Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Complete Edition, 11th edition
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Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings presents argument as a process of inquiry and a means of persuasion. The text promotes essential critical-thinking skills needed for writing effective arguments and emphasizes the value of argument as a mean to negotiate the rhetorical divisiveness in today's world.
Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2019
Table of contents
I. PRINCIPLES OF ARGUMENT
1. Argument: An Introduction
What Do We Mean by Argument?
Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel
Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate
Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit
An Explicit Argument Opposing Legalization of Marijuana
For Writing and Discussion: Implicit and Explicit Arguments
The Defining Features of Argument
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product
Argument Combines Truth-Seeking and Persuasion
Argument and the Problem of Truth in the 21st Century
For Writing and Discussion: Role-Playing Arguments
2. The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reason
The Classical Structure of Argument
Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle
Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument
Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question
How to Identify an Issue Question
For Writing and Discussion: Information Questions Versus Issue Questions
Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument
For Writing and Discussion: Reasonable Arguments Versus Pseudo-Arguments
Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons
What Is a Reason?
For Writing and Discussion: Using Images to Support an Argument
Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses
For Writing and Discussion: Developing Claims and Reasons
Writing Assignment: An Issue Question and Working Thesis Statements
3. The Logical Structure of Arguments: Logos
An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the "Logical Structure" of an Argument?
Formal Logic Versus Real-World Logic
The Role of Assumptions
The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme
The Power of Audience-Based Reasons
For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Underlying Assumptions and Choosing Audience-Based Reasons
Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System
For Writing and Discussion: Developing Enthymemes with the Toulmin Schema
Using Toulmin's Schema to Plan and Test Your Argument
Hypothetical Example: Cheerleaders as Athletes
First Part of Chandale's Argument
Continuation of Chandale's Argument
Extended Student Example: Girls and Violent Video Games
Carmen Tieu (Student Essay), Why Violent Video Games Are Good for Girls
The Thesis-Governed "Self-Announcing" Structure of Classical Argument
For Writing and Discussion: Reasons, Warrants, and Conditions of Rebuttal
A Note on the Informal Fallacies
Writing Assignment: Plan of an Argument's Details
4. Using Evidence Effectively
Kinds of Evidence
The Persuasive Use of Evidence
Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence
Establish a Trustworthy Ethos
Be Mindful of a Source's Distance from Original Data
Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence
Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence
For Writing and Discussion: Creating Contrasting Angles of Vision
Examining Visual Arguments: Angle of Vision
Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence
Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence
For Writing and Discussion: Using Strategies to Frame Statistical Evidence
Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence
Writing Assignment: A Supporting-Reasons Argument
5. Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
Logos, Ethos, and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview
How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility
How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions
Use Concrete Language
Use Specific Examples and Illustrations
Use Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations
For Writing and Discussion: Incorporating Appeals to Pathos
Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments
For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing an Argument from the Perspectives of Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
Using Images to Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing Images as Appeals to Pathos
Examining Visual Arguments: Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
How Audience-Based Reasons Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
For Writing and Discussion: Planning an Audience-Based Argumentative Strategy
Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based Reasons
6. Responding to Objections and Alternative Views
One-Sided, Multisided, and Delayed-Thesis Arguments
Determining Your Audience's Resistance to Your Views
Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument
Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument
Summarizing Opposing Views
For Writing and Discussion: Distinguishing Fair from Unfair Summaries
Refuting Opposing Views
Strategies for Rebutting Evidence
Conceding to Opposing Views
Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation Strategy
Trudie Makens (Student Essay), Bringing Dignity to Workers: Make the Minimum Wage a Living Wage
For Writing and Discussion: Refutation Strategies
Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Delayed-Thesis Argument
ALEXANDER CHANCELLOR, Oh, How I Will Miss the Plastic Bag
Writing a Delayed-Thesis Argument
Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument or a Delayed Thesis Argument
Lauren Shinozuka (Student Essay), The Dangers of Digital Distractedness
II. ENTERING AN ARGUMENTATIVE CONVERSATION
7. Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically
Thinking Rhetorically about a Text
Reconstructing a Text's Rhetorical Context
Author, Motivating Occasion, and Purpose
Angle of Vision
Asking Questions That Promote Rhetorical Thinking
For Writing and Discussion: Practicing Rhetorical Analysis
Conducting a Rhetorical Analysis of a Source Text
KATHRYN JEAN LOPEZ, Egg Heads
For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Rhetorical Features
Our Own Rhetorical Analysis of "Egg Heads"
Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis
ELLEN GOODMAN, Womb for Rent
Critiquing "Womb for Rent"
Zachary Stumps (Student Essay), A Rhetorical Analysis Of Ellen Goodman's "Womb For Rent"
8. Argument as Inquiry: Reading, Summarizing, and Speaking Back
Finding Issues to Explore
Do Some Initial Brainstorming
Be Open to the Issues All Around You
Explore Ideas by Freewriting
For Writing and Discussion: Responding to Visual Arguments About a Living Wage
Explore Ideas by Idea Mapping
Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
For Writing and Discussion: Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
Summarizing a Stakeholder's Argument
JAMES SUROWIECKI, The Pay Is Too Damn Low
Thinking Steps for Writing a Summary
For Writing and Discussion: Does/Says Statements
Examples of Summaries
Responding to a Stakeholder's Argument
Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own Acceptance of the Writer's Views
Practicing Doubting: Willing Your Own Resistance to the Writer's Views
For Writing and Discussion: Raising Doubts About Surowiecki's Argument
For Writing and Discussion: Practicing Dialectic Thinking with Two Articles
MICHAEL SALTSMAN, To Help the Poor, Move Beyond "Minimum" Gestures
Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking
Writing Assignment: An Argument Summary or a Formal Exploratory Essay
Trudie Makens (Student Essay), Should Fast-Food Workers Be Paid $15 per Hour?
III. EXPANDING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF ARGUMENT
9. Making Visual and Multimodal Arguments
Understanding Visual Design Elements in Multimodal Argument
Use of Type
Use of Space and Layout
Use of Color
Use of Images and Graphics
For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing an Advocacy Ad
The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings
Compositional Features to Examine in Photos and Drawings
An Analysis of a Multimedia Video Argument Using Words, Images, and Music
For Writing and Discussion: Thinking Rhetorically about Photos
The Genres of Multimodal Argument
Posters and Fliers
Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements
For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing Posters Rhetorically
For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing Cartoons
Constructing Your Own Multimodal Arguments
Guidelines for Creating the Visual Elements in Posters, Fliers, and Advocacy Ads
Guidelines for Creating Video Arguments
For Writing and Discussion: Developing Ideas for an Advocacy Ad or Poster Argument
Using Information Graphics in Arguments
How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories
Using a Graph to Tell a Story
Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument
A Note on How Graphics Frame Data Rhetorically
Writing Assignment: A Visual Argument Rhetorical Analysis, a Visual Argument, or a Short Argument Using Quantitative Data
10. An Alternative to Argument: Collaborative Rhetoric
The Appropriateness and Usefulness of Collaborative Rhetoric
The Principles of Collaborative Rhetoric
Practicing Nonjudgmental Listening
Identifying Values, Emotions, and Identities
Seeking Common Ground
Promoting Openness to Ongoing Communication and Change
For Writing and Discussion: Listening Empathically and Seeking Common Ground
Preparing for Collaborative Rhetoric Through Reflective Writing and Discussion
Preparing for Collaborative Rhetoric Through Reflective Writing
Practicing Collaborative Rhetoric in Discussion
For Writing and Discussion: Conducting a Collaborative Rhetoric Discussion
Writing an Open Letter as Collaborative Rhetoric
Colleen Fontana (Student Essay), An Open Letter to Robert Levy in Response to His Article "They Never Learn"
Writing Assignment: An Open Letter as Collaborative Rhetoric
Monica Allen (Student Essay), An Open Letter to Christopher Eide in Response to His Article "High-Performing Charter Schools Can Close the Opportunity Gap"
IV. ARGUMENTS IN DEPTH: TYPES OF CLAIMS
11. An Introduction to the Types of Claims
The Types of Claims and Their Typical Patterns of Development
For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Types of Claims
Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas: An Example
Writer 1: Ban E-Cigarettes
Writer 2: Promote E-Cigarettes as a Preferred Alternative to Real Cigarettes
Writer 3: Place No Restrictions on E-Cigarettes
Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments
Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments
For Writing and Discussion: Exploring Different Claim Types and Audiences
An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument
ALEX HUTCHINSON, Your Daily Multivitamin May Be Hurting You
12. Definition and Resemblance Arguments
What Is at Stake in an Argument about Definition and Resemblance?
Consequences Resulting from Categorical Claims
The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same Category Should Be Treated the Same Way
For Writing and Discussion: Applying the Rule of Justice
Types of Categorical Arguments
Simple Categorical Arguments
For Writing and Discussion: Supporting and Rebutting Simple Categorical Claims
Resemblance Argument Using Analogy
For Writing and Discussion: Developing Analogies
Resemblance Arguments Using Precedent
For Writing and Discussion: Using Claims of Precedent
Examining Visual Arguments: Claim about Category (Definition)
The Criteria-Match Structure of Definition Arguments
Overview of Criteria-Match Structure
Toulmin Framework for a Definition Argument
For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Criteria and Match Issues
Creating Criteria Using Aristotelian Definition
Strategy 1: Research How Others Have Defined the Term
Strategy 2: Create Your Own Extended Definition
For Writing and Discussion: Developing a Definition
Writing Assignment: A Definition Argument
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What's at Stake
Organizing a Definition Argument
Questioning and Critiquing a Definition Argument
Arthur Knopf (Student Essay), Is Milk a Health Food?
Alex Mullen (Student Essay), A Pirate But Not a Thief: What Does "Stealing" Mean in a Digital Environment?
MARK OPPENHEIMER, How Do We Define Adulthood?
13. Causal Arguments
An Overview of Causal Arguments
Kinds of Causal Arguments
Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument
For Writing and Discussion: Developing Causal Chains
Two Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another
First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly
Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using Inductive Reasoning
For Writing and Discussion: Developing Plausible Causal Chains Based on Correlations
Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim
Key Terms and Inductive Fallacies in Causal Arguments
A Glossary of Key Terms
Avoiding Common Inductive Fallacies That Can Lead to Wrong Conclusions
For Writing and Discussion: Brainstorming Causes and Constraints
Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What's at Stake
Organizing a Causal Argument
Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument
Jesse Goncalves (Student Essay), What Causes Math Anxiety?
KRIS SAKNUSSEMM, Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Are We Really Here at All? Can We Tell?
Carlos Macias (Student Essay), "The Credit Card Company Made Me Do It!"-The Credit Card Industry's Role in Causing Student Debt
14. Evaluation and Ethical Arguments
An Overview of Categorical and Ethical Evaluation Arguments
Constructing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations
Developing Your Criteria
Making Your Match Argument
Examining Visual Arguments: An Evaluation Claim
For Writing and Discussion: Developing Criteria and Match Arguments
Constructing an Ethical Evaluation Argument
Consequences as the Base of Ethics
Principles as the Base of Ethics
Example Ethical Arguments Examining Capital Punishment
For Writing and Discussion: Developing an Ethical Argument
Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments
Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or Ethical Argument
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What's at Stake
Organizing an Evaluation Argument
Questioning and Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
Critiquing an Ethical Argument
Lorena Mendoza-Flores (Student Essay), Silenced and Invisible: Problems of Hispanic Students at Valley High School
Hadley Reeder (Student Essay), A Defective and Detrimental Dress Code
JUDITH DAAR AND EREZ ALONI, Three Genetic Parents-For One Healthy Baby
SAMUEL AQUILA, The "Therapeutic Cloning" of Human Embryos
15. Proposal Arguments 306
The Special Features and Concerns of Proposal Arguments
Practical Proposals Versus Policy Proposals
Toulmin Framework for a Proposal Argument
Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments
Developing a Proposal Argument
Examining Visual Arguments: A Proposal Claim
Convincing Your Readers That a Problem Exists
Explaining the Proposed Solution: Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal
Offering a Justification: Convincing Your Readers That the Benefits of Your Proposal Outweigh the Costs
Using Heuristic Strategies to Develop Supporting Reasons for Your Proposal
The Claim Types Strategy
The Stock Issues Strategy
For Writing and Discussion: Generating Ideas Using the Claim Types Strategy
For Writing and Discussion: Brainstorming Ideas for a Proposal
Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements
Writing Assignment: A Proposal Argument
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What's at Stake
Organizing a Proposal Argument
Designing a One-Page Advocacy Poster or Advertisement
Designing PowerPoint Slides or Other Visual Aids for a Speech
Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument
Megan Johnson (Student Essay), A Practical Proposal
Ivan Snook (Student Essay), Flirting with Disaster: An Argument against Integrating Women into the Combat Arms
Sandy Wainscott (Student Essay), Why McDonald's Should Sell Meat and Veggie Pies: A Proposal to End Subsidies for Cheap Meat
MARCEL DICKE AND ARNOLD VAN HUIS, The Six-Legged Meat of the Future
V. THE RESEARCHED ARGUMENT
16. Finding and Evaluating Sources
Formulating a Research Question Instead of a Topic
Thinking Rhetorically About Kinds of Sources
Identifying Kinds of Sources Relevant to Your Question
Approaching Sources Rhetorically
For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Types of Sources
Gathering Source Data from Surveys or Questionnaires
Finding Books and Reference Sources
Using Licensed Databases to Find Articles in Scholarly Journals, Magazines, and News Sources
Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web
Selecting and Evaluating Your Sources and Taking Purposeful Notes
Reading with Rhetorical Awareness
Criteria for Evaluating a Web Source
For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing the Rhetorical Elements of Two Websites
Taking Purposeful Notes
17. Incorporating Sources into Your Own Argument
Using Sources for Your Own Purposes
Writer 1: A Causal Argument Showing Alternative Approaches to Reducing Risk of Alcoholism
Writer 2: A Proposal Argument Advocating Vegetarianism
Writer 3: An Evaluation Argument Looking Skeptically at Vegetarianism
For Writing And Discussion: Using a Source for Different Purposes
Using Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation
Punctuating Quotations Correctly
Quoting a Complete Sentence
Quoting Words and Phrases
Modifying a Quotation
Omitting Something from a Quoted Passage
Quoting Something That Contains a Quotation
Using a Block Quotation for a Long Passage
Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags
Attributive Tags versus Parenthetical Citations
Creating Attributive Tags to Shape Reader Response
Why Some Kinds of Plagiarism May Occur Unwittingly
Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism
For Writing And Discussion: Avoiding Plagiarism
18. Citing and Documenting Sources
The Correspondence between In-Text Citations and the End-of-Paper List of Cited Works
In-Text Citations in MLA Style
Works Cited List in MLA Style
MLA Works Cited Citation Models
MLA-Style Research Paper
In-Text Citations in APA Style
References List in APA Style
APA References Citation Models
APA-Style Research Paper
APPENDIX: INFORMAL FALLACIES
The Difference Between Formal and Informal Logic
An Overview of Informal Fallacies
Fallacies of Pathos
Fallacies of Ethos
Fallacies of Logos
For Writing And Discussion: Persuasive or Fallacious?
VI. AN ANTHOLOGY OF ARGUMENTS
Choices for a Sustainable World
JOSEPH ALDY, "Curbing Climate Change Has a Dollar Value - Here's How and Why We Measure It"
JAMES A. BAKER, "The Conservative Case for a Carbon Tax and Dividends"
DAVID ROBERTS, "Putting a Price on Carbon is a Fine Idea. It's Not the End-All Be-All"
JULIAN CRIBB, "Our Human Right Not to Be Poisoned"
ALEX HALLATT, "I Stopped Wearing Leather . . . "
BILL MCKIBBEN, "The Question I Get Asked the Most"
CHELSEA M. ROCHMAN, "Ecologically Relevant Data Are Policy-Relevant Data"
BEN ADLER, "Banning Plastic Bags is Great for the World, Right? Not So Fast"
SUN SENTINEL EDITORIAL BOARD, "Plastic Bag Ban: Let's Not Get Carried Away"
For Writing and Discussion: Choices for a Sustainable World
Writing Assignment: Rhetorical Analysis
Post-Fact, Post-Truth Society?
DAVID UBERTI, "The Real History of Fake News"
EUGENE KIELY AND LORI ROBERTSON, "How to Spot Fake News"
KARSTEN SCHLEY, "Warning!! This Newspaper May Contain Traces of Journalism"
JACK SHAFER, "The Cure for Fake News Is Worse Than the Disease; Stop Being Trump's Twitter Fool"
ROBERT P. GEORGE AND CORNEL WEST, "Sign the Statement: Truth-Seeking, Democracy, and Freedom of Thought and Expression"
LUCIANO FLORIDI, "Fake News and a 400-Year-Old Problem: We Need to Resolve the "Post-Truth" Crisis"
PETER WAYNE MOE, "Teaching Writing in a Post-Truth Era"
MARCUS DU SAUTOY, "Why Aren't People Listening to Scientists?"
JEFF HESTER, "The Hermeneutics of Bunk: How a Physicist Gave Postmodernism a Black Eye"
TIMOTHY CAULFIELD, "Blinded by Science: Modern-Day Hucksters Are Cashing In on Vulnerable Patients"
For Writing and Discussion: Dealing with Misinformation, Fake News, and Misconceptions
Writing Assignment: Researched Proposal Speech on Understanding and Evaluating Scientific Claims
DEMOCRAT AND CHRONICLE EDITORIAL BOARD, "Keep Up Fight against Childhood Obesity"
SAN DIEGO UNION-TRIBUNE EDITORIAL BOARD, "Fed or Fed Up? Why We Support Easing School Lunch Rules"
CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION, "Tips for Parents-Ideas to Help Children Maintain a Healthy Weight"
JULIA BELLUZ AND JAVIER ZARRACINA, "We Need to Call American Breakfast What It Often Is: Dessert"
SARAH WILSON, "I've Heard All the Arguments against a Sugar Tax. I'm Still Calling for One in Australia"
HARTFORD COURANT EDITORIAL BOARD, "Soda Tax Is Nanny-State Overreach"
SIGNE WILKINSON, "More Jobs Lost to Soda Taxes!"
LOS ANGELES TIMES EDITORIAL BOARD, "Are We Subsidizing a Public Health Crisis by Allowing the Poor to Buy Soda with Food Stamps?"
For Writing and Discussion: Public Health
Writing Assignment: Multimodal Argument: A Storyboard or Cartoon
Challenges in Education
RACHEL M. COHEN, "Rethinking School Discipline"
RICHARD ULLMAN, "Restorative Justice: The Zero-Tolerance-Policy Overcorrection"
CASSADY ROSENBLUM, "Take It From a New Orleans Charter School Teacher: Parents Don't Always Get School Choice Right"
PAUL FELL, "Educators Try to Keep Public Education away from School Vouchers and Charter Schools"
DOUGLAS N. HARRIS, "Why Managed Competition Is Better Than a Free Market for Schooling"
RACHEL LAM, "Separate but Unequal"
RAFAEL WALKER, "How Canceling Controversial Speakers Hurts Students"
GINA BARRECA, "I'm Not Giving Students ‘Trigger Warnings' "
ONNI GUST, "I Use Trigger Warnings-But I'm Not Mollycoddling My Students"
For Writing and Discussion: Challenges in Education
Writing Assignment: A Researched Evaluation Argument on an Educational Policy
ROBIN CHASE, "Self-Driving Cars Will Improve Our Cities, If They Don't Ruin Them"
SCOTT SANTENS, "Self-Driving Trucks Are Going to Hit Us Like a Human-Driven Truck"
DREW HENDRICKS, "Five Reasons You Should Embrace Self-Driving Cars"
THE EDITORIAL BOARD OF THE NEW YORK TIMES, "Would You Buy a Self-Driving Future from These Guys?"
For Writing and Discussion: Self-Driving Cars
Writing Assignment: A Researched Argument on a Subissue Related to Self-Driving Cars
Immigration in the Twenty-First Century
MICHELLE YE HEE LEE, "Fact Checker: The White House's Claim that "Sanctuary" Cities Are Violating the Law"
KENT LUNDGREN, "Stop Immigration Processing as Leverage against Sanctuaries?"
DARLENE NICGORSKI, "Convicted of the Gospel"
LUPE VALDEZ, ED GONZALEZ, AND JAVIER SALAZAR, "Enforcement in Sanctuary Cities Should Be Feds' Job, Not Local Police"
JEFF DANZIGER, "Coming Soon to a House Like Yours"
SALIL SHETTY, AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, "Foreword to Tackling the Global Refugee Crisis: From Shirking to Sharing Responsibility"
STEVEN P. BUCCI, "We Must Remain Vigilant through Responsible Refugee Policies"
RICH STEARNS, "Facing Responsibility: The Face of a Refugee Child"
For Writing and Discussion: Immigration in the Twenty-First Century
Writing Assignment: White Paper Summarizing the Arguments about a Policy Proposal
JONATHAN SWIFT, "A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland, from Being a Burden on Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public"
ELIZABETH CADY STANTON, "The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions Seneca Falls Conference" (1848)
MARGARET SANGER, "The Morality of Birth Control"
For Writing and Discussion: Argument Classics
Writing Assignment: Rhetorical Analysis
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