Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics, 16th edition
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Overview
Elementary Surveying Geomatics presents basic concepts in each fundamental area of modern surveying (geomatics) practice. While introductory, its depth and breadth also make it ideal for selfstudy and preparing for your licensing examination. It includes more than 400 figures and illustrations to help clarify discussions. Extensive endofchapter problems give you opportunities to review and apply what you've learned.
The 16th Edition is updated to provide a stateoftheart presentation of surveying equipment and procedures. Rewritten endofchapter problems illustrate computational procedures. It also includes new discussions of GNSS precise point positioning, small unmanned aerial systems, new datums and more.
Published by Pearson (May 5th 2021)  Copyright © 2022
ISBN13: 9780137453740
Subject: Civil Engineering
Category: Surveying
Overview
Table of Contents
 Introduction
 1.1 Definition of Surveying
 1.2 Geomatics
 1.3 History of Surveying
 1.4 Geodetic and Plane Surveys
 1.5 Importance of Surveying
 1.6 Specialized Types of Surveys
 1.7 Surveying Safety
 1.8 Land and Geographic Information Systems
 1.9 Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies
 1.10 The Surveying Profession
 1.11 Professional Surveying Organizations
 1.12 Surveying on the Internet
 1.13 Future Challenges in Surveying
 Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes
 Part I: Units and Significant Figures
 2.1 Introduction
 2.2 Units of Measurement
 2.3 International System of Units (SI)
 2.4 Significant Figures
 2.5 Rounding Off Numbers
 Part II: Field Notes
 2.6 Field Notes
 2.7 General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes
 2.8 Types of Field Books
 2.9 Kinds of Notes
 2.10 Arrangements of Notes
 2.11 Suggestions for Recording Notes
 2.12 Introduction to Survey Controllers
 2.13 Transfer of Files from Survey Controllers
 2.14 Digital Data File Management
 2.15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Controllers
 Theory of Errors in Observations
 3.1 Introduction
 3.2 Direct and Indirect Observations
 3.3 Errors in Measurements
 3.4 Mistakes
 3.5 Sources of Errors in Making Observations
 3.6 Types of Errors
 3.7 Precision and Accuracy
 3.8 Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors
 3.9 Probability
 3.10 Most Probable Value
 3.11 Residuals
 3.12 Occurrence of Random Errors
 3.13 General Laws of Probability
 3.14 Measures of Precision
 3.15 Interpretation of Standard Deviation
 3.16 The 50%, 90%, and 95% Errors
 3.17 Error Propagation
 3.18 Applications
 3.19 Conditional Adjustment of Observations
 3.20 Weights of Observations
 3.21 LeastSquares Adjustment
 Leveling — Theory, Methods, and Equipment
 Part I: Leveling — Theory and Methods
 4.1 Introduction
 4.2 Definitions
 4.3 North American Vertical Datum
 4.4 Curvature and Refraction
 4.5 Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation
 Part II: Equipment for Differential Leveling
 4.6 Categories of Levels
 4.7 Telescopes
 4.8 Level Vials
 4.9 Tilting Levels
 4.10 Automatic Levels
 4.11 Digital Levels
 4.12 Tripods
 4.13 Hand Levels
 4.14 Level Rods
 4.15 Turning Points
 4.16 Testing and Adjusting Levels
 Leveling — Field Procedures and Computations
 5.1 Introduction
 5.2 Carrying and Setting Up a Level
 5.3 Duties of a Rod Person
 5.4 Differential Leveling
 5.5 Precision
 5.6 Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits
 5.7 Reciprocal Leveling
 5.8 ThreeWire Leveling
 5.9 Profile Leveling
 5.10 Grid, CrossSection, or BorrowPit Leveling
 5.11 Use of the Hand Level
 5.12 Sources of Error in Leveling
 5.13 Mistakes
 5.14 Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes
 5.15 Using Software
 Distance Measurement
 Part I: Methods for Measuring Distances
 6.1 Introduction
 6.2 Summary of Methods for Making Linear Measurements
 6.3 Pacing
 6.4 Odometer Readings
 6.5 Optical Rangefinders
 6.6 Tacheometry
 6.7 Subtense Bar
 Part II: Distance Measurements by Taping
 6.8 Introduction to Taping
 6.9 Taping Equipment and Accessories
 6.10 Care of Taping Equipment
 6.11 Taping on Level Ground
 6.12 Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground
 6.13 Slope Measurements
 6.14 Sources of Error in Taping
 Part III: Electronic Distance Measurement
 6.15 Introduction
 6.16 Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy
 6.17 Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement
 6.18 ElectroOptical Instruments
 6.19 Total Station Instruments
 6.20 EDM Instruments Without Reflectors
 6.21 Computing Horizontal Lengths from Slope Distances
 6.22 Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement
 6.23 Using Software
 Angles, Azimuths, and Bearings
 7.1 Introduction
 7.2 Units of Angle Measurement
 7.3 Kinds of Horizontal Angles
 7.4 Direction of a Line
 7.5 Azimuths
 7.6 Bearings
 7.7 Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings
 7.8 Computing Azimuths
 7.9 Computing Bearings
 7.10 The Compass and the Earth's Magnetic Field
 7.11 Magnetic Declination
 7.12 Variations in Magnetic Declination
 7.13 Software for Determining Magnetic Declination
 7.14 Local Attraction
 7.15 Typical Magnetic Declination Problems
 7.16 Mistakes
 Total Station Instruments; Angle Observations
 PART I: Total Station Instruments
 8.1 Introduction
 8.2 Characteristics of Total Station Instruments
 8.3 Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments
 8.4 Parts of a Total Station Instrument
 8.5 Handling and Setting up a Total Station Instrument
 8.6 ServoDriven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments
 PART II: Angle Observations
 8.7 Relationship of Angles and Distances
 8.8 Observing Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments
 8.9 Observing Multiple Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method
 8.10 Closing the Horizon
 8.11 Observing Deflection Angles
 8.12 Observing Azimuths
 8.13 Observing Vertical Angles
 8.14 Sights and Marks
 8.15 Prolonging a Straight Line
 8.16 Balancingin
 8.17 Random Traverse
 8.18 Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences
 8.19 Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and their Accessories
 8.20 Sources of Error in Total Station Work
 8.21 Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Observations
 8.22 Mistakes
 Traversing
 9.1 Introduction
 9.2 Observation of Traverse Angles or Directions
 9.3 Observation of Traverse Lengths
 9.4 Selection of Traverse Stations
 9.5 Referencing Traverse Stations
 9.6 Traverse Field Notes
 9.7 Angle Misclosure
 9.8 Traversing with Total Station Instruments
 9.9 Radial Traversing
 9.10 Sources of Error in Traversing
 9.11 Mistakes in Traversing
 Traverse Computations
 10.1 Introduction
 10.2 Balancing Angles
 10.3 Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings
 10.4 Departures and Latitudes
 10.5 Departure and Latitude Closure Conditions
 10.6 Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision
 10.7 Traverse Adjustment
 10.8 Rectangular Coordinates
 10.9 Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations
 10.10 Inversing
 10.11 Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions
 10.12 Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys
 10.13 Use of Open Traverses
 10.14 State Plane Coordinate Systems
 10.15 Traverse Computations using Computers
 10.16 Locating Blunders in Traverse Observations
 10.17 Mistakes in Traverse Computations
 Coordinate Geometry in Surveying Calculations
 11.1 Introduction
 11.2 Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles
 11.3 Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line
 11.4 Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions
 11.5 Intersection of a Line with a Circle
 11.6 Intersection of Two Circles
 11.7 ThreePoint Resection
 11.8 TwoDimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
 11.9 Inaccessible Point Problem
 11.10 ThreeDimensional TwoPoint Resection
 11.11 Software
 Area
 12.1 Introduction
 12.2 Methods of Measuring Area
 12.3 Area by Division into Simple Figures
 12.4 Area by Offsets from Straight Lines
 12.5 Area by Coordinates
 12.6 Area by DoubleMeridian Distance Method
 12.7 Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries
 12.8 Partitioning of Lands
 12.9 Area by Measurements from Maps
 12.10 Software
 12.11 Sources of Error in Determining Areas
 12.12 Mistakes in Determining Areas
 Global Navigation Satellite Systems — Introduction and Principles of Operation
 13.1 Introduction
 13.2 Overview of GPS
 13.3 The GPS Signal
 13.4 Reference Coordinate Systems
 13.5 Fundamentals of Satellite Positioning
 13.6 Errors in Observations
 13.7 Differential Positioning
 13.8 Kinematic Methods
 13.9 Relative Positioning
 13.10 Other Satellite Navigation Systems
 13.11 The Future
 Global Navigation Satellite Systems — Static Surveys
 14.1 Introduction
 14.2 Field Procedures in Static GNSS Surveys
 14.3 Planning Satellite Surveys
 14.4 Performing Static Surveys
 14.5 Data Processing and Analysis
 14.6 Things to Consider
 14.7 A Method for Obtaining Orthometric Height Differences Using GNSS
 14.8 Sources of Errors in Satellite Surveys
 14.9 Mistakes in Satellite Surveys
 Global Navigation Satellite Systems — Kinematic Surveys
 15.1 Introduction
 15.2 Planning of Kinematic Surveys
 15.3 Initialization Techniques
 15.4 Equipment Used in Kinematic Surveys
 15.5 Methods Used in Kinematic Surveys
 15.6 Performing PostProcessed Kinematic Surveys
 15.7 Communication in RealTime Kinematic Surveys
 15.8 RealTime Networks
 15.9 Performing RealTime Kinematic Surveys
 15.10 Machine Guidance and Control
 15.11 Errors in Kinematic Surveys
 15.12 Mistakes in Kinematic Surveys
 Adjustments by Least Squares
 16.1 Introduction
 16.2 Fundamental Condition of Least Squares
 16.3 LeastSquares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method
 16.4 Matrix Methods in LeastSquares Adjustment
 16.5 Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities
 16.6 LeastSquares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits
 16.7 Propagation of Errors
 16.8 LeastSquares Adjustment of GNSS Baseline Vectors
 16.9 LeastSquares Adjustment of Conventional Horizontal Plane Surveys
 16.10 The Error Ellipse
 16.11 Adjustment Procedures
 16.12 Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations
 16.13 Software
 16.14 Conclusions
 Mapping Surveys
 17.1 Introduction
 17.2 Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys
 17.3 Map Scale
 17.4 Control for Mapping Surveys
 17.5 Contours
 17.6 Characteristics of Contours
 17.7 Method of Locating Contours
 17.8 Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems
 17.9 Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details
 17.10 Planning a LaserScanning Survey
 17.11 ThreeDimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
 17.12 Selection of Field Method
 17.13 Working with Survey Controllers and FieldtoFinish Software
 17.14 Hydrographic Surveys
 17.15 Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys
 17.16 Mistakes in Mapping Surveys
 Mapping
 18.1 Introduction
 18.2 Availability of Maps and Related Information
 18.3 National Mapping Program
 18.4 Accuracy Standards for Mapping
 18.5 Manual and ComputerAided Drafting Procedures
 18.6 Map Design
 18.7 Map Layout
 18.8 Basic Map Plotting Procedures
 18.9 Contour Interval
 18.10 Plotting Contours
 18.11 Lettering
 18.12 Cartographic Map Elements
 18.13 Drafting Materials
 18.14 Automated Mapping and ComputerAided Drafting Systems
 18.15 Migrating Maps between Software Packages
 18.16 Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping
 18.17 The Importance of Metadata
 18.18 Sources of Error in Mapping
 18.19 Mistakes in Mapping
 Control Surveys and GeodetIc Reductions
 19.1 Introduction
 19.2 The Ellipsoid and Geoid
 19.3 The Conventional Terrestrial Pole
 19.4 Geodetic Position and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature
 19.5 Geoid Undulation and Deflection of the Vertical
 19.6 U.S. Reference Frames
 19.7 Transforming Coordinates Between Reference Frames
 19.8 Accuracy Standards and Specifications for Control Surveys
 19.9 The National Spatial Reference System
 19.10 Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network
 19.11 Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network
 19.12 Control Point Descriptions
 19.13 Field Procedures for Conventional Horizontal Control Surveys
 19.14 Field Procedures for VerticalControl Surveys
 19.15 Reduction of Field Observations to their Geodetic Values
 19.16 Geodetic Position Computations
 19.17 The Local Geodetic Coordinate System
 19.18 ThreeDimensional Coordinate Computations
 19.19 Software
 State Plane Coordinates and Other Map Projections
 20.1 Introduction
 20.2 Projections Used in State Plane Coordinate Systems
 20.3 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
 20.4 Transverse Mercator Projection
 20.5 State Plane Coordinates in NAD 27 and NAD 83
 20.6 Computing SPCS 83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal Conic System
 20.7 Computing SPCS 83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System
 20.8 Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids
 20.9 Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations
 20.10 Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another
 20.11 The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection
 20.12 Other Map Projections
 20.13 Ground Versus Grid Problem
 20.14 Proposed Changes to SPCS in 2022
 20.15 Map Projection Software
 Boundary Surveys
 21.1 Introduction
 21.2 Categories of Land Surveys
 21.3 Historical Perspectives
 21.4 Property Description by Metes and Bounds
 21.5 Property Description by BlockandLot System
 21.6 Property Description by Coordinates
 21.7 Retracement Surveys
 21.8 Subdivision Surveys
 21.9 Partitioning Land
 21.10 Registration of Title
 21.11 Adverse Possession and Easements
 21.12 Condominium Surveys
 21.13 Geographic and Land Information Systems
 21.14 Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys
 21.15 Mistakes
 Surveys of the Public Lands
 22.1 Introduction
 22.2 Instructions for Surveys of the Public Lands
 22.3 Initial Point
 22.4 Principal Meridian
 22.5 Baseline
 22.6 Standard Parallels (Correction Lines)
 22.7 Guide Meridians
 22.8 Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines
 22.9 Designation of Townships
 22.10 Subdivision of a Quadrangle into Townships
 22.11 Subdivision of a Township into Sections
 22.12 Subdivision of Sections
 22.13 Fractional Sections
 22.14 Notes
 22.15 Outline of Subdivision Steps
 22.16 Marking Corners
 22.17 Witness Corners
 22.18 Meander Corners
 22.19 Lost and Obliterated Corners
 22.20 Accuracy of Public Land Surveys
 22.21 Descriptions by Township Section, and Smaller Subdivision
 22.22 BLM Land Information System
 22.23 Sources of Error
 22.24 Mistakes
 Construction Surveys
 23.1 Introduction
 23.2 Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys
 23.3 Horizontal and Vertical Control
 23.4 Staking Out a Pipeline
 23.5 Staking Pipeline Grades
 23.6 Computing the Bend Angles in Pipelines
 23.7 Staking Out a Building
 23.8 Staking Out Highways
 23.9 Other Construction Surveys
 23.10 Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments
 23.11 Construction Surveys Using GNSS Equipment
 23.12 Machine Guidance and Control
 23.13 Asbuilt Surveys with Laser Scanning
 23.14 Sources of Error in Construction Surveys
 23.15 Mistakes
 Horizontal Curves
 24.1 Introduction
 24.2 Degree of Circular Curve
 24.3 Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas
 24.4 Circular Curve Stationing
 24.5 General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles
 24.6 Computing Deflection Angles and Chords
 24.7 Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
 24.8 Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
 24.9 Setups on Curve
 24.10 Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
 24.11 Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords
 24.12 Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve
 24.13 Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates
 24.14 Curve Stakeout Using GNSS Receivers and Robotic Total Stations
 24.15 Circular Curve Layout by Offsets
 24.16 Special Circular Curve Problems
 24.17 Compound and Reverse Curves
 24.18 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves
 24.19 Spirals
 24.20 Computation of “AsBuilt” Circular Alignments
 24.21 Sources of Error in Laying Out Circular Curves
 24.22 Mistakes
 Vertical Curves
 25.1 Introduction
 25.2 General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve
 25.3 Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve
 25.4 High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
 25.5 Vertical Curve Computations Using the TangentOffset Equation
 25.6 Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola
 25.7 Curve Computations by Proportion
 25.8 Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve
 25.9 Machine Control in Grading Operations
 25.10 Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve
 25.11 Designing a Curve to Pass Through a Fixed Point
 25.12 Sight Distance
 25.13 Sources of Error in Laying out Vertical Curves
 25.14 Mistakes
 Volumes
 26.1 Introduction
 26.2 Methods of Volume Measurement
 26.3 The CrossSection Method
 26.4 Types of Cross Sections
 26.5 AverageEndArea Formula
 26.6 Determining End Areas
 26.7 Computing Slope Intercepts
 26.8 Prismoidal Formula
 26.9 Volume Computations
 26.10 UnitArea, or BorrowPit, Method
 26.11 ContourArea Method
 26.12 Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge
 26.13 Software
 26.14 Sources of Error in Determining Volumes
 26.15 Mistakes
 Photogrammetry
 27.1 Introduction
 27.2 Uses of Photogrammetry
 27.3 Aerial Cameras
 27.4 Types of Aerial Photographs
 27.5 Vertical Aerial Photographs
 27.6 Scale of a Vertical Photograph
 27.7 Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph
 27.8 Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph
 27.9 Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph
 27.10 Stereoscopic Parallax
 27.11 Stereoscopic Viewing
 27.12 Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax
 27.13 Analytical Photogrammetry
 27.14 Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments
 27.15 Orthophotos
 27.16 Ground Control for Photogrammetry
 27.17 Flight Planning
 27.18 Airborne LaserMapping Systems
 27.19 Remote Sensing
 27.20 Software
 27.21 Sources of Error in Photogrammetry
 27.22 Mistakes
 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
 28.1 Introduction
 28.2 Land Information Systems
 28.3 GIS Data Sources and Classifications
 28.4 Spatial Data
 28.5 Nonspatial Data
 28.6 Data Format Conversions
 28.7 Creating GIS Databases
 28.8 Metadata
 28.9 GIS Analytical Functions
 28.10 GIS Applications
 28.11 Data Sources
Appendix A: Tape Correction Problems
Appendix B: Example Noteforms
Appendix C: Astronomic Observations
Appendix D: Using the Worksheets from the Companion Website
Appendix E: Introduction to Matrices
Appendix F: U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters
Appendix G: Answers to Selected Problems
Appendix H: Commonly Used Conversions and Abbreviations
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