Physics for Scientists & Engineers, 5th edition

  • Douglas C. Giancoli

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Overview

Physics for Scientists and Engineers gives you a thorough understanding of the basic concepts of physics in all its aspects, from mechanics to modern physics.

Published by Pearson (June 11th 2021) - Copyright © 2022

ISBN-13: 9780137488179

Subject: Physics

Category: Calculus-Based Physics

Table of contents

Table of Contents

Complete version: 44 Chapters including 9 Chapters of modern physics.

Classic version: 37 Chapters, 35 on classical physics, plus one each on relativity and quantum theory.

3 Volume version: Available separately or packaged together.

  • - Volume 1: Chapters 1-20 on mechanics, including fluids, oscillations, waves, plus heat and thermodynamics.
  • - Volume 2: Chapters 21-35 on electricity and magnetism, plus light and optics.
  • - Volume 3: Chapters 36-44 on modern physics: relativity, quantum theory, atomic physics, condensed matter, nuclear physics, elementary particles, cosmology and astrophysics.

Sections marked with a star * may be considered optional.

  1. Introduction, Measurement, Estimating
    • 1.1 How Science Works
    • 1.2 Models, Theories, and Laws
    • 1.3 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures
    • 1.4 Units, Standards, and the SI System
    • 1.5 Converting Units
    • 1.6 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating
    • *1.7 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis
  2. Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
    • 2.1 Reference Frames and Displacement
    • 2.2 Average Velocity
    • 2.3 Instantaneous Velocity
    • 2.4 Acceleration
    • 2.5 Motion at Constant Acceleration
    • 2.6 Solving Problems
    • 2.7 Freely Falling Objects
    • *2.8 Variable Acceleration; Integral Calculus
  3. Kinematics in Two or Three Dimensions; Vectors
    • 3.1 Vectors and Scalars
    • 3.2 Addition of Vectors--Graphical Methods
    • 3.3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
    • 3.4 Adding Vectors by Components
    • 3.5 Unit Vectors
    • 3.6 Vector Kinematics
    • 3.7 Projectile Motion
    • 3.8 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion
    • 3.9 Relative Velocity
  4. Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion
    • 4.1 Force
    • 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion
    • 4.3 Mass
    • 4.4 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    • 4.5 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    • 4.6 Weight--the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force
    • 4.7 Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: Free-Body Diagrams
    • 4.8 Problem Solving--A General Approach
  5. Using Newton's Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces
    • 5.1 Using Newton's Laws with Friction
    • 5.2 Uniform Circular Motion--Kinematics
    • 5.3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
    • 5.4 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked
    • 5.5 Nonuniform Circular Motion
    • *5.6 Velocity-Dependent Forces: Drag and Terminal Velocity
  6. Gravitation and Newton's Synthesis
    • 6.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
    • 6.2 Vector Form of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
    • 6.3 Gravity Near the Earth's Surface
    • 6.4 Satellites and "Weightlessness"
    • 6.5 Planets, Kepler's Laws, and Newton's Synthesis
    • 6.6 Moon Rises an Hour Later Each Day
    • 6.7 Types of Forces in Nature
    • *6.8 Gravitational Field
    • *6.9 Principle of Equivalence; Curvature of Space; Black Holes
  7. Work and Energy
    • 7.1 Work Done by a Constant Force
    • 7.2 Scalar Product of Two Vectors
    • 7.3 Work Done by a Varying Force
    • 7.4 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle
  8. Conservation of Energy
    • 8.1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
    • 8.2 Potential Energy
    • 8.3 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation
    • 8.4 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy
    • 8.5 The Law of Conservation of Energy
    • 8.6 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems
    • 8.7 Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity
    • 8.8 Power
    • 8.9 Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium
    • *8.10 Gravitational Assist (Slingshot)
  9. Linear Momentum
    • 9.1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force
    • 9.2 Conservation of Momentum
    • 9.3 Collisions and Impulse
    • 9.4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions
    • 9.5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    • 9.6 Inelastic Collisions
    • 9.7 Collisions in 2 or 3 Dimensions
    • 9.8 Center of Mass (cm)
    • 9.9 Center of Mass and Translational Motion
    • *9.10 Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion
  10. Rotational Motion
    • 10.1 Angular Quantities
    • 10.2 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities
    • 10.3 Constant Angular Acceleration
    • 10.4 Torque
    • 10.5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia
    • 10.6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics
    • 10.7 Determining Moments of Inertia
    • 10.8 Rotational Kinetic Energy
    • 10.9 Rotational plus Translational Motion; Rolling
    • *10.10 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down?
  11. Angular Momentum; General Rotation
    • 11.1 Angular Momentum -- Objects Rotating About a Fixed Axis
    • 11.2 Vector Cross Product; Torque as a Vector
    • 11.3 Angular Momentum of a Particle
    • 11.4 Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion
    • 11.5 Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Object
    • 11.6 Conservation of Angular Momentum
    • *11.7 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope
    • 11.8 Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces
    • *11.9 The Coriolis Effect
  12. Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture
    • 12.1 The Conditions for Equilibrium
    • 12.2 Solving Statics Problems
    • *12.3 Applications to Muscles and Joints
    • 12.4 Stability and Balance
    • 12.5 Elasticity; Stress and Strain
    • 12.6 Fracture
    • *12.7 Trusses and Bridges
    • *12.8 Arches and Domes
  13. Fluids
    • 13.1 Phases of Matter
    • 13.2 Density and Specific Gravity
    • 13.3 Pressure in Fluids
    • 13.4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
    • 13.5 Pascal's Principle
    • 13.6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer
    • 13.7 Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle
    • 13.8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity
    • 13.9 Bernoulli's Equation
    • 13.10 Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, Blood Flow
    • 13.11 Viscosity
    • *13.12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation, Blood Flow
    • *13.13 Surface Tension and Capillarity
    • *13.14 Pumps, and the Heart
  14. Oscillations
    • 14.1 Oscillations of a Spring
    • 14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
    • 14.3 Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    • 14.4 Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion
    • 14.5 The Simple Pendulum
    • *14.6 The Physical Pendulum and the Torsion Pendulum
    • 14.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    • 14.8 Forced Oscillations; Resonance
  15. Wave Motion
    • 15.1 Characteristics of Wave Motion
    • 15.2 Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal
    • 15.3 Energy Transported by Waves
    • 15.4 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave
    • *15.5 The Wave Equation
    • 15.6 The Principle of Superposition
    • 15.7 Reflection and Transmission
    • 15.8 Interference
    • 15.9 Standing Waves; Resonance
    • 15.10 Refraction
    • 15.11 Diffraction
  16. Sound
    • 16.1 Characteristics of Sound
    • 16.2 Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves
    • 16.3 Intensity of Sound: Decibels
    • 16.4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns
    • *16.5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition
    • 16.6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats
    • 16.7 Doppler Effect
    • *16.8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom
    • *16.9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging
  17. Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law
    • 17.1 Atomic Theory of Matter
    • 17.2 Temperature and Thermometers
    • 17.3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
    • 17.4 Thermal Expansion
    • *17.5 Thermal Stresses
    • 17.6 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature
    • 17.7 The Ideal Gas Law
    • 17.8 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law
    • 17.9 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number
    • *17.10 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale-- a Standard
  18. Kinetic Theory of Gases
    • 18.1 The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature
    • 18.2 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
    • 18.3 Real Gases and Changes of Phase
    • 18.4 Vapor Pressure and Humidity
    • 18.5 Temperature of Water Decrease with Altitude
    • 18.6 Van der Waals Equation of State
    • 18.7 Mean Free Path
    • 18.8 Diffusion
  19. Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics
    • 19.1 Heat as Energy Transfer
    • 19.2 Internal Energy
    • 19.3 Specific Heat
    • 19.4 Calorimetry-- Solving Problems
    • 19.5 Latent Heat
    • 19.6 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    • 19.7 Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law
    • 19.8 Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy
    • 19.9 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas
    • 19.10 Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation
  20. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • 20.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics--  Introduction
    • 20.2 Heat Engines
    • 20.3 The Carnot Engine; Reversible and Irreversible Processes
    • 20.4 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
    • 20.5 Entropy
    • 20.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • 20.7 Order to Disorder
    • 20.8 Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death
    • 20.9 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law
    • *20.10 Thermodynamic Temperature; Third Law of Thermodynamics
    • 20.11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources
  21. Electric Charge and Electric Field
    • 21.1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation
    • 21.2 Electric Charge in the Atom
    • 21.3 Insulators and Conductors
    • 21.4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope
    • 21.5 Coulomb's Law
    • 21.6 The Electric Field
    • 21.7 Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions
    • 21.8 Field Lines
    • 21.9 Electric Fields and Conductors
    • 21.10 Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field
    • 21.11 Electric Dipoles
    • *21.12 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology: DNA Structure and Replication
  22. Gauss's Law
    • 22.1 Electric Flux
    • 22.2 Gauss's Law
    • 22.3 Applications of Gauss's Law
    • *22.4 Experimental Basis of Gauss's and Coulomb's Laws
  23. Electric Potential
    • 23.1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference
    • 23.2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field
    • 23.3 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges
    • 23.4 Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution
    • 23.5 Equipotential Lines and Surfaces
    • 23.6 Potential Due to Electric Dipole; Dipole Moment
    • 23.7 E→Determined from V
    • 23.8 Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt
    • 23.9 Digital; Binary Numbers; Signal Voltage
    • *23.10 TV and Computer Monitors
    • *23.11 Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
  24. Capacitance, Dielectrics, Electric Energy Storage
    • 24.1 Capacitors
    • 24.2 Determination of Capacitance
    • 24.3 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    • 24.4 Storage of Electric Energy
    • 24.5 Dielectrics
    • *24.6 Molecular Description of Dielectrics
  25. Electric Current and Resistance
    • 25.1 The Electric Battery
    • 25.2 Electric Current
    • 25.3 Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors
    • 25.4 Resistivity
    • 25.5 Electric Power
    • 25.6 Power in Household Circuits
    • 25.7 Alternating Current
    • 25.8 Microscopic View of Electric Current
    • *25.9 Superconductivity
    • *25.10 Electrical Conduction in the Human Nervous System
  26. DC Circuits
    • 26.1 EMF and Terminal Voltage
    • 26.2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel
    • 26.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
    • 26.4 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery
    • 26.5 RC Circuits -- Resistor and Capacitor in Series
    • 26.6 Electric Hazards and Safety
    • 26.7 Ammeters and Voltmeters-- Measurement Affects Quantity Measured
  27. Magnetism
    • 27.1 Magnets and Magnetic Fields
    • 27.2 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields
    • 27.3 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B→
    • 27.4 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field
    • 27.5 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment
    • 27.6 Applications: Motors, Loudspeakers, Galvanometers
    • 27.7 Discovery and Properties of the Electron
    • 27.8 The Hall Effect
    • 27.9 Mass Spectrometer
  28. Sources of Magnetic Field
    • 28.1 Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire
    • 28.2 Force between Two Parallel Wires
    • 28.3 Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb
    • 28.4 Ampère's Law
    • 28.5 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid
    • 28.6 Biot-Savart Law
    • 28.7 Magnetic Field Due to a Single Moving Charge
    • 28.8 Magnetic Materials-- Ferromagnetism
    • 28.9 Electromagnets and Solenoids-- Applications
    • 28.10 Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis
    • *28.11 Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
  29. Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Law
    • 29.1 Induced EMF
    • 29.2 Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law
    • 29.3 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor
    • 29.4 Electric Generators
    • 29.5 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents
    • 29.6 Transformers and Transmission of Power
    • 29.7A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field
    • *29.8 Information Storage: Magnetic and Semiconductor
    • *29.9 Applications of Induction: Microphone, Seismograph, GFCI
  30. Inductance, Electromagnetic Oscillations, and AC Circuits
    • 30.1 Mutual Inductance
    • 30.2 Self-Inductance; Inductors
    • 30.3 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
    • 30.4 LR Circuits
    • 30.5 LC Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations
    • 30.6 LC Oscillations with Resistance (LRC Circuit)
    • 30.7 AC Circuits and Reactance
    • 30.8 LRC Series AC Circuit; Phasor Diagrams
    • 30.9 Resonance in AC Circuits
    • 30.10 Impedance Matching
    • *30.11 Three-Phase AC
  31. Maxwell's Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
    • 31.1 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Displacement Current
    • 31.2 Gauss's Law for Magnetism
    • 31.3 Maxwell's Equations
    • 31.4 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    • 31.5 Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, Derived from Maxwell's Equations
    • 31.6 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    • 31.7 Measuring the Speed of Light
    • 31.8 Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector
    • 31.9 Radiation Pressure
    • 31.10 Radio and Television; Wireless Communication
  32. Light: Reflection and Refraction
    • 32.1 The Ray Model of Light
    • 32.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror
    • 32.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
    • 32.4 Seeing Yourself in a Magnifying Mirror (Concave)
    • 32.5 Convex (Rearview) Mirrors
    • 32.6 Index of Refraction
    • 32.7 Refraction: Snell's Law
    • 32.8 The Visible Spectrum and Dispersion
    • 32.9 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics
    • *32.10 Refraction at a Spherical Surface
  33. Lenses and Optical Instruments
    • 33.1 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing and Focal Length
    • 33.2 The Thin Lens Equation
    • 33.3 Combinations of Lenses
    • 33.4 Lensmaker's Equation
    • 33.5 Cameras: Film and Digital
    • 33.6 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses
    • 33.7 Magnifying Glass
    • 33.8 Telescopes
    • 33.9 Compound Microscope
    • 33.10 Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors
  34. The Wave Nature of Light: Interference and Polarization
    • 34.1 Waves vs. Particles; Huygens' Principle and Diffraction
    • 34.2 Huygens' Principle and the Law of Refraction
    • 34.3 Interference-- Young's Double-Slit Experiment
    • 34.4 Intensity in the Double-Slit Interference Pattern
    • 34.5 Interference in Thin Films
    • 34.6 Michelson Interferometer
    • 34.7 Polarization
    • *34.8 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
    • *34.9 Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere
    • 34.10 Lumens, Luminous Flux, and Luminous Intensity
    • *34.11 Efficiency of Lightbulbs
  35. Diffraction
    • 35.1 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk
    • 35.2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern
    • 35.3 Diffraction in the Double-Slit Experiment
    • 35.4 Interference vs. Diffraction
    • 35.5 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures
    • 35.6 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit
    • 35.7 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification
    • 35.8 Diffraction Grating
    • 35.9 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy
    • *35.10 Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating
    • 35.11 X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction
    • *35.12 X-Ray Imaging and Computed Tomography (CT Scan)
    • *35.13 Specialty Microscopes and Contrast
  36. The Special Theory of Relativity
    • 36.1 Galilean.Newtonian Relativity
    • 36.2 The Michelson.Morley Experiment
    • 36.3 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity
    • 36.4 Simultaneity
    • 36.5 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox
    • 36.6 Length Contraction
    • 36.7 Four-Dimensional Space.Time
    • 36.8 Galilean and Lorentz Transformations
    • 36.9 Relativistic Momentum
    • 36.10 The Ultimate Speed
    • 36.11 E = mc2; Mass and Energy
    • 36.12 Doppler Shift for Light
    • 36.13 The Impact of Special Relativity
  37. Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom
    • 37.1 Blackbody Radiation; Planck's Quantum Hypothesis
    • 37.2 Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect
    • 37.3 Energy, Mass, and Momentum of a Photon
    • 37.4 Compton Effect
    • 37.5 Photon Interactions; Pair Production
    • 37.6 Wave.Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity
    • 37.7 Wave Nature of Matter
    • 37.8 Electron Microscopes
    • 37.9 Early Models of the Atom
    • 37.10 Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom
    • 37.11 The Bohr Model
    • 37.12 de Broglie's Hypothesis Applied to Atoms
  38. Quantum Mechanics
    • 38.1 Quantum Mechanics--A New Theory
    • 38.2 The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment
    • 38.3 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    • 38.4 Philosophic Implications; Probability Versus Determinism
    • 38.5 The Schrödinger Equation in One Dimension-- Time-Independent Form
    • *38.6 Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation
    • 38.7 Free Particles; Plane Waves and Wave Packets
    • 38.8 Particle in an Infinitely Deep Square Well Potential (a Rigid Box)
    • 38.9 Finite Potential Well
    • 38.10 Tunneling through a Barrier
  39. Quantum Mechanics of Atoms
    • 39.1 Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms
    • 39.2 Hydrogen Atom: Schrödinger Equation and Quantum Numbers
    • 39.3 Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions
    • 39.4 Multielectron Atoms; the Exclusion Principle
    • 39.5 Periodic Table of Elements
    • 39.6 X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number
    • *39.7 Magnetic Dipole Moment; Total Angular Momentum
    • 39.8 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
    • 39.9 Lasers
    • *39.10 Holography
  40. Molecules and Solids
    • 40.1 Bonding in Molecules
    • 40.2 Potential-Energy Diagrams for Molecules
    • 40.3 Weak (van der Waals) Bonds
    • 40.4 Molecular Spectra
    • 40.5 Bonding in Solids
    • 40.6 Free-Electron Theory of Metals; Fermi Energy
    • 40.7 Band Theory of Solids
    • 40.8 Semiconductors and Doping
    • 40.9 Semiconductor Diodes, LEDs, OLEDs
    • 40.10 Transistors: Bipolar and MOSFETs
    • 40.11 Integrated Circuits, 14-nm Technology
  41. Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
    • 41.1 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus
    • 41.2 Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces
    • 41.3 Radioactivity
    • 41.4 Alpha Decay
    • 41.5 Beta Decay
    • 41.6 Gamma Decay
    • 41.7 Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws
    • 41.8 Half-Life and Rate of Decay
    • 41.9 Decay Series
    • 41.10 Radioactive Dating
    • 41.11 Detection of Particles
  42. Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation
    • 42.1 Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements
    • 42.2 Cross Section
    • 42.3 Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors
    • 42.4 Nuclear Fusion
    • 42.5 Passage of Radiation Through Matter; Biological Damage
    • 42.6 Measurement of Radiation--Dosimetry
    • *42.7 Radiation Therapy
    • *42.8 Tracers in Research and Medicine
    • *42.9 Emission Tomography: PET and SPECT
    • *42.10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  43. Elementary Particles
    • 43.1 High-Energy Particles and Accelerators
    • 43.2 Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics--Particle Exchange
    • 43.3 Particles and Antiparticles
    • 43.4 Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws
    • 43.5 Neutrinos
    • 43.6 Particle Classification
    • 43.7 Particle Stability and Resonances
    • 43.8 Strangeness? Charm? Towards a New Model
    • 43.9 Quarks
    • 43.10 The Standard Model: QCD and Electroweak Theory
    • 43.11 Grand Unified Theories
    • 43.12 Strings and Supersymmetry
  44. Astrophysics and Cosmology
    • 44.1 Stars and Galaxies
    • 44.2 Stellar Evolution: Birth and Death of Stars, Nucleosynthesis
    • 44.3 Distance Measurements
    • 44.4 General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space
    • 44.5 The Expanding Universe: Redshift and Hubble's Law
    • 44.6 The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background
    • 44.7 The Standard Cosmological Model: Early History of the Universe
    • 44.8I nflation: Explaining Flatness, Uniformity, and Structure
    • 44.9 Dark Matter and Dark Energy
    • 44.10 Large-Scale Structure of the Universe
    • 44.11 Gravitational Waves--LIGO
    • 44.12 Finally . . .

Appendix A Mathematical Formulas

Appendix B Derivatives and Integrals

Appendix C Numerical Integration

Appendix D More on Dimensional Analysis

Appendix E Gravitational Force Due to a Spherical Mass Distribution

Appendix F Differential Form of Maxwell's Equations

Appendix G Selected Isotopes

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