Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics, 16th edition

  • Charles D. Ghilani

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Elementary Surveying presents basic concepts and practical material in each of the areas fundamental to modern surveying (geomatics) practice. While introductory, its depth and breadth also make it ideal for self-study and preparation for licensing examinations.

Published by Pearson (May 5th 2021) - Copyright © 2022

ISBN-13: 9780137453740

Subject: Civil & Mechanical Engineering

Category: Surveying

Table of contents

  1. Introduction

1.1 Definition of Surveying
1.2 Geomatics
1.3 History of Surveying
1.4 Geodetic and Plane Surveys
1.5 Importance of Surveying
1.6 Specialized Types of Surveys
1.7 Surveying Safety
1.8 Land and Geographic Information Systems
1.9 Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies
1.10 The Surveying Profession
1.11 Professional Surveying Organizations
1.12 Surveying on the Internet
1.13 Future Challenges in Surveying

  1. Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes

Part I: Units and Significant Figures
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Units of Measurement
2.3 International System of Units (SI)
2.4 Significant Figures
2.5 Rounding Off Numbers

Part II: Field Notes
2.6 Field Notes
2.7 General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes
2.8 Types of Field Books
2.9 Kinds of Notes
2.10 Arrangements of Notes
2.11 Suggestions for Recording Notes
2.12 Introduction to Survey Controllers
2.13 Transfer of Files from Survey Controllers
2.14 Digital Data File Management
2.15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Controllers

  1. Theory of Errors in Observations

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Direct and Indirect Observations
3.3 Errors in Measurements
3.4 Mistakes
3.5 Sources of Errors in Making Observations
3.6 Types of Errors
3.7 Precision and Accuracy
3.8 Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors
3.9 Probability
3.10 Most Probable Value
3.11 Residuals
3.12 Occurrence of Random Errors
3.13 General Laws of Probability
3.14 Measures of Precision
3.15 Interpretation of Standard Deviation
3.16 The 50%, 90%, and 95% Errors
3.17 Error Propagation
3.18 Applications
3.19 Conditional Adjustment of Observations
3.20 Weights of Observations
3.21 Least-Squares Adjustment

  1. Leveling — Theory, Methods, and Equipment

Part I: Leveling — Theory and Methods
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Definitions
4.3 North American Vertical Datum
4.4 Curvature and Refraction
4.5 Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation

Part II: Equipment for Differential Leveling
4.6 Categories of Levels
4.7 Telescopes
4.8 Level Vials
4.9 Tilting Levels
4.10 Automatic Levels
4.11 Digital Levels
4.12 Tripods
4.13 Hand Levels
4.14 Level Rods
4.15 Turning Points
4.16 Testing and Adjusting Levels

  1. Leveling — Field Procedures and Computations

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Carrying and Setting Up a Level
5.3 Duties of a Rod Person
5.4 Differential Leveling
5.5 Precision
5.6 Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits
5.7 Reciprocal Leveling
5.8 Three-Wire Leveling
5.9 Profile Leveling
5.10 Grid, Cross-Section, or Borrow-Pit Leveling
5.11 Use of the Hand Level
5.12 Sources of Error in Leveling
5.13 Mistakes
5.14 Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes
5.15 Using Software

  1. Distance Measurement

Part I: Methods for Measuring Distances
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Summary of Methods for Making Linear Measurements
6.3 Pacing
6.4 Odometer Readings
6.5 Optical Rangefinders
6.6 Tacheometry
6.7 Subtense Bar

Part II: Distance Measurements by Taping
6.8 Introduction to Taping
6.9 Taping Equipment and Accessories
6.10 Care of Taping Equipment
6.11 Taping on Level Ground
6.12 Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground
6.13 Slope Measurements
6.14 Sources of Error in Taping

Part III: Electronic Distance Measurement
6.15 Introduction
6.16 Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy
6.17 Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement
6.18 Electro-Optical Instruments
6.19 Total Station Instruments
6.20 EDM Instruments Without Reflectors
6.21 Computing Horizontal Lengths from Slope Distances
6.22 Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement
6.23 Using Software

  1. Angles, Azimuths, and Bearings

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Units of Angle Measurement
7.3 Kinds of Horizontal Angles
7.4 Direction of a Line
7.5 Azimuths
7.6 Bearings
7.7 Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings
7.8 Computing Azimuths
7.9 Computing Bearings
7.10 The Compass and the Earth's Magnetic Field
7.11 Magnetic Declination
7.12 Variations in Magnetic Declination
7.13 Software for Determining Magnetic Declination
7.14 Local Attraction
7.15 Typical Magnetic Declination Problems
7.16 Mistakes

  1. Total Station Instruments; Angle Observations

PART I: Total Station Instruments
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Characteristics of Total Station Instruments
8.3 Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments
8.4 Parts of a Total Station Instrument
8.5 Handling and Setting up a Total Station Instrument
8.6 Servo-Driven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments

PART II: Angle Observations
8.7 Relationship of Angles and Distances
8.8 Observing Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments
8.9 Observing Multiple Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method
8.10 Closing the Horizon
8.11 Observing Deflection Angles
8.12 Observing Azimuths
8.13 Observing Vertical Angles
8.14 Sights and Marks
8.15 Prolonging a Straight Line
8.16 Balancing-in
8.17 Random Traverse
8.18 Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences
8.19 Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and their Accessories
8.20 Sources of Error in Total Station Work
8.21 Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Observations
8.22 Mistakes

  1. Traversing

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Observation of Traverse Angles or Directions
9.3 Observation of Traverse Lengths
9.4 Selection of Traverse Stations
9.5 Referencing Traverse Stations
9.6 Traverse Field Notes
9.7 Angle Misclosure
9.8 Traversing with Total Station Instruments
9.9 Radial Traversing
9.10 Sources of Error in Traversing
9.11 Mistakes in Traversing

  1. Traverse Computations

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Balancing Angles
10.3 Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings
10.4 Departures and Latitudes
10.5 Departure and Latitude Closure Conditions
10.6 Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision
10.7 Traverse Adjustment
10.8 Rectangular Coordinates
10.9 Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations
10.10 Inversing
10.11 Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions
10.12 Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys
10.13 Use of Open Traverses
10.14 State Plane Coordinate Systems
10.15 Traverse Computations using Computers
10.16 Locating Blunders in Traverse Observations
10.17 Mistakes in Traverse Computations

  1. Coordinate Geometry in Surveying Calculations

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles
11.3 Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line
11.4 Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions
11.5 Intersection of a Line with a Circle
11.6 Intersection of Two Circles
11.7 Three-Point Resection
11.8 Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
11.9 Inaccessible Point Problem
11.10 Three-Dimensional Two-Point Resection
11.11 Software

  1. Area

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Methods of Measuring Area
12.3 Area by Division into Simple Figures
12.4 Area by Offsets from Straight Lines
12.5 Area by Coordinates
12.6 Area by Double-Meridian Distance Method
12.7 Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries
12.8 Partitioning of Lands
12.9 Area by Measurements from Maps
12.10 Software
12.11 Sources of Error in Determining Areas
12.12 Mistakes in Determining Areas

  1. GlobalNavigation Satellite Systems — Introduction and Principles of Operation

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Overview of GPS
13.3 The GPS Signal
13.4 Reference Coordinate Systems
13.5 Fundamentals of Satellite Positioning
13.6 Errors in Observations
13.7 Differential Positioning
13.8 Kinematic Methods
13.9 Relative Positioning
13.10 Other Satellite Navigation Systems
13.11 The Future

  1. Global NavigationSatelliteSystems — Static Surveys

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Field Procedures in Static GNSS Surveys
14.3 Planning Satellite Surveys
14.4 Performing Static Surveys
14.5 Data Processing and Analysis
14.6 Things to Consider
14.7 A Method for Obtaining Orthometric Height Differences Using GNSS
14.8 Sources of Errors in Satellite Surveys
14.9 Mistakes in Satellite Surveys

  1. Global Navigation Satellite Systems — Kinematic Surveys

15.1 Introduction
15.2 Planning of Kinematic Surveys
15.3 Initialization Techniques
15.4 Equipment Used in Kinematic Surveys
15.5 Methods Used in Kinematic Surveys
15.6 Performing Post-Processed Kinematic Surveys
15.7 Communication in Real-Time Kinematic Surveys
15.8 Real-Time Networks
15.9 Performing Real-Time Kinematic Surveys
15.10 Machine Guidance and Control
15.11 Errors in Kinematic Surveys
15.12 Mistakes in Kinematic Surveys

  1. Adjustments by Least Squares

16.1 Introduction
16.2 Fundamental Condition of Least Squares
16.3 Least-Squares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method
16.4 Matrix Methods in Least-Squares Adjustment
16.5 Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities
16.6 Least-Squares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits
16.7 Propagation of Errors
16.8 Least-Squares Adjustment of GNSS Baseline Vectors
16.9 Least-Squares Adjustment of Conventional Horizontal Plane Surveys
16.10 The Error Ellipse
16.11 Adjustment Procedures
16.12 Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations
16.13 Software
16.14 Conclusions

  1. Mapping Surveys

17.1 Introduction
17.2 Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys
17.3 Map Scale
17.4 Control for Mapping Surveys
17.5 Contours
17.6 Characteristics of Contours
17.7 Method of Locating Contours
17.8 Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems
17.9 Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details
17.10 Planning a Laser-Scanning Survey
17.11 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
17.12 Selection of Field Method
17.13 Working with Survey Controllers and Field-to-Finish Software
17.14 Hydrographic Surveys
17.15 Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys
17.16 Mistakes in Mapping Surveys

  1. Mapping

18.1 Introduction
18.2 Availability of Maps and Related Information
18.3 National Mapping Program
18.4 Accuracy Standards for Mapping
18.5 Manual and Computer-Aided Drafting Procedures
18.6 Map Design
18.7 Map Layout
18.8 Basic Map Plotting Procedures
18.9 Contour Interval
18.10 Plotting Contours
18.11 Lettering
18.12 Cartographic Map Elements
18.13 Drafting Materials
18.14 Automated Mapping and Computer-Aided Drafting Systems
18.15 Migrating Maps between Software Packages
18.16 Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping
18.17 The Importance of Metadata
18.18 Sources of Error in Mapping
18.19 Mistakes in Mapping

  1. Control Surveys and GeodetIc Reductions

19.1 Introduction
19.2 The Ellipsoid and Geoid
19.3 The Conventional Terrestrial Pole
19.4 Geodetic Position and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature
19.5 Geoid Undulation and Deflection of the Vertical
19.6 U.S. Reference Frames
19.7 Transforming Coordinates Between Reference Frames
19.8 Accuracy Standards and Specifications for Control Surveys
19.9 The National Spatial Reference System
19.10 Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network
19.11 Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network
19.12 Control Point Descriptions
19.13 Field Procedures for Conventional Horizontal Control Surveys
19.14 Field Procedures for Vertical-Control Surveys
19.15 Reduction of Field Observations to their Geodetic Values
19.16 Geodetic Position Computations
19.17 The Local Geodetic Coordinate System
19.18 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Computations
19.19 Software

  1. State Plane Coordinates and Other Map Projections

20.1 Introduction
20.2 Projections Used in State Plane Coordinate Systems
20.3 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
20.4 Transverse Mercator Projection
20.5 State Plane Coordinates in NAD 27 and NAD 83
20.6 Computing SPCS 83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal Conic System
20.7 Computing SPCS 83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System
20.8 Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids
20.9 Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations
20.10 Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another
20.11 The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection
20.12 Other Map Projections
20.13 Ground Versus Grid Problem
20.14 Proposed Changes to SPCS in 2022
20.15 Map Projection Software

  1. Boundary Surveys

21.1 Introduction
21.2 Categories of Land Surveys
21.3 Historical Perspectives
21.4 Property Description by Metes and Bounds
21.5 Property Description by Block-and-Lot System
21.6 Property Description by Coordinates
21.7 Retracement Surveys
21.8 Subdivision Surveys
21.9 Partitioning Land
21.10 Registration of Title
21.11 Adverse Possession and Easements
21.12 Condominium Surveys
21.13 Geographic and Land Information Systems
21.14 Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys
21.15 Mistakes

  1. Surveys of the Public Lands

22.1 Introduction
22.2 Instructions for Surveys of the Public Lands
22.3 Initial Point
22.4 Principal Meridian
22.5 Baseline
22.6 Standard Parallels (Correction Lines)
22.7 Guide Meridians
22.8 Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines
22.9 Designation of Townships
22.10 Subdivision of a Quadrangle into Townships
22.11 Subdivision of a Township into Sections
22.12 Subdivision of Sections
22.13 Fractional Sections
22.14 Notes
22.15 Outline of Subdivision Steps
22.16 Marking Corners
22.17 Witness Corners
22.18 Meander Corners
22.19 Lost and Obliterated Corners
22.20 Accuracy of Public Land Surveys
22.21 Descriptions by Township Section, and Smaller Subdivision
22.22 BLM Land Information System
22.23 Sources of Error
22.24 Mistakes

  1. Construction Surveys

23.1 Introduction
23.2 Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys
23.3 Horizontal and Vertical Control
23.4 Staking Out a Pipeline
23.5 Staking Pipeline Grades
23.6 Computing the Bend Angles in Pipelines
23.7 Staking Out a Building
23.8 Staking Out Highways
23.9 Other Construction Surveys
23.10 Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments
23.11 Construction Surveys Using GNSS Equipment
23.12 Machine Guidance and Control
23.13 As-built Surveys with Laser Scanning
23.14 Sources of Error in Construction Surveys
23.15 Mistakes

  1. Horizontal Curves

24.1 Introduction
24.2 Degree of Circular Curve
24.3 Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas
24.4 Circular Curve Stationing
24.5 General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles
24.6 Computing Deflection Angles and Chords
24.7 Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
24.8 Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
24.9 Setups on Curve
24.10 Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
24.11 Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords
24.12 Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve
24.13 Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates
24.14 Curve Stakeout Using GNSS Receivers and Robotic Total Stations
24.15 Circular Curve Layout by Offsets
24.16 Special Circular Curve Problems
24.17 Compound and Reverse Curves
24.18 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves
24.19 Spirals
24.20 Computation of “As-Built” Circular Alignments
24.21 Sources of Error in Laying Out Circular Curves
24.22 Mistakes

  1. Vertical Curves

25.1 Introduction
25.2 General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve
25.3 Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve
25.4 High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
25.5 Vertical Curve Computations Using the Tangent-Offset Equation
25.6 Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola
25.7 Curve Computations by Proportion
25.8 Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve
25.9 Machine Control in Grading Operations
25.10 Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve
25.11 Designing a Curve to Pass Through a Fixed Point
25.12 Sight Distance
25.13 Sources of Error in Laying out Vertical Curves
25.14 Mistakes

  1. Volumes

26.1 Introduction
26.2 Methods of Volume Measurement
26.3 The Cross-Section Method
26.4 Types of Cross Sections
26.5 Average-End-Area Formula
26.6 Determining End Areas
26.7 Computing Slope Intercepts
26.8 Prismoidal Formula
26.9 Volume Computations
26.10 Unit-Area, or Borrow-Pit, Method
26.11 Contour-Area Method
26.12 Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge
26.13 Software
26.14 Sources of Error in Determining Volumes
26.15 Mistakes

  1. Photogrammetry

27.1 Introduction
27.2 Uses of Photogrammetry
27.3 Aerial Cameras
27.4 Types of Aerial Photographs
27.5 Vertical Aerial Photographs
27.6 Scale of a Vertical Photograph
27.7 Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph
27.8 Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph
27.9 Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph
27.10 Stereoscopic Parallax
27.11 Stereoscopic Viewing
27.12 Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax
27.13 Analytical Photogrammetry
27.14 Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments
27.15 Orthophotos
27.16 Ground Control for Photogrammetry
27.17 Flight Planning
27.18 Airborne Laser-Mapping Systems
27.19 Remote Sensing
27.20 Software
27.21 Sources of Error in Photogrammetry
27.22 Mistakes

  1. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems

28.1 Introduction
28.2 Land Information Systems
28.3 GIS Data Sources and Classifications
28.4 Spatial Data
28.5 Nonspatial Data
28.6 Data Format Conversions
28.7 Creating GIS Databases
28.8 Metadata
28.9 GIS Analytical Functions
28.10 GIS Applications
28.11 Data Sources

Appendix A: Tape Correction Problems
Appendix B: Example Noteforms
Appendix C: Astronomic Observations
Appendix D: Using the Worksheets from the Companion Website
Appendix E: Introduction to Matrices
Appendix F: U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters
Appendix G: Answers to Selected Problems
Appendix H: Commonly Used Conversions and Abbreviations

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