Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering, An, 2nd edition

  • Robert D Holtz, 
  • William D. Kovacs, 
  • Thomas C. Sheahan

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Overview

An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering gives you the practical knowledge you'll need about soil and rock behavior to design and construct foundations and earth structures. Simple geotechnical designs are illustrated, such as determining the flow, uplift pressures and exit gradients in 2-D seepage problems.

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2011

ISBN-13: 9780137524624

Subject: Civil Engineering

Category: Geotechnical Engineering

Table of contents

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering
    • 1.1 Geotechnical Engineering
    • 1.2 The Unique Nature of Soil and Rock Materials
    • 1.3 Scope of This Book
    • 1.4 Historical Development of Geotechnical Engineering
    • 1.5 Suggested Approach to the Study of Geotechnical Engineering
    • 1.6 Notes on Symbols and Units
    • 1.7 Some Comments on How to Study in General
    • Problems
  • Chapter 2 Index and Classification Properties of Soils
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Basic Definitions and Phase Relations for Soils
    • 2.3 Solution of Phase Problems
      • 2.3.1 Submerged or Buoyant Density
      • 2.3.2 Unit Weight and Specific Gravity
    • 2.4 Soil Texture
    • 2.5 Grain Size and Grain Size Distribution
    • 2.6 Particle Shape
    • 2.7 Atterberg Limits
      • 2.7.1 Cone Liquid Limit
      • 2.7.2 One Point Liquid Limit Test
      • 2.7.3 Additional Comments on the Atterberg Limits
    • 2.8 Introduction To Soil Classification
    • 2.9 Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)
      • 2.9.1 Visual-Manual Classification of Soils
      • 2.9.2 What Else Can We Get From The LI-PI Chart?
      • 2.9.3 Limitations of the USCS
    • 2.10 AASHTO Soil Classification System
    • Problems
  • Chapter 3 Geology, Landforms, and the Origin of Geo-Materials
    • 3.1 Importance of Geology to Geotechnical Engineering
      • 3.1.1 Geology
      • 3.1.2 Geomorphology
      • 3.1.3 Engineering Geology
    • 3.2 The Earth, Minerals, Rocks, and Rock Structure
      • 3.2.1 The Earth
      • 3.2.2 Minerals
      • 3.2.3. Rocks
      • 3.2.4. Rock Structure
    • 3.3 Geologic Processes and Landforms
      • 3.3.1 Geologic Processes and the Origin of Earthen Materials
      • 3.3.2 Weathering
      • 3.3.3. Gravity Processes
      • 3.3.4. Surface Water Processes
      • 3.3.5 Ice Processes and Glaciation
      • 3.3.6 Wind Processes
      • 3.3.7 Volcanic Processes
      • 3.3.8 Groundwater Processes
      • 3.3.9 Tectonic Processes
      • 3.3.10 Plutonic Processes
    • 3.4 Sources of Geologic Information
    • Problems
  • Chapter 4 Clay Minerals, Soil and Rock Structures, and Rock Classification
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Products of Weathering
    • 4.3 Clay Minerals
      • 4.3.1 The 1:1 Clay Minerals
      • 4.3.2 The 2:1 Clay Minerals
      • 4.3.3 Other Clay Minerals
    • 4.4 Identification of Clay Minerals And Activity
    • 4.5 Specific Surface
    • 4.6 Interaction between Water and Clay Minerals
      • 4.6.1 Hydration of Clay Minerals and the Diffuse Double Layer
      • 4.6.2 Exchangeable Cations and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
    • 4.7 Interaction of Clay Particles
    • 4.8 Soil Structure and Fabric of Fine Grained Soils
      • 4.8.1 Fabrics of Fine Grained Soils
      • 4.8.2 Importance of Microfabric and Macrofabric; Description Criteria
    • 4.9 Granular Soil Fabrics
    • 4.10 Soil Profiles, Soil Horizons, and Soil Taxonomy
    • 4.11 Special Soil Deposits
      • 4.11.1 Organic soils, peats, and muskeg
      • 4.11.2 Marine Soils
      • 4.11.3 Waste Materials and Contaminated Sites
    • 4.12 Transitional Materials: Hard Soils vs. Soft Rocks
    • 4.13 Properties, Macrostructure, and Classification of Rock Masses
      • 4.13.1 Properties of Rock Masses
      • 4.13.2 Discontinuities in Rock
      • 4.13.3 Rock Mass Classification Systems
    • Problems
  • Chapter 5 Compaction and Stabilization of Soils
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Compaction and Densification
    • 5.3 Theory of Compaction for Fine-Grained Soils
      • 5.3.1 Process of Compaction
      • 5.3.2 Typical Values; Degree of Saturation
      • 5.3.3 Effect of Soil Type and Method of Compaction
    • 5.4 Structure of Compacted Fine-Grained Soils
    • 5.5 Compaction of Granular Soils
      • 5.5.1 Relative or Index Density
      • 5.5.2 Densification of Granular Deposits.
      • 5.5.3 Rock Fills
    • 5.6 Field Compaction Equipment and Procedures
      • 5.6.1 Compaction of Fine-Grained Soils
      • 5.6.2 Compaction of Granular Materials
      • 5.6.3 Compaction Equipment Summary
      • 5.6.4 Compaction of Rockfill
    • 5.7 Specifications and Compaction Control
      • 5.7.1 Specifications
      • 5.7.2 Compaction Control Tests
      • 5.7.3 Problems with Compaction Control Tests
      • 5.7.4 Most Efficient Compaction
      • 5.7.5Overcompaction
      • 5.7.6 Rockfill QA/QC
      • 5.7.7 Compaction in Trenches
    • 5.8 Estimating Performance of Compacted Soils
    • Problems
  • Chapter 6 Hydrostatic Water in Soils and Rocks
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Capillarity
      • 6.2.1 Capillary Rise and Capillary Pressures in Soils
      • 6.2.2 Measurement of Capillarity; Soil-Water Characteristic Curve
      • 6.2.3 Other Capillary Phenomena
    • 6.3 Groundwater Table and the Vadose Zone
      • 6.3.1 Definition
      • 6.3.2 Field Determination
    • 6.4 Shrinkage Phenomena in Soils
      • 6.4.1 Capillary Tube Analogy
      • 6.4.2 Shrinkage Limit Test
      • 6.4.3 Shrinkage Properties of Compacted Clays
    • 6.5 Expansive Soils and Rocks
      • 6.5.1 Physical-Chemical Aspects
      • 6.5.2 Identification and Prediction
      • 6.5.3 Expansive Properties of Compacted Clays
      • 6.5.4 Swelling Rocks
    • 6.6 Engineering Significance of Shrinkage and Swelling
    • 6.7 Collapsible Soils and Subsidence
    • 6.8 Frost Action
      • 6.8.1 Terminology, Conditions, and Mechanisms of Frost Action
      • 6.8.2 Prediction and Identification of Frost Susceptible Soils
      • 6.8.3 Engineering Significance of Frozen Ground
    • 6.9 Intergranular or Effective Stress
    • 6.10 Vertical Stress Profiles
    • 6.11 Relationship between Horizontal and Vertical Stresses
    • Problems
  • Chapter 7 Fluid Flow in Soils and Rock
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
    • 7.3 Darcy's Law for Flow through Porous Media
    • 7.4 Measurement of Permeability or Hydraulic Conductivity
      • 7.4.1 Laboratory and Field Hydraulic Conductivity Tests
      • 7.4.2 Factors Affecting Laboratory and Field Determination of K
      • 7.4.3 Empirical Relationships and Typical Values of K
    • 7.5 Heads and One-Dimensional Flow
    • 7.6 Seepage Forces, Quicksand, and Liquefaction
      • 7.6.1 Seepage Forces, Critical Gradient, and Quicksand
      • 7.6.2 Quicksand Tank
      • 7.6.3 Liquefaction
    • 7.7 Seepage and Flow Nets: Two-Dimensional Flow
      • 7.7.1 Flow Nets
      • 7.7.2 Quantity of Flow, Uplift Pressures, and Exit Gradients
      • 7.7.3 Other Solutions to Seepage Problems
      • 7.7.4 Anisotropic and Layered Flow
    • 7.8 Seepage towards Wells
    • 7.9 Seepage through Dams and Embankments
    • 7.10 Control of Seepage and Filters
      • 7.10.1 Basic Filtration Principles
      • 7.10.2 Design of Graded Granular Filters
      • 7.10.3 Geotextile Filter Design Concepts
      • 7.10.4 FHWA Filter Design Procedure
    • Problems
  • Chapter 8 Compressibility of Soil and Rock
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Components of Settlement
    • 8.3 Compressibility of Soils
    • 8.4 One-Dimensional Consolidation Testing
    • 8.5 Preconsolidation Pressure and Stress History
      • 8.5.1 Normal Consolidation, Overconsolidation, and Preconsolidation Pressure
      • 8.5.2 Determining the Preconsolidation Pressure
      • 8.5.3 Stress History and Preconsolidation Pressure
    • 8.6 Consolidation Behavior of Natural and Compacted Soils
    • 8.7 Settlement Calculations
      • 8.7.1 Consolidation Settlement of Normally Consolidated Soils
      • 8.7.2 Consolidation Settlement of Overconsolidated Soils
      • 8.7.3 Determining Cr and Cre
    • 8.8 Tangent Modulus Method
    • 8.9 Factors Affecting the Determination of P
    • 8.10 Prediction of Field Consolidation Curves
    • 8.11 Soil Profiles
    • 8.12 Approximate Methods and Typical Values of Compression Indices
    • 8.13 Compressibility of Rock and Transitional Materials
    • 8.14 In Situ Determination f Compressibility
    • Problems
  • Chapter 9 Time Rate of Consolidation
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 The Consolidation Process
    • 9.3 Terzaghi's One-Dimensional Consolidation Theory
      • 9.3.1 Classic Solution for the Terzaghi Consolidation Equation
      • 9.3.2 Finite Difference Solution for the Terzaghi Consolidation Equation
    • 9.4 Determination of the Coefficient of Consolidation Cv
      • 9.4.1 Casagrande's Logarithm of Time Fitting Method
      • 9.4.2 Taylor's Square Root of Time Fitting Method
    • 9.5 Determination of the Coefficient Of Permeability
    • 9.6 Typical Values of the Coefficient Of Consolidation, Cv
    • 9.7 In Situ Determination of Consolidation Properties
    • 9.8 Evaluation of Secondary Settlement
    • Problems
  • Chapter 10 Stress Distribution and Settlement Analysis
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Settlement Analysis of Shallow Foundations
      • 10.2.1 Components of Settlement
      • 10.2.2 Steps in Settlement Analysis
    • 10.3 Stress Distribution
    • 10.4 Immediate Settlement
    • 10.5 Vertical Effective Overburden and Preconsolidation Stress Profiles
    • 10.6 Settlement Analysis Examples
    • Problems
  • Chapter 11 The Mohr Circle, Failure Theories, and Strength Testing of Soil And Rocks
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Stress at a Point
    • 11.3 Stress-Strain Relationships and Failure Criteria
    • 11.4 The Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion
      • 11.4.1 Mohr Failure Theory
      • 11.4.2 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion
      • 11.4.3 Obliquity Relations
      • 11.4.4 Failure Criteria for Rock
    • 11.5 Laboratory Tests for the Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks
      • 11.5.1 Direct Shear Test
      • 11.5.2 Triaxial Test
      • 11.5.3 Special Laboratory Soils Tests
      • 11.5.4 Laboratory Tests for Rock Strength
    • 11.6 In Situ Tests for the Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks
      • 11.6.1 Insitu Tests for Shear Strength of Soils
      • 11.6.2 Field Tests for Modulus and Strength of Rocks
    • Problems
  • Chapter 12 An Introduction to Shear Strength of Soils and Rock
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 Angle of Repose of Sands
    • 12.3 Behavior of Saturated Sands during Drained Shear
    • 12.4 Effect of Void Ratio and Confining Pressure on Volume Change
    • 12.5 Factors that Affect the Shear Strength of Sands
    • 12.6 Shear Strength of Sands Using In Situ Tests
      • 12.6.1 SPT
      • 12.6.2 CPT
      • 12.6.3 DMT
    • 12.7 The Coefficient of Earth Pressure at Rest for Sands
    • 12.8 Behavior of Saturated Cohesive Soils during Shear
    • 12.9 Consolidated-Drained Stress-Deformation and Strength Characteristics
      • 12.9.1 Consolidated-Drained (CD) Test Behavior
      • 12.9.2 Typical Values of Drained Strength Parameters for Saturated
      • 12.9.3 Use of CD Strength in Engineering Practice
    • 12.10 Consolidated-Undrained Stress-Deformation and Strength Characteristics
      • 12.10.1 Consolidated-Undrained (CU) Test Behavior
      • 12.10.2 Typical Value of the Undrained Strength Parameters
      • 12.10.3 Use of CU Strength In Engineering Practice
    • 12.11 Unconsolidated-Undrained Stress-Deformation and Strength Characteristics
      • 12.11.1 Unconsolidated-Undrained (UU) Test Behavior
      • 12.11.2 Unconfined Compression Test
      • 12.11.3 Typical Values of UU and UCC Strengths
      • 12.11.4 Other Ways to Determine the Undrained Shear Strength
      • 12.11.5 Use of UU Strength in Engineering Practice
    • 12.12 Sensitivity
    • 12.13 The Coefficient of Earth Pressure at Rest for Clays
    • 12.14 Strength of Compacted Clays
    • 12.15 Strength of Rocks and Transitional Materials
    • 12.16 Multistage Testing
    • 12.17 Introduction to Pore Pressure Parameters
    • Problems
  • Chapter 13 Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Stress Paths
    • 13.3 Pore Pressure Parameters for Different Stress Paths
    • 13.4 Stress Paths during Undrained Loading - Normally and Lightly Overconsolidated Clays
    • 13.5 Stress Paths during Undrained Loading - Heavily Overconsolidated Clays
    • 13.6 Applications of Stress Paths to Engineering Practice
    • 13.7 Critical State Soil Mechanics
    • 13.8 Modulus and Constitutive Models for Soils
      • 13.8.1 Modulus of Soils
      • 13.8.2 Constitutive Relations
      • 13.8.3 Soil Constitutive Modeling
      • 13.8.4 Failure Criteria for Soils
      • 13.8.5 Classes of Constitutive Models for Soils
      • 13.8.6 The Hyperbolic (Duncan-Chang) Model
    • 13.9 Fundamental Basis of the Drained Strength of Sands
      • 13.9.1 Basics of Frictional Shear Strength
      • 13.9.2 Stress-Dilatancy and Energy Corrections
      • 13.9.3 Curvature of the Mohr Failure Envelope
    • 13.10 Behavior of Saturated Sands in Undrained Shear
      • 13.10.1 Consolidated-Undrained Behavior
      • 13.10.2 Using CD Tests to Predict CU Results
      • 13.10.3 Unconsolidated-Undrained Behavior
      • 13.10.4 Strain Rate Effects in Sands
    • 13.11 Plane Strain Behavior of Sands
    • 13.12 Residual Strength of Soils
      • 13.12.1 Drained Residual Shear Strength of Clays
      • 13.12.2 Residual Shear Strength of Sands
    • 13.13 Stress-Deformation and Shear Strength of Clays: Special Topics
      • 13.13.1 Definition of Failure in CU Effective Stress Tests
      • 13.13.2 Hvorslev Strength Parameters
      • 13.13.3 The tF/sȼVo Ratio, Stress History, and Jürgenson-Rutledge Hypothesis
      • 13.13.4 Consolidation Methods to Overcome Sample Disturbance
      • 13.13.5 Anisotropy
      • 13.13.6 Plane Strain Strength of Clays
      • 13.13.7 Strain Rate Effects
    • 13.14 Strength of Unsaturated Soils
      • 13.14.1 Matric Suction in Unsaturated Soils
      • 13.14.2 The Soil-Water Characteristic Curve
      • 13.14.3 The Mohr-Coulomb Failure Envelope for Unsaturated Soils
      • 13.14.4 Shear Strength Measurement in Unsaturated Soils
    • 13.15 Properties of Soils under Dynamic Loading
      • 13.15.1 Stress-Strain Response of Cyclically Loaded Soils
      • 13.15.2 Measurement of Dynamic Soil Properties
      • 13.15.3 Empirical Estimates of Gmax, Modulus Reduction, and Damping
      • 13.15.4 Strength of Dynamically Loaded Soils
    • 13.16 Failure Theories for Rock
    • Problems

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