CCNA 200-301 Portable Command Guide, 5th edition

  • Scott D. Empson

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Introduction xix

Part I: Network Fundamentals

CHAPTER 1 IPv4 Addressing–How It Works 1

What Are IPv4 Addresses Used For? 1

What Does an IPv4 Address Look Like? 2

Network and Subnetwork Masks 2

Ways to Write a Network or Subnet Mask 3

Network, Node, and Broadcast Addresses 3

Classes of IPv4 Addresses 4

    Network vs. Node (Host) Bits 5

    RFC (Private) 1918 Addresses 6

    Local vs. Remote Addresses 7

Classless Addressing 7

Lessons Learned 9

CHAPTER 2 How to Subnet IPv4 Addresses 11

Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary 12

Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary 15

Binary ANDing 17

    So Why AND? 19

    Shortcuts in Binary ANDing 20

CHAPTER 3 Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) 23

IP Subnet Zero 23

VLSM Example 24

    Step 1: Determine How Many H Bits Will Be Needed to Satisfy the Largest Network 25

    Step 2: Pick a Subnet for the Largest Network to Use 25

    Step 3: Pick the Next Largest Network to Work With 26

    Step 4: Pick the Third Largest Network to Work With 28

    Step 5: Determine Network Numbers for Serial Links 30

CHAPTER 4 Route Summarization 33

Example for Understanding Route Summarization 33

    Step 1: Summarize Winnipeg’s Routes 34

    Step 2: Summarize Calgary’s Routes 35

    Step 3: Summarize Edmonton’s Routes 35

    Step 4: Summarize Vancouver’s Routes 36

Route Summarization and Route Flapping 38

Requirements for Route Summarization 38

CHAPTER 5 IPv6 Addressing–How It Works 39

IPv6: A Very Brief Introduction 39

What Does an IPv6 Address Look Like? 40

Reducing the Notation of an IPv6 Address 41

    Rule 1: Omit Leading 0s 41

    Rule 2: Omit All-0s Hextet 42

    Combining Rule 1 and Rule 2 42

Prefix Length Notation 43

IPv6 Address Types 44

    Unicast Addresses 45

    Multicast Addresses 48

    Anycast Addresses 50

CHAPTER 6 Cables and Connections 51

Connecting a Rollover Cable to Your Router or Switch 51

Using a USB Cable to Connect to Your Router or Switch 51

Terminal Settings 52

LAN Connections 53

Serial Cable Types 53

Which Cable to Use? 55

ANSI/TIA Cabling Standards 56

    T568A Versus T568B Cables 57

CHAPTER 7 The Command-Line Interface 59

Shortcuts for Entering Commands 59

Using the Tab Key to Complete Commands 60

Console Error Messages 60

Using the Question Mark for Help 60

enable Command 61

exit Command 61

end Command 61

disable Command 61

logout Command 62

Setup Mode 62

Keyboard Help 62

History Commands 63

terminal Commands 64

show Commands 64

Using the Pipe Parameter ( | ) with the show or more Commands 64

Using the no and default Forms of Commands 66

Part II: LAN Switching Technologies

CHAPTER 8 Configuring a Switch 67

Help Commands 68

Command Modes 68

Verifying Commands 68

Resetting Switch Configuration 69

Setting Host Names 69

Setting Passwords 69

Setting IP Addresses and Default Gateways 70

Setting Interface Descriptions 70

The mdix auto Command 70

Setting Duplex Operation 71

Setting Operation Speed 71

Managing the MAC Address Table 72

Configuration Example 72


Creating Static VLANs 75

    Creating Static VLANs Using VLAN Configuration Mode 75

Assigning Ports to VLANs 76

Using the range Command 76

Configuring a Voice VLAN 76

    Configuring Voice and Data with Trust 77

    Configuring Voice and Data Without Trust 78

Verifying VLAN Information 78

Saving VLAN Configurations 79

Erasing VLAN Configurations 79

Configuration Example: VLANs 80

    2960 Switch 80

CHAPTER 10 VLAN Trunking Protocol and Inter-VLAN Communication 83

Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) 83

Setting the VLAN Encapsulation Type 84

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 84

Verifying VTP 86

Inter-VLAN Communication Using an External Router: Router-on-a-Stick 87

Inter-VLAN Communication on a Multilayer Switch Through a Switch Virtual Interface 88

    Removing L2 Switchport Capability of an Interface on an L3 Switch 88

    Configuring Inter-VLAN Communication on an L3 Switch 88

Inter-VLAN Communication Tips 88

Configuration Example: Inter-VLAN Communication 89

    ISP Router 89

    CORP Router 90

    L2Switch2 (Catalyst 2960) 92

    L3Switch1 (Catalyst 3560/3650/3750) 94

    L2Switch1 (Catalyst 2960) 95

CHAPTER 11 Spanning Tree Protocol 97

Spanning Tree Protocol Definition 97

Enabling Spanning Tree Protocol 98

Changing the Spanning-Tree Mode 99

    BPDU Guard (3650/9xxx Series) 99

Configuring the Root Switch 100

Configuring a Secondary Root Switch 100

Configuring Port Priority 100

Configuring the Path Cost 101

Configuring the Switch Priority of a VLAN 101

Configuring STP Timers 102

Configuring Optional Spanning-Tree Features 102

    PortFast 102

    BPDU Guard (2xxx/Older 3xxx Series) 103

Enabling the Extended System ID 103

Verifying STP 104

Troubleshooting Spanning Tree Protocol 104

Configuration Example: PVST+ 104

    Core Switch (3650) 105

    Distribution 1 Switch (3650) 106

    Distribution 2 Switch (3650) 106

    Access 1 Switch (2960) 107

    Access 2 Switch (2960) 107

Spanning-Tree Migration Example: PVST+ to Rapid-PVST+ 108

    Access 1 Switch (2960) 108

    Access 2 Switch (2960) 108

    Distribution 1 Switch (3650) 109

    Distribution 2 Switch (3650) 109

    Core Switch (3650) 109

CHAPTER 12 EtherChannel 111

EtherChannel 111

    Interface Modes in EtherChannel 111

    Default EtherChannel Configuration 112

    Guidelines for Configuring EtherChannel 112

    Configuring Layer 2 EtherChannel 113

    Configuring Layer 3 EtherChannel 114

    Configuring EtherChannel Load Balancing 114

    Configuring LACP Hot-Standby Ports 115

    Monitoring and Verifying EtherChannel 116

Configuration Example: EtherChannel 117

    DLSwitch (3560 or 9300) 117

    ALSwitch1 (2960 or 9200) 118

    ALSwitch2 (2960 or 9200) 119

CHAPTER 13 Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) and Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) 121

Cisco Discovery Protocol 121

Configuring CDP 121

Verifying and Troubleshooting CDP 122

CDP Design Tips 122

Link Layer Discovery Protocol (802.1AB) 123

Configuring LLDP (802.1AB) 123

Verifying and Troubleshooting LLDP 124

Part III: Routing Technologies

CHAPTER 14 Configuring a Cisco Router 125

Router Modes 126

Entering Global Configuration Mode 126

Configuring a Router Name 126

Configuring Passwords 126

Password Encryption 127

Interface Names 127

Moving Between Interfaces 131

Configuring a Serial Interface 132

Assigning an IPv4 Address to a Fast Ethernet Interface 132

Assigning an IPv4 Address to a Gigabit Ethernet Interface 132

Assigning IPv6 Addresses to Interfaces 133

Creating a Message-of-the-Day Banner 133

Creating a Login Banner 134

Mapping a Local Host Name to a Remote IP Address 134

The no ip domain-lookup Command 134

    Working with DNS on a Router 134

The logging synchronous Command 135

The exec-timeout Command 136

Saving Configurations 136

Erasing Configurations 136

The write Command 137

Verifying Your Configurations Using show Commands 137

EXEC Commands in Configuration Mode: The do Command 138

Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration 138

    Boston Router 138

CHAPTER 15 Static Routing 141

Configuring an IPv4 Static Route 141

Static Routes and Recursive Lookups 142

The permanent Keyword 142

Floating Static Routes in IPv4 and Administrative Distance 143

Configuring an IPv4 Default Route 144

Verifying IPv4 Static Routes 144

Configuration Example: IPv4 Static Routes 144

    Ketchikan Router 145

    Juneau Router 145

    Sitka Router 146

Configuring an IPv6 Static Route 146

Floating Static Routes in IPv6 147

Configuring an IPv6 Default Route 147

Verifying IPv6 Static Routes 147

CHAPTER 16 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 149

OSPFv2 Versus OSPFv3 149

Configuring OSPF 150

Using Wildcard Masks with OSPF Areas 150

Loopback Interfaces 152

Router ID 152

DR/BDR Elections 153

Timers 153

Verifying OSPFv2 Configurations 153

Troubleshooting OSPFv2 154

Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF 154

    Austin Router 155

    Houston Router 156

    Galveston Router 157

Part IV: IP Services


Configuring a DHCP Server on an IOS Router 159

Using Cisco IP Phones with a DHCP Server 160

Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP Configuration 160

Configuring a DHCP Helper Address 161

Configuring a DHCP Client on a Cisco IOS Software Ethernet Interface 162

Configuration Example: DHCP 162

    Edmonton Router 162

    Gibbons Router 164

CHAPTER 18 Network Address Translation (NAT) 165

Private IP Addresses: RFC 1918 165

Configuring Dynamic NAT: One Private to One Public Address Translation 165

Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address Translation 167

Configuring Static NAT: One Private to One Permanent Public Address Translation 169

Verifying NAT and PAT Configurations 170

Troubleshooting NAT and PAT Configurations 171

Configuration Example: PAT 171

    ISP Router 171

    Company Router 172

CHAPTER 19 Configuring Network Time Protocol (NTP) 175

NTP Configuration 175

NTP Design 176

Securing NTP 177

    Enabling NTP Authentication 177

    Limiting NTP Access with Access Lists 178

Verifying and Troubleshooting NTP 178

Setting the Clock on a Router 179

Using Time Stamps 182

Configuration Example: NTP 182

    Core1 Router 183

    Core2 Router 184

    DLSwitch1 185

    DLSwitch2 185

    ALSwitch1 186

    ALSwitch2 186

Part V: Security Fundamentals

CHAPTER 20 Layer Two Security Features 187

Setting Passwords on a Switch 187

Configuring Static MAC Addresses 188

Configuring Switch Port Security 188

Configuring Sticky MAC Addresses 189

Verifying Switch Port Security 189

Recovering Automatically from Error-Disabled Ports 190

Verifying Autorecovery of Error-Disabled Ports 190

Configuring DHCP Snooping 191

    Verifying DHCP Snooping 192

Configuring Dynamic ARP Inspection (DAI) 193

    Verifying Dynamic ARP Inspection 193

Configuration Example: Switch Security 194

CHAPTER 21 Managing Traffic Using Access Control Lists (ACLs) 197

Access List Numbers 197

Using Wildcard Masks 198

ACL Keywords 198

Creating Standard ACLs 198

Applying Standard ACLs to an Interface 199

Verifying ACLs 200

Removing ACLs 200

Creating Extended ACLs 200

Applying Extended ACLs to an Interface 201

The established Keyword 201

The log Keyword 202

Creating Named ACLs 203

Using Sequence Numbers in Named ACLs 203

Removing Specific Lines in Named ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 204

Sequence Number Tips 204

Including Comments About Entries in ACLs 205

Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 206

Tips for Configuring ACLs 206

IPv6 ACLs 207

Verifying IPv6 ACLs 207

Configuration Examples: IPv4 ACLs 208

Configuration Examples: IPv6 ACLs 210

CHAPTER 22 Device Monitoring and Hardening 213

Device Monitoring 213

Configuration Backups 213

Implementing Logging 214

    Configuring Syslog 215

    Syslog Message Format 215

    Syslog Severity Levels 216

    Syslog Message Example 216

Device Hardening 217

    Configuring Passwords 217

    Password Encryption 218

    Password Encryption Algorithm Types 218

    Configuring SSH 219

    Verifying SSH 220

    Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 220

    Disabling Unneeded Services 221

Part VI: Wireless Technologies

CHAPTER 23 Configuring and Securing a WLAN AP 223

Initial Setup of a Wireless LAN Controller (WLC) 223

Monitoring the WLC 229

Configuring a VLAN (Dynamic) Interface 230

Configuring a DHCP Scope 234

Configuring a WLAN 237

Defining a RADIUS Server 239

Exploring Management Options 242

Configuring a WLAN Using WPA2 PSK 246

Part VII: Appendices

APPENDIX A How to Count in Decimal, Binary, and Hexadecimal 251

How to Count in Decimal 251

How to Count in Binary 253

How to Count in Hexadecimal 254

Representing Decimal, Binary, and Hexadecimal Numbers 256

APPENDIX B How to Convert Between Number Systems 259

How to Convert from Decimal to Binary 259

How to Convert from Binary to Decimal 260

How to Convert from Decimal IP Addresses to Binary and from Binary IP Addresses to Decimal 261

    A Bit of Perspective 262

How to Convert from Hexadecimal to Binary 262

How to Convert from Binary to Hexadecimal 263

How to Convert from Decimal to Hexadecimal 264

How to Convert from Hexadecimal to Decimal 265

APPENDIX C Binary/Hex/Decimal Conversion Chart 267

APPENDIX D Create Your Own Journal Here 275



9780135937822    TOC   10/31/2019

Published by Cisco Press (February 1st 2021) - Copyright © 2020

ISBN-13: 9780137459988

Subject: IT Certification

Category: CCNA

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