Crime Control in America: What Works?, 4th edition

  • John L. Worrall

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Crime Control in America: What Works? is a balanced, comprehensive introduction to crime control in the US. The text provides comprehensive coverage of what works in policing, prosecution, courts and legislative methods of crime control. It also moves beyond the justice system and examines the effectiveness of crime control at the individual, family, school and community levels. Finally, it covers environmental criminology and explanations of large-scale crime trends.

The 4th Edition includes several new sections covering the most current and controversial topics in crime control. Topics include the alleged Ferguson effect, immigration enforcement, raising the age of majority, and mass shootings.

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2019

ISBN-13: 9780137515622

Subject: Criminal Justice

Category: Crime Prevention



1. Identifying and Evaluating Crime Control
Crime Control and Prevention
The Crime Problem in America
Types of Crimes
The Ever-Expanding Criminal Law
Incidence of Crime
Costs of Crime and Criminals
Is Fear of Crime Worse Than Crime Itself?
Approaches, Not Just Policies
Official Policies, Written and Unwritten
Unofficial Approaches
On the Importance of Definitions
Defining the Crime Problem
Defining the Solution
Defining the Desired Outcome
Evaluating Success: An Impossible Task?
The Hard and Soft Sciences
The Elusive Criminal Justice Experiment
You Can Prove Anything with Statistics
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Macro- and Micro-Level Crime Control
Displacement and Diffusion
Measuring Displacement and Diffusion
The Tentative Nature of Scientific Knowledge
The Measures Used
When New Data Become Available
Alternative Settings: The Generalization Problem
Other Concerns
Funding and Political Priorities
Academic Crusaders and Bandwagon Science
Evidence-Based Justice
Effective Does Not Always Mean Best
A Preview of the Book
Guns and Drugs: The Real Attention Getters

2. Crime Control Perspectives
Operational Perspectives
Due Process and Crime Control
Due Process Values
Crime Control Values
System and Nonsystem
A Well-Oiled Machine?
A Disorganized Mess?
The Funnel Model of Justice
The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
Political Perspectives
Liberals and Conservatives
Causes of Crime
Consequences of Crime for Society
What Should Be Done About Crime?
Consensus and Conflict
Causes of Crime
Consequences of Crime for Society
What Should Be Done About Crime?
Other Perspectives
Faith and Fact
Crime Control and Revenue Generation
Politics and Ivory Towers
Goals of Crime Control
General and Specific Deterrence
Absolute and Marginal Deterrence
The Limitations of Deterrence
The Limitations of Retribution
The Limitations of Incapacitation
The Limitations of Rehabilitation
Goals of Crime Control Compared


3. Traditional Policing
The Theory of Traditional Policing
Does Hiring More Cops Reduce Crime?
Reasons Why Hiring More Cops Might Not Reduce Crime
Lessons from Kansas City
The Post-Kansas City Intellectual Debate
The Violent Crime Control Act of 1994
What Happens When the Police Go on Strike?
De-Policing and the Alleged "Ferguson Effect"
A Very Thin Blue Line: Is There Really a Police Presence?
What Are They Doing on the Job?
Does It Work?
Freeing up Resources
One- versus Two-Officer Patrols
Patrol Downtime Studies
Does It Work?
Reactive Policing and Random Patrol
Reactive Policing
Domestic Violence Arrests
Rapid Response
Random Patrol
Does It Work?
Detective Work and Crime
The RAND Study
Recent Developments
Does It Work?
Private Policing
Private Security versus Private Policing
Controversies in Private Policing
Does It Work?
College Degrees for Cops
Does It Work?

4. Proactive Policing, Directed Patrol, and Recent Advancements
Proactive Arrests
Proactive Arrests for High-Risk Repeat Offenders
Proactive Arrests for Specific Offenses
Targeting Drug Offenders
Targeting Drunk Drivers
Targeting Immigrants
Does It Work?
Directed Patrol
Classic Studies
Lawrence Sherman and the Hot Spots
Directed Patrol of Drug Hot Spots
Directed Patrol of Gun Violence Hot Spots
Stop, Question, and Frisk
Stop, Question, and Frisk: Effects on Crime
Does It Work?
Broken Windows and Disorder Reduction
Fear, Disorder, and Crime
Quality-of-Life Policing
Micro-Level Research
Macro-Level Research
Disorder Reduction
Missing the Boat on Broken Windows
Does It Work?
Focused Deterrence
Group Violence Reduction
Does It Work?
Police--Corrections Partnerships
What Does the Research Show?
Multijurisdictional Drug Task Forces
Military Partnerships and Militarization
The Police--Military Connection
Police Paramilitary Units
Does It Work?
Technology and Less-Lethal Weapons
Safely Ending Pursuits
Crime Detection Devices
Less-Lethal Weapons
Conducted Energy Devices
Does It Work?
Using Data to Inform Decisions
Fusion Centers and Intelligence-Led Policing
Predictive Policing
Does It Work?

5. Community Involvement in Policing
Fixing Strained Police-Community Relations
Procedural Justice
The President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing
Community Justice
Problem-Oriented Policing
Community Policing: Some History
Reasons for Community Policing
Community Policing: What Is It?
The Definition Problem Rears Its Head
Community Policing: Is It Really Happening?
Structural Change
Attitudinal Change
Research on Community Policing Effectiveness
Moving the Police into the Community
Citizen Contact Patrol
Improving the Police Image
Organizing Neighborhood Watch Programs
Hosting Community Meetings
Disseminating Crime Control Newsletters
Storefronts and Substations
Specialized Patrols
Operation Identification
Police-Sponsored Television and Websites
Police in Schools
Does It Work?
Integrated Community Policing
The Seattle Approach
The Hartford Approach
Does It Work?
Bringing the Community to the Police
Citizen Patrol
Citizen Police Academies
Does It Work?
Third-Party Policing
Beyond the Criminal Law
Some Examples of Third-Party Policing
Does It Work?

6. Prosecutors and Crime Control
The Shift Toward Strategic Prosecution
The Harder Side of Prosecution
No-Drop Prosecution Policies
Juvenile Waiver
Raising the Age of Majority: A Retreat from Waiver?
Police-Prosecution Partnerships
Partnering to Reduce Gun Violence
Federal-State Partnerships
Richmond's, Virginia, Project Exile
Texas Exile
Project Safe Neighborhoods
Does It Work?
The Softer Side of Prosecution
Victim Assistance
Community Prosecution
The Structure of Community Prosecution
Nontraditional Restraining Orders
Code Enforcement
Nuisance Abatement
Community Prosecution Research
Deferred Prosecution
Deferred Sentencing
Does It Work?
A Plea Bargaining Pandemic?
Arguments for and Against Plea Bargaining
Attempts to Limit Plea Bargaining
Ad Hoc Plea Bargaining
Does It Work?


7. Crime Control Through Legislation
Legislative Bans
Where There's a Demand, There's a Supply
Historical Lessons
Gambling and Prostitution
Bans and Their Enforcement
Gun Bans
Ban Specific Guns and Gun Possession
Drug Bans
The Scope of America's Drug Problem
Drug Ban Problems
Does It Work?
Legislative Gun Controls
Altering Gun Designs
Regulating Gun Transactions
Denying Gun Ownership to Dangerous Persons
The Right-to-Carry Controversy
Concealed Carry Laws
Does It Work?
Public Notification and Related Laws
Megan's Law
Legal Issues
Effects on Crime
Punitive Sanctions for Sex Offenders
Sex Offender Residency Restrictions
Does It Work?
Other Legislative Approaches
White-Collar Crime Laws
Does It Work?
Antiterrorism Laws
The USA Patriot Act
The USA Freedom Act
Does It Work?

8. Crime Control in the Courts and Beyond
Courts and Incapacitation
Pretrial Incapacitation
Preventive Detention
Setting Bail at a High Level
Does It Work?
Examples of Programmatic Diversion
Diversion Evaluations
Does It Work?
A Brief History of Shaming
Examples of Shaming Penalties
Public Exposure Penalties
Debasement Penalties
Apology Penalties
Reverse Burglary?
Criticisms of Shaming
Braithwaite's Reintegrative Shaming
Shaming and Recidivism
Does It Work?
Restorative Justice
Examples of Restorative Justice
What the Research Shows
Does It Work?
Antigang Injunctions
Does It Work?
Problem-Solving Courts
Drug Courts
Possible Limitations of Drug Courts
The Empirical Evidence
Domestic Violence Courts
Therapeutic Jurisprudence
A Domestic Violence Court in Operation
The Evidence
Community Courts
The Midtown Community Court
The Research
Teen Courts
Other Specialized Courts
Homeless Courts
Mental Health Courts
Reentry Courts
Does It Work?

9. Sentencing
Nonprison Sentences
Traditional Fines
Day Fines
Does It Work?
Types of Prison Sentences
Prison Strategies Without Regard to Sentence Length
Selective Incapacitation
Civil Commitment
More Prisoners, Less Crime?
Less Prisoners, More Crime?
Supermax Prisons
Does It Work?
Does Sentence Length Matter?
Thinking About Various Types of Offenders
Can Incarceration Cause Crime?
Sentence Length and Crime
Does It Work?
Determinate Sentencing
The Hydraulic Displacement of Discretion
Impact on Prison Populations
Impact on Crime
Does It Work?
Sentence Enhancements
Sentence Enhancements for Guns
More on Deterrence
More on Incapacitation
State-Specific Research
Multisite Research
Sentence Enhancements for Hate-Motivated Offenses
Does It Work?
Mandatory Sentencing
A Life of Their Own?
Mandatory Sentences for Drug Offenders
Mandatory Sentences for Drunk Driving
Mandatory Sentences for Persistent Offenders
Three-Strikes Legislation
The Supporters
The Critics
Some Legislative Details
To Deter or Not To Deter
Deterrence and Incapacitation
Variations in Enforcement
The Research
Mandatory Death Sentences?
Does It Work?
Capital Punishment
Our Stubborn Adherence to Capital Punishment
Does the Death Penalty Deter Crime?
Does It Work?
Methods of Castration
European Origins
California's Law
Effects on Recidivism
Does It Work?

10. Probation, Parole, and Intermediate Sanctions
The Organization and Administration of Probation and Parole
Common Probation and Parole Conditions
Probation and Parole Issues
To Serve or To Supervise
Caseload Concerns
Probation and Recidivism
Parole and Recidivism
Caseloads and Crime
Offender Characteristics Over Time
Are Parolees Equipped to Reenter Society?
Consequences to Society of Prisoner Reentry
Improving Probation and Parole
Reentry Initiatives
Does It Work?
Intermediate Sanctions
The Net Widening Problem
A Typology of Intermediate Sanctions
Community Restraints
Intensive Supervision Probation
Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring
GPS Monitoring
Structure and Discipline
Adult Boot Camps
Juvenile Boot Camps
Hybrid Intermediate Sanctions
Shock Probation
Halfway Houses
Day Reporting Centers
Foster and Group Homes
Scared Straight
Does It Work?

11. Rehabilitation, Treatment, and Job Training
A Movement Toward the Left
Some Definitions
Criminals Are Not Created Equal
Targeting Cognitive Skills
Morals Training
Reasoning Training
Anger Management
Improving Victim Awareness
Life Skills Training
Does It Work?
Treating Drug Addicts
In Prison
Out of Prison
Drug Testing and Treatment
Treating Sex Offenders
In Prison
Out of Prison
The Big Picture
Does It Work?
Does It Work?
Job Training
The Employment-Crime Connection
Job Training for Convicts
Education as Job Training
Vocational Training
Correctional Industries
Work Release
Job Training for the General Population
Housing Dispersal and Mobility Programs
Does It Work?
More Lessons from Meta-Analysis


12. Individual, Family, and Household Crime Control
Government May Still Be Involved
Individual Crime Control
Guns and Personal Defense
Measuring Gun Prevalence
How Often Are Guns Used in Self-Defense?
Debunking the "Good Guy to the Rescue" Narrative
Gun Prevalence and Crime
Anecdotal Accounts
Armed Resistance and Crime Completion
Armed Resistance and Victim Injury
Do Criminals Care?
Compensating Risks and Offsetting Behavior
Guns and Accidental Deaths
Comparing the United States to Other Nations
A Gun in Every Home?
Risk-Avoidance Behaviors
Characteristics of Victims
Research Complications
Risk-Management Behaviors
Self-Defense Training
Forceful Resistance
Nonforceful Resistance
Does It Work?
Household and Family Crime Control
The Aim of Crime Control in Households and Families
How Families Influence Delinquency and Youth Victimization
Varieties of Crime Control in Households and Families
Parent Training and Education
Family Preservation Therapy
Multisystemic Therapy
Financial Assistance to Families
Does It Work?

13. Crime Control in the Community and in Schools
Community Crime Control
What Is Community?
The Social Ecology of Crime
Mobility and Change
Racial Composition
Population Density
More on Families
Social Disorganization and Collective Efficacy
Concentrated Disadvantage
Communities and Crime: A Two-Way Relationship?
Financial Assistance to Communities
Enterprise Zones
Community Development Block Grants
Community Investment Programs
Justice Reinvestment
Other Methods of Community Crime Control
Mobilizing Residents
Antigang Initiatives
Youth Mentoring
After-School Programs
Publicity Campaigns
Does It Work?
School-Based Crime Control
Crime in Schools
The Role of Schools in Crime Control
The Role of the Government in School-Based Crime Control
Targeting the School Environment
Building Administrative Capacity
Normative Education
Managing Classrooms and Education
Separate Classrooms for At-Risk Youths
Targeting Students
Instructional Interventions
Drug Abuse Resistance Education
Gang Resistance Education
Behavior Modification
Other Methods of Crime Control in Schools
Does It Work?

14. Reducing Criminal Opportunities Through Environmental Manipulation
Some Perspective
A Quick Return to Theory
Rational Offenders
Crime Pattern Theory
Territorial Functioning and Defensible Space
The Return of the Broken Windows Theory
How Environmental Manipulation Occurs
Access Control
Activity Support
Motivation Reinforcement
The Effectiveness of Environmental Manipulation
Residential Areas
Areas Surrounding Residences
Comprehensive Approaches
Life Behind the Wall: Gated Communities
Does It Work?
Bars and Taverns
Does It Work?
Public Transit
Does It Work?
Other Places
Parking Garages
Open Spaces
Parking Meters and Public Phones
Does It Work?


15. Putting It All Together and Explaining Crime Trends
A Quick Review
Effective Crime Control
Three Important Themes
Beyond the Justice System
Early Intervention Is Key to Success
More Research Is Needed
Explaining Crime Trends
Liberal Explanations
Economic Conditions
Demographic Shifts
Citizen Attitudes
Family Conditions
Gun Control
Conservative Explanations
More and Better Policing
More Prisoners
Other Criminal Justice Policies
More Concealed Weapons Permits
More Capital Punishment
Other Explanations
Cultural Shifts
Waning of the Crack Epidemic
Legalization of Abortion

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