Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, 11th edition

  • John D. Ramage, 
  • John C. Bean, 
  • June Johnson

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Overview

Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings presents argument as a process of inquiry and a means of persuasion. The text promotes essential critical-thinking skills needed for writing effective arguments and emphasizes the value of argument as a mean to negotiate the rhetorical divisiveness in today's world.

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2019

ISBN-13: 9780137534227

Subject: Composition

Category: Argument

Table of contents

Table of Contents

I. PRINCIPLES OF ARGUMENT

  1. Argument: An Introduction
    • What Do We Mean by Argument?
      • Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel
      • Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate
      • Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit
    • An Explicit Argument Opposing Legalization of Marijuana
    • For Writing and Discussion: Implicit and Explicit Arguments
    • The Defining Features of Argument
      • Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims
      • Argument Is Both a Process and a Product
      • Argument Combines Truth-Seeking and Persuasion
    • Argument and the Problem of Truth in the 21st Century
    • For Writing and Discussion: Role-Playing Arguments
      • Conclusion
  2. The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reason
    • The Classical Structure of Argument
    • Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle
    • Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument
      • Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question
      • How to Identify an Issue Question
    • For Writing and Discussion: Information Questions Versus Issue Questions
      • Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument
    • For Writing and Discussion: Reasonable Arguments Versus Pseudo-Arguments
    • Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons
      • What Is a Reason?
    • For Writing and Discussion: Using Images to Support an Argument
      • Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses
    • For Writing and Discussion: Developing Claims and Reasons
      • Conclusion
    • Writing Assignment: An Issue Question and Working Thesis Statements 0
  3. The Logical Structure of Arguments: Logos
    • An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the “Logical Structure” of an Argument?
      • Formal Logic Versus Real-World Logic
      • The Role of Assumptions
      • The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme
      • The Power of Audience-Based Reasons
    • For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Underlying Assumptions and Choosing Audience-Based Reasons
    • Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System
    • For Writing and Discussion: Developing Enthymemes with the Toulmin Schema
    • Using Toulmin’s Schema to Plan and Test Your Argument
      • Hypothetical Example: Cheerleaders as Athletes
    • First Part of Chandale’s Argument
    • Continuation of Chandale’s Argument
      • Extended Student Example: Girls and Violent Video Games
    • Carmen Tieu (Student Essay), Why Violent Video Games Are Good for Girls
      • The Thesis-Governed “Self-Announcing” Structure of Classical Argument
    • For Writing and Discussion: Reasons, Warrants, and Conditions of Rebuttal
      • Conclusion
      • A Note on the Informal Fallacies
    • Writing Assignment: Plan of an Argument’s Details
  4. Using Evidence Effectively
    • Kinds of Evidence
    • The Persuasive Use of Evidence
      • Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence
      • Establish a Trustworthy Ethos
      • Be Mindful of a Source’s Distance from Original Data
    • Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence
      • Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence
    • For Writing and Discussion: Creating Contrasting Angles of Vision
    • Examining Visual Arguments: Angle of Vision
      • Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence
      • Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence
    • For Writing and Discussion: Using Strategies to Frame Statistical Evidence
      • Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence
      • Conclusion
    • Writing Assignment: A Supporting-Reasons Argument
  5. Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
    • Logos, Ethos, and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview
    • How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility
    • How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions
      • Use Concrete Language
      • Use Specific Examples and Illustrations
      • Use Narratives
      • Use Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations
    • For Writing and Discussion: Incorporating Appeals to Pathos
    • Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments
    • For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing an Argument from the Perspectives of Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
    • Using Images to Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
    • For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing Images as Appeals to Pathos
    • Examining Visual Arguments: Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
    • How Audience-Based Reasons Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
    • For Writing and Discussion: Planning an Audience-Based Argumentative Strategy
      • Conclusion
    • Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based Reasons
  6. Responding to Objections and Alternative Views
    • One-Sided, Multisided, and Delayed-Thesis Arguments
    • Determining Your Audience’s Resistance to Your Views
    • Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument
    • Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument
      • Summarizing Opposing Views
    • For Writing and Discussion: Distinguishing Fair from Unfair Summaries
      • Refuting Opposing Views
      • Strategies for Rebutting Evidence
      • Conceding to Opposing Views
      • Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation Strategy
    • Trudie Makens (Student Essay), Bringing Dignity to Workers: Make the Minimum Wage a Living Wage
    • For Writing and Discussion: Refutation Strategies
    • Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Delayed-Thesis Argument
      • ALEXANDER CHANCELLOR, Oh, How I Will Miss the Plastic Bag
      • Writing a Delayed-Thesis Argument
      • Conclusion
    • Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument or a Delayed Thesis Argument
      • Reading
    • Lauren Shinozuka (Student Essay), The Dangers of Digital Distractedness

II. ENTERING AN ARGUMENTATIVE CONVERSATION

  1. Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically
    • Thinking Rhetorically about a Text
    • Reconstructing a Text’s Rhetorical Context
      • Author, Motivating Occasion, and Purpose
      • Audience
      • Genre
      • Angle of Vision
    • Asking Questions That Promote Rhetorical Thinking
    • For Writing and Discussion: Practicing Rhetorical Analysis
    • Conducting a Rhetorical Analysis of a Source Text
      • KATHRYN JEAN LOPEZ, Egg Heads
    • For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Rhetorical Features
      • Our Own Rhetorical Analysis of “Egg Heads”
      • Conclusion
    • Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis
      • Readings
      • ELLEN GOODMAN, Womb for Rent
      • Critiquing “Womb for Rent”
    • Zachary Stumps (Student Essay), A Rhetorical Analysis Of Ellen Goodman’s “Womb For Rent”
  2. Argument as Inquiry: Reading, Summarizing, and Speaking Back
    • Finding Issues to Explore
      • Do Some Initial Brainstorming
      • Be Open to the Issues All Around You
      • Explore Ideas by Freewriting
    • For Writing and Discussion: Responding to Visual Arguments About a Living Wage
      • Explore Ideas by Idea Mapping
      • Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
    • For Writing and Discussion: Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
    • Summarizing a Stakeholder’s Argument
      • JAMES SUROWIECKI, The Pay Is Too Damn Low
      • Thinking Steps for Writing a Summary
    • For Writing and Discussion: Does/Says Statements
    • Examples of Summaries
    • Responding to a Stakeholder’s Argument
      • Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own Acceptance of the Writer’s Views
      • Practicing Doubting: Willing Your Own Resistance to the Writer’s Views
    • For Writing and Discussion: Raising Doubts About Surowiecki’s Argument
    • Thinking Dialectically
    • For Writing and Discussion: Practicing Dialectic Thinking with Two Articles
      • MICHAEL SALTSMAN, To Help the Poor, Move Beyond “Minimum” Gestures
      • Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking
      • Conclusion
    • Writing Assignment: An Argument Summary or a Formal Exploratory Essay
      • Reading
    • Trudie Makens (Student Essay), Should Fast-Food Workers Be Paid $15 per Hour?

III. EXPANDING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF ARGUMENT

  1. Making Visual and Multimodal Arguments
    • Understanding Visual Design Elements in Multimodal Argument
      • Use of Type
      • Use of Space and Layout
      • Use of Color
      • Use of Images and Graphics
    • For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing an Advocacy Ad
    • The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings
      • Compositional Features to Examine in Photos and Drawings
      • An Analysis of a Multimedia Video Argument Using Words, Images, and Music
    • For Writing and Discussion: Thinking Rhetorically about Photos
    • The Genres of Multimodal Argument
      • Posters and Fliers
      • Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements
    • Cartoons
    • For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing Posters Rhetorically
    • For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing Cartoons
      • Websites
      • Advocacy Videos
    • Constructing Your Own Multimodal Arguments
      • Guidelines for Creating the Visual Elements in Posters, Fliers, and Advocacy Ads
      • Guidelines for Creating Video Arguments
    • For Writing and Discussion: Developing Ideas for an Advocacy Ad or Poster Argument
    • Using Information Graphics in Arguments
      • How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories
      • Using a Graph to Tell a Story
      • Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument
      • A Note on How Graphics Frame Data Rhetorically
      • Conclusion
    • Writing Assignment: A Visual Argument Rhetorical Analysis, a Visual Argument, or a Short Argument Using Quantitative Data
  2. An Alternative to Argument: Collaborative Rhetoric
    • The Appropriateness and Usefulness of Collaborative Rhetoric
    • The Principles of Collaborative Rhetoric
      • Practicing Nonjudgmental Listening
      • Identifying Values, Emotions, and Identities
      • Seeking Common Ground
      • Promoting Openness to Ongoing Communication and Change
    • For Writing and Discussion: Listening Empathically and Seeking Common Ground
    • Preparing for Collaborative Rhetoric Through Reflective Writing and Discussion
      • Preparing for Collaborative Rhetoric Through Reflective Writing
      • Practicing Collaborative Rhetoric in Discussion
    • For Writing and Discussion: Conducting a Collaborative Rhetoric Discussion
    • Writing an Open Letter as Collaborative Rhetoric
    • Colleen Fontana (Student Essay), An Open Letter to Robert Levy in Response to His Article “They Never Learn”
      • Conclusion
    • Writing Assignment: An Open Letter as Collaborative Rhetoric
      • Reading
    • Monica Allen (Student Essay), An Open Letter to Christopher Eide in Response to His Article “High-Performing Charter Schools Can Close the Opportunity Gap”

IV. ARGUMENTS IN DEPTH: TYPES OF CLAIMS

  1. An Introduction to the Types of Claims
    • The Types of Claims and Their Typical Patterns of Development
    • For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Types of Claims
    • Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas: An Example
      • Writer 1: Ban E-Cigarettes
      • Writer 2: Promote E-Cigarettes as a Preferred Alternative to Real Cigarettes
      • Writer 3: Place No Restrictions on E-Cigarettes
    • Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments
      • Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments
    • For Writing and Discussion: Exploring Different Claim Types and Audiences
      • An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument
      • ALEX HUTCHINSON, Your Daily Multivitamin May Be Hurting You
  2. Definition and Resemblance Arguments
    • What Is at Stake in an Argument about Definition and Resemblance?
      • Consequences Resulting from Categorical Claims
      • The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same Category Should Be Treated the Same Way
    • For Writing and Discussion: Applying the Rule of Justice
    • Types of Categorical Arguments
      • Simple Categorical Arguments
    • For Writing and Discussion: Supporting and Rebutting Simple Categorical Claims
      • Definition Arguments
      • Resemblance Argument Using Analogy
    • For Writing and Discussion: Developing Analogies
      • Resemblance Arguments Using Precedent
    • For Writing and Discussion: Using Claims of Precedent
    • Examining Visual Arguments: Claim about Category (Definition)
    • The Criteria-Match Structure of Definition Arguments
      • Overview of Criteria-Match Structure
      • Toulmin Framework for a Definition Argument
    • For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Criteria and Match Issues
      • Creating Criteria Using Aristotelian Definition
      • Strategy 1: Research How Others Have Defined the Term
      • Strategy 2: Create Your Own Extended Definition
    • For Writing and Discussion: Developing a Definition
    • Writing Assignment: A Definition Argument
    • Exploring Ideas
    • Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake
      • Organizing a Definition Argument
      • Questioning and Critiquing a Definition Argument
    • Readings
      • Arthur Knopf (Student Essay), Is Milk a Health Food?
      • Alex Mullen (Student Essay), A Pirate But Not a Thief: What Does “Stealing” Mean in a Digital Environment?
      • MARK OPPENHEIMER, How Do We Define Adulthood?
  3. Causal Arguments
    • An Overview of Causal Arguments
      • Kinds of Causal Arguments
    • Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument
    • For Writing and Discussion: Developing Causal Chains
    • Two Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another
      • First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly
      • Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using Inductive Reasoning
    • For Writing and Discussion: Developing Plausible Causal Chains Based on Correlations
    • Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim
    • Key Terms and Inductive Fallacies in Causal Arguments
      • A Glossary of Key Terms
      • Avoiding Common Inductive Fallacies That Can Lead to Wrong Conclusions
    • For Writing and Discussion: Brainstorming Causes and Constraints
    • Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument
      • Exploring Ideas
      • Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake
      • Organizing a Causal Argument
      • Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument
    • Readings
      • Jesse Goncalves (Student Essay), What Causes Math Anxiety?
      • KRIS SAKNUSSEMM, Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Are We Really Here at All? Can We Tell?
      • Carlos Macias (Student Essay), “The Credit Card Company Made Me Do It!”–The Credit Card Industry’s Role in Causing Student Debt
  4. Evaluation and Ethical Arguments
    • An Overview of Categorical and Ethical Evaluation Arguments
    • Constructing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
      • Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations
      • Developing Your Criteria
      • Making Your Match Argument
    • Examining Visual Arguments: An Evaluation Claim
    • For Writing and Discussion: Developing Criteria and Match Arguments
    • Constructing an Ethical Evaluation Argument
      • Consequences as the Base of Ethics
      • Principles as the Base of Ethics
      • Example Ethical Arguments Examining Capital Punishment
    • For Writing and Discussion: Developing an Ethical Argument
    • Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments
    • Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or Ethical Argument
      • Exploring Ideas
      • Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake
      • Organizing an Evaluation Argument
      • Questioning and Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
      • Critiquing an Ethical Argument
    • Readings
      • Lorena Mendoza-Flores (Student Essay), Silenced and Invisible: Problems of Hispanic Students at Valley High School
      • Hadley Reeder (Student Essay), A Defective and Detrimental Dress Code
      • JUDITH DAAR AND EREZ ALONI, Three Genetic Parents–For One Healthy Baby
      • SAMUEL AQUILA, The “Therapeutic Cloning” of Human Embryos
  5. Proposal Arguments
    • The Special Features and Concerns of Proposal Arguments
      • Practical Proposals Versus Policy Proposals
      • Toulmin Framework for a Proposal Argument
      • Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments
    • Developing a Proposal Argument
    • Examining Visual Arguments: A Proposal Claim
      • Convincing Your Readers That a Problem Exists
      • Explaining the Proposed Solution: Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal
      • Offering a Justification: Convincing Your Readers That the Benefits of Your Proposal Outweigh the Costs
    • Using Heuristic Strategies to Develop Supporting Reasons for Your Proposal
      • The Claim Types Strategy
      • The Stock Issues Strategy
    • For Writing and Discussion: Generating Ideas Using the Claim Types Strategy
    • For Writing and Discussion: Brainstorming Ideas for a Proposal
    • Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements
    • Writing Assignment: A Proposal Argument
      • Exploring Ideas
      • Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake
      • Organizing a Proposal Argument
      • Designing a One-Page Advocacy Poster or Advertisement
      • Designing PowerPoint Slides or Other Visual Aids for a Speech
      • Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument
    • Readings
      • Megan Johnson (Student Essay), A Practical Proposal
      • Ivan Snook (Student Essay), Flirting with Disaster: An Argument against Integrating Women into the Combat Arms
      • Sandy Wainscott (Student Essay), Why McDonald’s Should Sell Meat and Veggie Pies: A Proposal to End Subsidies for Cheap Meat
      • MARCEL DICKE AND ARNOLD VAN HUIS, The Six-Legged Meat of the Future

V. THE RESEARCHED ARGUMENT

  1. Finding and Evaluating Sources
    • Formulating a Research Question Instead of a Topic
    • Thinking Rhetorically About Kinds of Sources
      • Identifying Kinds of Sources Relevant to Your Question
      • Approaching Sources Rhetorically
    • For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Types of Sources
    • Finding Sources
      • Conducting Interviews
      • Gathering Source Data from Surveys or Questionnaires
      • Finding Books and Reference Sources
      • Using Licensed Databases to Find Articles in Scholarly Journals, Magazines, and News Sources
      • Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web
    • Selecting and Evaluating Your Sources and Taking Purposeful Notes
      • Reading with Rhetorical Awareness
      • Evaluating Sources
      • Criteria for Evaluating a Web Source
    • For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing the Rhetorical Elements of Two Websites
      • Taking Purposeful Notes
      • Conclusion
  2. Incorporating Sources into Your Own Argument
    • Using Sources for Your Own Purposes
      • Writer 1: A Causal Argument Showing Alternative Approaches to Reducing Risk of Alcoholism
      • Writer 2: A Proposal Argument Advocating Vegetarianism
      • Writer 3: An Evaluation Argument Looking Skeptically at Vegetarianism
    • For Writing And Discussion: Using a Source for Different Purposes
    • Using Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation
      • Summarizing
      • Paraphrasing
      • Quoting
    • Punctuating Quotations Correctly
      • Quoting a Complete Sentence
      • Quoting Words and Phrases
      • Modifying a Quotation
      • Omitting Something from a Quoted Passage
      • Quoting Something That Contains a Quotation
      • Using a Block Quotation for a Long Passage
    • Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags
      • Attributive Tags versus Parenthetical Citations
      • Creating Attributive Tags to Shape Reader Response
    • Avoiding Plagiarism
      • Why Some Kinds of Plagiarism May Occur Unwittingly
      • Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism
    • For Writing And Discussion: Avoiding Plagiarism
      • Conclusion
  3. Citing and Documenting Sources
    • The Correspondence between In-Text Citations and the End-of-Paper List of Cited Works
    • MLA Style
      • In-Text Citations in MLA Style
      • Works Cited List in MLA Style
      • MLA Works Cited Citation Models
      • MLA-Style Research Paper
    • APA Style
      • In-Text Citations in APA Style
      • References List in APA Style
      • APA References Citation Models
      • APA-Style Research Paper
      • Conclusion

APPENDIX: INFORMAL FALLACIES

  • The Difference Between Formal and Informal Logic

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