Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers

Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers, 4th edition

  • Michael S. Mamlouk, 
  • John P. Zaniewski

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Overview

Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers is your guide to the materials required to support the infrastructure needs of society. You'll come to know material behavior and the material selection process, and grasp what's needed to sustainably create and maintain crucial civil and construction engineering systems.

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2017

ISBN-13: 9780137505586

Table of contents

ONE Materials Engineering Concepts
1.1 Economic Factors
1.2 Mechanical Properties
1.2.1 Loading Conditions
1.2.2 Stress--Strain Relations
1.2.3 Elastic Behavior
1.2.4 Elastoplastic Behavior
1.2.5 Viscoelastic Behavior
1.2.6 Temperature and Time Effects
1.2.7 Work and Energy
1.2.8 Failure and Safety
1.3 Nonmechanical Properties
1.3.1 Density and Unit Weight
1.3.2 Thermal Expansion
1.3.3 Surface Characteristics
1.4 Production and Construction
1.5 Aesthetic Characteristics
1.6 Sustainable Design
1.7 Material Variability
1.7.1 Sampling
1.7.2 Normal Distribution
1.7.3 Control Charts
1.7.4 Experimental Error
1.8 Laboratory Measuring Devices
1.8.1 Dial Gauge
1.8.2 Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)
1.8.3 Strain Gauge
1.8.4 Non-Contact Deformation Measurement Technique
1.8.5 Proving Ring
1.8.6 Load Cell
Summary
Questions and Problems
1.9 References

TWO Nature of Materials
2.1 Basic Materials Concepts
2.1.1 Electron Configuration
2.1.2 Bonding
2.1.3 Material Classification by Bond Type
2.2 Metallic Materials
2.2.1 Lattice Structure
2.2.2 Lattice Defects
2.2.3 Grain Structure
2.2.4 Alloys
2.2.5 Phase Diagrams
2.2.6 Combined Effects
2.3 Inorganic Solids
2.4 Organic Solids
2.4.1 Polymer Development, Structure, and Cross-Linking
2.4.2 Melting and Glass Transition Temperature
2.4.3 Mechanical Properties
Summary
Questions and Problems
2.5 References


THREE Steel

3.1 Steel Production
3.2 Iron--Carbon Phase Diagram
3.3 Heat Treatment of Steel
3.3.1 Annealing
3.3.2 Normalizing
3.3.3 Hardening
3.3.4 Tempering
3.3.5 Example of Heat Treatment
3.4 Steel Alloys
3.5 Structural Steel
3.5.1 Structural Steel Grades
3.5.2 Sectional Shapes
3.5.3 Specialty Steels in Structural Applications
3.6 Cold-Formed Steel
3.6.1 Cold-Formed Steel Grades
3.6.2 Cold-Formed Steel Shapes
3.6.3 Special Design Considerations for Cold-Formed Steel
3.7 Fastening Products
3.8 Reinforcing Steel
3.8.1 Conventional Reinforcing
3.8.2 Steel for Prestressed Concrete
3.9 Mechanical Testing of Steel
3.9.1 Tension Test
3.9.2 Torsion Test
3.9.3 Charpy V Notch Impact Test
3.9.4 Bend Test
3.9.5 Hardness Test
3.9.6 Ultrasonic Testing
3.10 Welding
3.11 Steel Corrosion
3.11.1 Methods for Corrosion Resistance
3.12 Steel Sustainability
3.12.1 LEED Considerations
3.12.2 Other Sustainability Considerations
Summary
Questions and Problems
3.13 References

FOUR Aluminum
4.1 Aluminum Production
4.2 Aluminum Metallurgy
4.2.1 Alloy Designation System
4.2.2 Temper Treatments
4.3 Aluminum Testing and Properties
4.4 Welding and Fastening
4.5 Corrosion
4.6 Aluminum Sustainability
4.6.1 LEED Considerations
4.6.2 Other Sustainability Considerations
Summary
Questions and Problems
4.7 References

FIVE Aggregates
5.1 Aggregate Sources
5.1 Aggregate Sources
5.2 Geological Classification
5.3 Evaluation of Aggregate Sources
5.4 Aggregate Uses
5.5 Aggregate Properties
5.5.1 Particle Shape and Surface Texture
5.5.2 Soundness and Durability
5.5.3 Toughness, Hardness, and Abrasion Resistance
5.5.4 Absorption
5.5.5 Specific Gravity
5.5.6 Bulk Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate
5.5.7 Strength and Modulus
5.5.8 Gradation
5.5.9 Cleanness and Deleterious Materials
5.5.10 Alkali--Aggregate Reactivity
5.5.11 Affinity for Asphalt
5.6 Handling Aggregates
5.6.1 Sampling Aggregates
5.7 Aggregates Sustainability
5.7.1 LEED Considerations
5.7.2 Other Sustainability Considerations
Summary
Questions and Problems
5.8 References

SIX Portland Cement, Mixing Water, and Admixtures
6.1 Portland Cement Production
6.2 Chemical Composition of Portland Cement
6.3 Fineness of Portland Cement
6.4 Specific Gravity of Portland Cement
6.5 Hydration of Portland Cement
6.5.1 Structure Development in Cement Paste
6.5.2 Evaluation of Hydration Progress
6.6 Voids in Hydrated Cement
6.7 Properties of Hydrated Cement
6.7.1 Setting
6.7.2 Soundness
6.7.3 Compressive Strength of Mortar
6.8 Water--Cement Ratio
6.9 Types of Portland Cement
6.9.1 Standard Portland Cement Types
6.9.2 Other Cement Types
6.10 Mixing Water
6.10.1 Acceptable Criteria
6.10.2 Disposal and Reuse of Concrete Wash Water
6.11 Admixtures for Concrete
6.11.1 Air Entrainers
6.11.2 Water Reducers
6.11.3 Retarders
6.11.4 Hydration-Control Admixtures
6.11.5 Accelerators
6.11.6 Specialty Admixtures
6.12 Supplementary Cementitious Materials
6.13 Cement Sustainability
6.13.1 LEED Considerations
6.13.2 Other Sustainability Considerations
Summary
Questions and Problems
6.14 References

SEVEN Portland Cement Concrete
7.1 Proportioning of Concrete Mixes
7.1.1 Basic Steps for Weight and Absolute Volume Methods
7.1.2 Mixing Concrete for Small Jobs
7.2 Mixing, Placing, and Handling Fresh Concrete
7.2.1 Ready-Mixed Concrete
7.2.2 Mobile Batcher Mixed Concrete
7.2.3 Depositing Concrete
7.2.4 Pumped Concrete
7.2.5 Vibration of Concrete
7.2.6 Pitfalls and Precautions for Mixing Water
7.2.7 Measuring Air Content in Fresh Concrete
7.2.8 Spreading and Finishing Concrete
7.3 Curing Concrete
7.3.1 Ponding or Immersion
7.3.2 Spraying or Fogging
7.3.3 Wet Coverings
7.3.4 Impervious Papers or Plastic Sheets
7.3.5 Membrane-Forming Compounds
7.3.6 Forms Left in Place
7.3.7 Steam Curing
7.3.8 Insulating Blankets or Covers
7.3.9 Electrical, Hot Oil, and Infrared Curing
7.3.10 Curing Period
7.4 Properties of Hardened Concrete
7.4.1 Early Volume Change
7.4.2 Creep Properties
7.4.3 Permeability
7.4.4 Stress--Strain Relationship
7.5 Testing of Hardened Concrete
7.5.1 Compressive Strength Test
7.5.2 Split-Tension Test
7.5.3 Flexure Strength Test
7.5.4 Rebound Hammer Test
7.5.5 Penetration Resistance Test
7.5.6 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test
7.5.7 Maturity Test
7.6 Alternatives to Conventional Concrete
7.6.1 Self-Consolidating Concrete
7.6.2 Flowable Fill
7.6.3 Shotcrete
7.6.4 Lightweight Concrete
7.6.5 Heavyweight Concrete
7.6.6 High-Strength Concrete
7.6.7 Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete
7.6.8 Polymers and Concrete
7.6.9 Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
7.6.10 Roller-Compacted Concrete
7.6.11 High-Performance Concrete
7.6.12 Pervious Concrete
7.7 Concrete Sustainability
7.7.1 LEED Considerations
7.7.2 Other Sustainability Considerations
Summary
Questions and Problems
7.8 References

EIGHT Masonry
8.1 Masonry Units
8.1.1 Concrete Masonry Units
8.1.2 Clay Bricks
8.2 Mortar
8.3 Grout
8.4 Plaster
8.5 Masonary Sustainability
8.5.1 LEED Considerations
8.5.2 Other Sustainability Consideration
Summary
Questions and Problems
8.6 References

NINE Asphalt Binders and Asphalt Mixtures
9.1 Types of Asphalt Cement Products
9.2 Uses of Asphalt
9.3 Temperature Susceptibility of Asphalt
9.4 Chemical Properties of Asphalt
9.5 Superpave and Performance Grade Binders
9.6 Characterization of Asphalt Cement
9.6.1 Performance Grade Characterization Approach
9.6.2 Performance Grade Binder Characterization
9.6.3 Traditional Asphalt Characterization Tests
9.7 Classification of Asphalt
9.7.1 Asphalt Binders
9.7.2 Asphalt Cutbacks
9.7.3 Asphalt Emulsions
9.8 Asphalt Concrete
9.9 Asphalt Concrete Mix Design
9.9.1 Specimen Preparation in the Laboratory
9.9.2 Density and Voids Analysis
9.9.3 Superpave Mix Design
9.9.4 Superpave Refinement
9.9.5 Marshall Method of Mix Design
9.9.6 Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility
9.10 Characterization of Asphalt Concrete
9.10.1 Indirect Tensile Strength
9.10.2 Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester
9.11 Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete Production and Construction
9.11.1 Production of Raw Materials
9.11.2 Manufacturing Asphalt Concrete
9.11.3 Field Operations
9.12 Recycling of Asphalt Concrete
9.12.1 RAP Evaluation
9.12.2 RAP Mix Design
9.12.3 RAP Production and Construction
9.13 Additives
9.13.1 Fillers
9.13.2 Extenders
9.13.3 Polymer Modified Asphalt
9.13.4 Antistripping Agents
9.13.5 Others
9.14 W arm Mix
9.15 Asphalt Sustainability
9.15.1 LEED Considerations
9.15.2 Other Sustainability Considerations
Summary
Questions and Problems
9.16 References

TEN Wood
10.1 Structure of Wood
10.1.1 Growth Rings
10.1.2 Anisotropic Nature of Wood
10.2 Chemical Composition
10.3 Moisture Content
10.4 Wood Production
10.4.1 Cutting Techniques
10.4.2 Seasoning
10.5 Lumber Grades
10.5.1 Hardwood Grades
10.5.2 Softwood Grades
10.6 Defects in Lumber
10.7 Physical Properties
10.7.1 Specific Gravity and Density
10.7.2 Thermal Properties
10.7.3 Electrical Properties
10.8 Mechanical Properties
10.8.1 Modulus of Elasticity
10.8.2 Strength Properties
10.8.3 Load Duration
10.8.4 Damping Capacity
10.9 Testing to Determine Mechanical Properties
10.9.1 Flexure Test of Structural Members (ASTM D198)
10.9.2 Flexure Test of Small, Clear Specimen (ASTM D143)
10.10 Design Considerations
10.11 Organisms that Degrade Wood
10.11.1 Fungi
10.11.2 Insects
10.11.3 Marine Organisms
10.11.4 Bacteria
10.12 Wood Preservation
10.12.1 Petroleum-Based Solutions
10.12.2 Waterborne Preservatives
10.12.3 Application Techniques
10.12.4 Construction Precautions
10.13 Engineered Wood Products
10.13.1 Structural Panels/Sheets
10.13.2 Structural Shapes
10.13.3 Composite Structural Members
10.14 Wood Sustainability
10.14.1 LEED Considerations
10.14.2 Other Sustainability Considerations
Summary
Questions and Problems
10.15 References

ELEVEN Composites
11.1 Microscopic Composites
11.1.1 Fiber-Reinforced Composites
11.1.2 Particle-Reinforced Composites
11.1.3 Matrix Phase
11.1.4 Fabrication
11.1.5 Civil Engineering Applications
11.2 Macroscopic Composites
11.2.1 Plain Portland Cement Concrete
11.2.2 Reinforced Portland Cement Concrete
11.2.3 Asphalt Concrete
11.2.4 Engineered Wood
11.3 Properties of Composites
11.3.1 Ductility and Strength of Composite
11.3.2 Modulus of Elasticity of Composite
11.4 Composites Sustainability
11.4.1 LEED Considerations
11.4.2 Other Sustainability Considerations
Summary
Questions and Problems
11.5 References
Appendix

Laboratory Manual

1. Introduction to Measuring Devices
2. Tension Test of Steel and Aluminum
3. Torsion Test of Steel and Aluminum
4. Impact Test of Steel
5. Microscopic Inspection of Materials
6. Creep in Polymers
7. Sieve Analysis of Aggregates
8. Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
9. Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate
10. Bulk Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate
11. Slump of Freshly Mixed Portland Cement Concrete
12. Unit Weight and Yield of Freshly Mixed Concrete
13. Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by Pressure Method
14. Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by Volumetric Method
15. Making and Curing Concrete Cylinders and Beams
16. Capping Cylindrical Concrete Specimens with Sulfur or Capping Compound
17. Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
18. Flexural Strength of Concrete
19. Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete
20. Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete
21. Testing of Concrete Masonry Units
22. Viscosity of Asphalt Binder by Rotational Viscometer
23. Dynamic Shear Rheometer Test of Asphalt Binder
24. Penetration Test of Asphalt Cement
25. Absolute Viscosity Test of Asphalt
26. Preparing and Determining the Density of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) Specimens by
Means of the Superpave Gyratory Compactor
27. Preparation of Asphalt Concrete Specimens Using the Marshall Compactor
28. Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures
29. Marshall Stability and Flow of Asphalt Concrete
30. Bending (Flexure) Test of Wood
31. Tensile Properties of Composites
32. Effect of Fiber Orientation on the Elastic Modulus of Fiber Reinforced Composites Index

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