1.13 Future Challenges in Surveying
  2. Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes
    • Part I: Units and Significant Figures
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Units of Measurement
    • 2.3 International System of Units (SI)
    • 2.4 Significant Figures
    • 2.5 Rounding Off Numbers
    • Part II: Field Notes
    • 2.6 Field Notes
    • 2.7 General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes
    • 2.8 Types of Field Books
    • 2.9 Kinds of Notes
    • 2.10 Arrangements of Notes
    • 2.11 Suggestions for Recording Notes
    • 2.12 Introduction to Survey Controllers
    • 2.13 Transfer of Files from Survey Controllers
    • 2.14 Digital Data File Management
    • 2.15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Controllers
  3. Theory of Errors in Observations
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Direct and Indirect Observations
    • 3.3 Errors in Measurements
    • 3.4 Mistakes
    • 3.5 Sources of Errors in Making Observations
    • 3.6 Types of Errors
    • 3.7 Precision and Accuracy
    • 3.8 Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors
    • 3.9 Probability
    • 3.10 Most Probable Value
    • 3.11 Residuals
    • 3.12 Occurrence of Random Errors
    • 3.13 General Laws of Probability
    • 3.14 Measures of Precision
    • 3.15 Interpretation of Standard Deviation
    • 3.16 The 50%, 90%, and 95% Errors
    • 3.17 Error Propagation
    • 3.18 Applications
    • 3.19 Conditional Adjustment of Observations
    • 3.20 Weights of Observations
    • 3.21 Least-Squares Adjustment
  4. Leveling — Theory, Methods, and Equipment
    • Part I: Leveling — Theory and Methods
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Definitions
    • 4.3 North American Vertical Datum
    • 4.4 Curvature and Refraction
    • 4.5 Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation
    • Part II: Equipment for Differential Leveling
    • 4.6 Categories of Levels
    • 4.7 Telescopes
    • 4.8 Level Vials
    • 4.9 Tilting Levels
    • 4.10 Automatic Levels
    • 4.11 Digital Levels
    • 4.12 Tripods
    • 4.13 Hand Levels
    • 4.14 Level Rods
    • 4.15 Turning Points
    • 4.16 Testing and Adjusting Levels
  5. Leveling — Field Procedures and Computations
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Carrying and Setting Up a Level
    • 5.3 Duties of a Rod Person
    • 5.4 Differential Leveling
    • 5.5 Precision
    • 5.6 Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits
    • 5.7 Reciprocal Leveling
    • 5.8 Three-Wire Leveling
    • 5.9 Profile Leveling
    • 5.10 Grid, Cross-Section, or Borrow-Pit Leveling
    • 5.11 Use of the Hand Level
    • 5.12 Sources of Error in Leveling
    • 5.13 Mistakes
    • 5.14 Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes
    • 5.15 Using Software
  6. Distance Measurement
    • Part I: Methods for Measuring Distances
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Summary of Methods for Making Linear Measurements
    • 6.3 Pacing
    • 6.4 Odometer Readings
    • 6.5 Optical Rangefinders
    • 6.6 Tacheometry
    • 6.7 Subtense Bar
    • Part II: Distance Measurements by Taping
    • 6.8 Introduction to Taping
    • 6.9 Taping Equipment and Accessories
    • 6.10 Care of Taping Equipment
    • 6.11 Taping on Level Ground
    • 6.12 Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground
    • 6.13 Slope Measurements
    • 6.14 Sources of Error in Taping
    • Part III: Electronic Distance Measurement
    • 6.15 Introduction
    • 6.16 Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy
    • 6.17 Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement
    • 6.18 Electro-Optical Instruments
    • 6.19 Total Station Instruments
    • 6.20 EDM Instruments Without Reflectors
    • 6.21 Computing Horizontal Lengths from Slope Distances
    • 6.22 Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement
    • 6.23 Using Software
  7. Angles, Azimuths, and Bearings
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Units of Angle Measurement
    • 7.3 Kinds of Horizontal Angles
    • 7.4 Direction of a Line
    • 7.5 Azimuths
    • 7.6 Bearings
    • 7.7 Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings
    • 7.8 Computing Azimuths
    • 7.9 Computing Bearings
    • 7.10 The Compass and the Earth's Magnetic Field
    • 7.11 Magnetic Declination
    • 7.12 Variations in Magnetic Declination
    • 7.13 Software for Determining Magnetic Declination
    • 7.14 Local Attraction
    • 7.15 Typical Magnetic Declination Problems
    • 7.16 Mistakes
  8. Total Station Instruments; Angle Observations
    • PART I: Total Station Instruments
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Characteristics of Total Station Instruments
    • 8.3 Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments
    • 8.4 Parts of a Total Station Instrument
    • 8.5 Handling and Setting up a Total Station Instrument
    • 8.6 Servo-Driven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments
    • PART II: Angle Observations
    • 8.7 Relationship of Angles and Distances
    • 8.8 Observing Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments
    • 8.9 Observing Multiple Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method
    • 8.10 Closing the Horizon
    • 8.11 Observing Deflection Angles
    • 8.12 Observing Azimuths
    • 8.13 Observing Vertical Angles
    • 8.14 Sights and Marks
    • 8.15 Prolonging a Straight Line
    • 8.16 Balancing-in
    • 8.17 Random Traverse
    • 8.18 Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences
    • 8.19 Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and their Accessories
    • 8.20 Sources of Error in Total Station Work
    • 8.21 Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Observations
    • 8.22 Mistakes
  9. Traversing
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Observation of Traverse Angles or Directions
    • 9.3 Observation of Traverse Lengths
    • 9.4 Selection of Traverse Stations
    • 9.5 Referencing Traverse Stations
    • 9.6 Traverse Field Notes
    • 9.7 Angle Misclosure
    • 9.8 Traversing with Total Station Instruments
    • 9.9 Radial Traversing
    • 9.10 Sources of Error in Traversing
    • 9.11 Mistakes in Traversing
  10. Traverse Computations
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Balancing Angles
    • 10.3 Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings
    • 10.4 Departures and Latitudes
    • 10.5 Departure and Latitude Closure Conditions
    • 10.6 Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision
    • 10.7 Traverse Adjustment
    • 10.8 Rectangular Coordinates
    • 10.9 Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations
    • 10.10 Inversing
    • 10.11 Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions
    • 10.12 Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys
    • 10.13 Use of Open Traverses
    • 10.14 State Plane Coordinate Systems
    • 10.15 Traverse Computations using Computers
    • 10.16 Locating Blunders in Traverse Observations
    • 10.17 Mistakes in Traverse Computations
  11. Coordinate Geometry in Surveying Calculations
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles
    • 11.3 Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line
    • 11.4 Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions
    • 11.5 Intersection of a Line with a Circle
    • 11.6 Intersection of Two Circles
    • 11.7 Three-Point Resection
    • 11.8 Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
    • 11.9 Inaccessible Point Problem
    • 11.10 Three-Dimensional Two-Point Resection
    • 11.11 Software
  12. Area
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 Methods of Measuring Area
    • 12.3 Area by Division into Simple Figures
    • 12.4 Area by Offsets from Straight Lines
    • 12.5 Area by Coordinates
    • 12.6 Area by Double-Meridian Distance Method
    • 12.7 Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries
    • 12.8 Partitioning of Lands
    • 12.9 Area by Measurements from Maps
    • 12.10 Software
    • 12.11 Sources of Error in Determining Areas
    • 12.12 Mistakes in Determining Areas
  13. Global Navigation Satellite Systems — Introduction and Principles of Operation
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Overview of GPS
    • 13.3 The GPS Signal
    • 13.4 Reference Coordinate Systems
    • 13.5 Fundamentals of Satellite Positioning
    • 13.6 Errors in Observations
    • 13.7 Differential Positioning
    • 13.8 Kinematic Methods
    • 13.9 Relative Positioning
    • 13.10 Other Satellite Navigation Systems
    • 13.11 The Future
  14. Global Navigation Satellite Systems — Static Surveys
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 Field Procedures in Static GNSS Surveys
    • 14.3 Planning Satellite Surveys
    • 14.4 Performing Static Surveys
    • 14.5 Data Processing and Analysis
    • 14.6 Things to Consider
    • 14.7 A Method for Obtaining Orthometric Height Differences Using GNSS
    • 14.8 Sources of Errors in Satellite Surveys
    • 14.9 Mistakes in Satellite Surveys
  15. Global Navigation Satellite Systems — Kinematic Surveys
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Planning of Kinematic Surveys
    • 15.3 Initialization Techniques
    • 15.4 Equipment Used in Kinematic Surveys
    • 15.5 Methods Used in Kinematic Surveys
    • 15.6 Performing Post-Processed Kinematic Surveys
    • 15.7 Communication in Real-Time Kinematic Surveys
    • 15.8 Real-Time Networks
    • 15.9 Performing Real-Time Kinematic Surveys
    • 15.10 Machine Guidance and Control
    • 15.11 Errors in Kinematic Surveys
    • 15.12 Mistakes in Kinematic Surveys
  16. Adjustments by Least Squares
    • 16.1 Introduction
    • 16.2 Fundamental Condition of Least Squares
    • 16.3 Least-Squares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method
    • 16.4 Matrix Methods in Least-Squares Adjustment
    • 16.5 Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities
    • 16.6 Least-Squares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits
    • 16.7 Propagation of Errors
    • 16.8 Least-Squares Adjustment of GNSS Baseline Vectors
    • 16.9 Least-Squares Adjustment of Conventional Horizontal Plane Surveys
    • 16.10 The Error Ellipse
    • 16.11 Adjustment Procedures
    • 16.12 Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations
    • 16.13 Software
    • 16.14 Conclusions
  17. Mapping Surveys
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys
    • 17.3 Map Scale
    • 17.4 Control for Mapping Surveys
    • 17.5 Contours
    • 17.6 Characteristics of Contours
    • 17.7 Method of Locating Contours
    • 17.8 Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems
    • 17.9 Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details
    • 17.10 Planning a Laser-Scanning Survey
    • 17.11 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
    • 17.12 Selection of Field Method
    • 17.13 Working with Survey Controllers and Field-to-Finish Software
    • 17.14 Hydrographic Surveys
    • 17.15 Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys
    • 17.16 Mistakes in Mapping Surveys
  18. Mapping
    • 18.1 Introduction
    • 18.2 Availability of Maps and Related Information
    • 18.3 National Mapping Program
    • 18.4 Accuracy Standards for Mapping
    • 18.5 Manual and Computer-Aided Drafting Procedures
    • 18.6 Map Design
    • 18.7 Map Layout
    • 18.8 Basic Map Plotting Procedures
    • 18.9 Contour Interval
    • 18.10 Plotting Contours
    • 18.11 Lettering
    • 18.12 Cartographic Map Elements
    • 18.13 Drafting Materials
    • 18.14 Automated Mapping and Computer-Aided Drafting Systems
    • 18.15 Migrating Maps between Software Packages
    • 18.16 Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping
    • 18.17 The Importance of Metadata
    • 18.18 Sources of Error in Mapping
    • 18.19 Mistakes in Mapping
  19. Control Surveys and GeodetIc Reductions
    • 19.1 Introduction
    • 19.2 The Ellipsoid and Geoid
    • 19.3 The Conventional Terrestrial Pole
    • 19.4 Geodetic Position and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature
    • 19.5 Geoid Undulation and Deflection of the Vertical
    • 19.6 U.S. Reference Frames
    • 19.7 Transforming Coordinates Between Reference Frames
    • 19.8 Accuracy Standards and Specifications for Control Surveys
    • 19.9 The National Spatial Reference System
    • 19.10 Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network
    • 19.11 Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network
    • 19.12 Control Point Descriptions
    • 19.13 Field Procedures for Conventional Horizontal Control Surveys
    • 19.14 Field Procedures for Vertical-Control Surveys
    • 19.15 Reduction of Field Observations to their Geodetic Values
    • 19.16 Geodetic Position Computations
    • 19.17 The Local Geodetic Coordinate System
    • 19.18 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Computations
    • 19.19 Software
  20. State Plane Coordinates and Other Map Projections
    • 20.1 Introduction
    • 20.2 Projections Used in State Plane Coordinate Systems
    • 20.3 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
    • 20.4 Transverse Mercator Projection
    • 20.5 State Plane Coordinates in NAD 27 and NAD 83
    • 20.6 Computing SPCS 83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal Conic System
    • 20.7 Computing SPCS 83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System
    • 20.8 Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids
    • 20.9 Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations
    • 20.10 Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another
    • 20.11 The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection
    • 20.12 Other Map Projections
    • 20.13 Ground Versus Grid Problem
    • 20.14 Proposed Changes to SPCS in 2022
    • 20.15 Map Projection Software
  21. Boundary Surveys
    • 21.1 Introduction
    • 21.2 Categories of Land Surveys
    • 21.3 Historical Perspectives
    • 21.4 Property Description by Metes and Bounds
    • 21.5 Property Description by Block-and-Lot System
    • 21.6 Property Description by Coordinates
    • 21.7 Retracement Surveys
    • 21.8 Subdivision Surveys
    • 21.9 Partitioning Land
    • 21.10 Registration of Title
    • 21.11 Adverse Possession and Easements
    • 21.12 Condominium Surveys
    • 21.13 Geographic and Land Information Systems
    • 21.14 Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys
    • 21.15 Mistakes
  22. Surveys of the Public Lands
    • 22.1 Introduction
    • 22.2 Instructions for Surveys of the Public Lands
    • 22.3 Initial Point
    • 22.4 Principal Meridian
    • 22.5 Baseline
    • 22.6 Standard Parallels (Correction Lines)
    • 22.7 Guide Meridians
    • 22.8 Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines
    • 22.9 Designation of Townships
    • 22.10 Subdivision of a Quadrangle into Townships
    • 22.11 Subdivision of a Township into Sections
    • 22.12 Subdivision of Sections
    • 22.13 Fractional Sections
    • 22.14 Notes
    • 22.15 Outline of Subdivision Steps
    • 22.16 Marking Corners
    • 22.17 Witness Corners
    • 22.18 Meander Corners
    • 22.19 Lost and Obliterated Corners
    • 22.20 Accuracy of Public Land Surveys
    • 22.21 Descriptions by Township Section, and Smaller Subdivision
    • 22.22 BLM Land Information System
    • 22.23 Sources of Error
    • 22.24 Mistakes
  23. Construction Surveys
    • 23.1 Introduction
    • 23.2 Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys
    • 23.3 Horizontal and Vertical Control
    • 23.4 Staking Out a Pipeline
    • 23.5 Staking Pipeline Grades
    • 23.6 Computing the Bend Angles in Pipelines
    • 23.7 Staking Out a Building
    • 23.8 Staking Out Highways
    • 23.9 Other Construction Surveys
    • 23.10 Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments
    • 23.11 Construction Surveys Using GNSS Equipment
    • 23.12 Machine Guidance and Control
    • 23.13 As-built Surveys with Laser Scanning
    • 23.14 Sources of Error in Construction Surveys
    • 23.15 Mistakes
  24. Horizontal Curves
    • 24.1 Introduction
    • 24.2 Degree of Circular Curve
    • 24.3 Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas
    • 24.4 Circular Curve Stationing
    • 24.5 General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles
    • 24.6 Computing Deflection Angles and Chords
    • 24.7 Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
    • 24.8 Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
    • 24.9 Setups on Curve
    • 24.10 Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
    • 24.11 Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords
    • 24.12 Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve
    • 24.13 Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates
    • 24.14 Curve Stakeout Using GNSS Receivers and Robotic Total Stations
    • 24.15 Circular Curve Layout by Offsets
    • 24.16 Special Circular Curve Problems
    • 24.17 Compound and Reverse Curves
    • 24.18 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves
    • 24.19 Spirals
    • 24.20 Computation of “As-Built” Circular Alignments
    • 24.21 Sources of Error in Laying Out Circular Curves
    • 24.22 Mistakes
  25. Vertical Curves
    • 25.1 Introduction
    • 25.2 General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve
    • 25.3 Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve
    • 25.4 High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
    • 25.5 Vertical Curve Computations Using the Tangent-Offset Equation
    • 25.6 Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola
    • 25.7 Curve Computations by Proportion
    • 25.8 Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve
    • 25.9 Machine Control in Grading Operations
    • 25.10 Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve
    • 25.11 Designing a Curve to Pass Through a Fixed Point
    • 25.12 Sight Distance
    • 25.13 Sources of Error in Laying out Vertical Curves
    • 25.14 Mistakes
  26. Volumes
    • 26.1 Introduction
    • 26.2 Methods of Volume Measurement
    • 26.3 The Cross-Section Method
    • 26.4 Types of Cross Sections
    • 26.5 Average-End-Area Formula
    • 26.6 Determining End Areas
    • 26.7 Computing Slope Intercepts
    • 26.8 Prismoidal Formula
    • 26.9 Volume Computations
    • 26.10 Unit-Area, or Borrow-Pit, Method
    • 26.11 Contour-Area Method
    • 26.12 Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge
    • 26.13 Software
    • 26.14 Sources of Error in Determining Volumes
    • 26.15 Mistakes
  27. Photogrammetry
    • 27.1 Introduction
    • 27.2 Uses of Photogrammetry
    • 27.3 Aerial Cameras
    • 27.4 Types of Aerial Photographs
    • 27.5 Vertical Aerial Photographs
    • 27.6 Scale of a Vertical Photograph
    • 27.7 Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph
    • 27.8 Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph
    • 27.9 Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph
    • 27.10 Stereoscopic Parallax
    • 27.11 Stereoscopic Viewing
    • 27.12 Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax
    • 27.13 Analytical Photogrammetry
    • 27.14 Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments
    • 27.15 Orthophotos
    • 27.16 Ground Control for Photogrammetry
    • 27.17 Flight Planning
    • 27.18 Airborne Laser-Mapping Systems
    • 27.19 Remote Sensing
    • 27.20 Software
    • 27.21 Sources of Error in Photogrammetry
    • 27.22 Mistakes
  28. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
    • 28.1 Introduction
    • 28.2 Land Information Systems
    • 28.3 GIS Data Sources and Classifications
    • 28.4 Spatial Data
    • 28.5 Nonspatial Data
    • 28.6 Data Format Conversions
    • 28.7 Creating GIS Databases
    • 28.8 Metadata
    • 28.9 GIS Analytical Functions
    • 28.10 GIS Applications
    • 28.11 Data Sources

Appendix A: Tape Correction Problems

Appendix B: Example Noteforms

Appendix C: Astronomic Observations

Appendix D: Using the Worksheets from the Companion Website

Appendix E: Introduction to Matrices

Appendix F: U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters

Appendix G: Answers to Selected Problems

Appendix H: Commonly Used Conversions and Abbreviations

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