Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual: A Hands-on Approach

Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual: A Hands-on Approach, 1st edition

  • Melissa Greene, 
  • Robin Robison, 
  • Lisa Strong

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Overview

Laboratory Manual for Human Anatomy & Physiology maximizes learning with pre-lab, lab, and post-lab activities that include 100+ commissioned anatomical model photos and 50+ lab videos. Images of anatomical models and cadavers reinforce what you learn in a lab, helping you identify and remember key structures.

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2021

ISBN-13: 9780137538331

Table of contents

Lab Exercise 1: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

1A Laboratory Safety
Procedure: Observing and Applying Laboratory Safety Rules

1B The Scientific Method
Procedure: Using the Scientific Method to Compare Arm Span and Height

1C Human Body Systems
Procedure: Identifying the Human Body Systems, Organs, and Functions

1D Anatomical Position and Directional Terminology
Procedure: Demonstrating Anatomical Position and Using Directional Terminology

1E Regional Terminology
Procedure: Using Regional Terminology to Describe Areas of the Body

1F Planes of Section
Procedure: Identifying Planes of Section

1G Body Cavities, Abdominopelvic Quadrants, Abdominopelvic Regions, and Serous Membranes
Procedure 1: Identifying Major Organs within Body Cavities and Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions
Procedure 2: Understanding the Structure of Serous Membranes

Lab Exercise 2: The Chemistry of Life

2A The Periodic Table, Atomic Structure, and Chemical Bonds
Procedure 1: Using the Periodic Table to Determine Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, and Number of Subatomic Particles
Procedure 2: Using the Periodic Table to Draw Atomic Structure
Procedure 3: Drawing Chemical Bonds

2B Enzymes
Procedure: Determining Enzyme-Substrate Specificity of Lactase on Lactose, Sucrose, and Maltose

2C pH
Procedure: Determining the pH of Various Household Chemicals

2D Organic Molecules
Procedure 1: Testing for the Presence of Monosaccharaides and Disaccharides
Procedure 2: Testing for the Presence of Starch
Procedure 3: Testing for the Presence of Peptides and Proteins
Procedure 4: Testing for the Presence of Lipid
Procedure 5: Determining the Chemical Composition of Various Foods
Procedure 6: Extracting Human DNA from Cheek Cells

Lab Exercise 3: The Cell

3A Microscopy
Procedure 1: Exploring the Parts of a Compound Light Microscope
Procedure 2: Calculating Total Magnification
Procedure 3: Focusing a Compound Light Microscope
Procedure 4: Estimating the Diameter of the Microscope Field
Procedure 5: Determining Depth of Field
Procedure 6: Working with a Dissecting Microscope

3B Cell Structure
Procedure 1: Identifying Cellular Organelles and Structures
Procedure 2: Preparing a Wet Mount and Observing Cheek Cells
Procedure 3: Observing Various Types of Cells

3C Membrane Function
Procedure 1: Examining the Effects of Temperature on the Rate of Diffusion
Procedure 2: Observing Diffusion across a Selectively Permeable Membrane
Procedure 3: Examining the Effect of Tonicity on Osmosis
Procedure 4: Examining the Effects of Particle Size on Filtration

3D The Cell Cycle
Procedure: Identifying the Stages of the Cell Cycle and Mitosis

3E PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion)
PEx Activity 2: Simulated Facilitated Diffusion
PEx Activity 3: Simulating Osmotic Pressure
PEx Activity 4: Simulating Filtration
PEx Activity 5: Simulating Active Transport

Lab Exercise 4: Histology

4A Epithelial Tissue
Procedure: Examining Epithelial Tissue

4B Connective Tissue
Procedure: Examining Connective Tissues

4C Muscle Tissue
Procedure: Examining Muscle Tissue

4D Nervous Tissue
Procedure: Examining Nervous Tissue

Lab Exercise 5: The Integumentary System

5A The Skin
Procedure 1: Identifying Layers and Structures of the Skin
Procedure 2: Identifying Fingerprint Patterns

5B Accessory Structures
Procedure 1: Examining Hair Structure
Procedure 2: Examining Nail Structure
Procedure 3: Comparing Skin Glands

Lab Exercise 6: Bones and Bone Tissue

6A Gross Anatomy of Bone
Procedure 1: Identifying Bones Based on Shape
Procedure 2: Identifying the Parts of a Typical Long Bone

6B Microscopic Bone Structure
Procedure 1: Examining Microscopic Structure of Bone
Procedure 2: Examining Bone Matrix

Lab Exercise 7: The Skeletal System

7A Overview of the Skeletal System
Procedure 1: Identifying Major Bones of the Skeletal System
Procedure 2: Understanding Terminology Associated with Bone Markings

7B The Skull
Procedure 1: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Adult Skull
Procedure 2: Examining the Fetal Skull

7C The Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage
Procedure 1: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Vertebral Column
Procedure 2: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Thoracic Cage

7D The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
Procedure 1: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

7E The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
Procedure: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Pelvic and Lower Limb

Lab Exercise 8: Articulations

8A Classifications of Joints
Procedure 1: Identifying Joints
Procedure 2: Identifying the Components of a Synovial Joint

8B Synovial Joints
Procedure 1: Classifying Synovial Joints
Procedure 2: Demonstrating Synovial Joint Movements
Procedure 3: Examining the Elbow, Knee, Shoulder, and Hip Joints

Lab Exercise 9: The Muscular System

9A Overview of Skeletal Muscles
Procedure: Identifying the Major Skeletal Muscles

9B Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Trunk
Procedure: Identifying the Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Trunk

9C Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
Procedure: Identifying the Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

9D Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
Procedure: Identifying the Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

9E Build a Muscle
Procedure: Build a Muscle

Lab Exercise 10: Muscle Tissue and Physiology

10A Overview of Muscle Tissue
Procedure: Identifying the Three Types of Muscle Tissue

10B Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Procedure: Identifying the Structures of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber

10C Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation
Procedure 1: Understanding Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation
Procedure 2: Observing Skeletal Muscle Contraction Using Glycerinated Muscle

10D Isotonic and Isometric Contractions
Procedure: Demonstrating Isotonic and Isometric Contractions

10E Muscle Fatigue
Procedure: Demonstrating Muscle Fatigue

10F PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: The Muscle Twitch and the Latent Period
PEx Activity 2: The Effect of Stimulus Voltage on Skeletal Muscle Contraction
PEx Activity 3: The Effect of Stimulus Frequency on Skeletal Muscle Contraction
PEx Activity 4: Tetanus in Isolated Skeletal Muscle
PEx Activity 5: Fatigue in Isolated Skeletal Muscle
PEx Activity 6: Skeletal Muscle Length-Tension Relationship
PEx Activity 7: Isotonic Contractions and the Load-Velocity Relationship

Lab Exercise 11: Introduction to the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

11A Nervous Tissue
Procedure 1: Identifying the Components of Nervous Tissue
Procedure 2: Exploring the Anatomy of Neurons and Neuroglia

11B Electrophysiology of Neurons
Procedure: Understanding Electrophysiology of Neurons

11C Neuronal Synapses
Procedure 1: Comparing Electrical and Chemical Synapses
Procedure 2: Understanding Chemical Synaptic Transmission

11D PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: The Resting Membrane Potential
PEx Activity 2: Receptor Potential
PEx Activity 3: The Action Potential: Threshold
PEx Activity 4: The Action Potential: Importance of Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels
PEx Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods
PEx Activity 6: The Action Potential: Coding for Stimulus Intensity
PEx Activity 7: The Action Potential: Conduction Velocity
PEx Activity 8: Chemical Synaptic Transmission and Neurotransmitter Release
PEx Activity 9: The Action Potential: Putting It All Together

Lab Exercise 12: The Central Nervous System

12A The Brain
Procedure1: Identifying the Major Structures of the Human Brain and Their Functions
Procedure 2: Dissecting a Preserved Sheep Brain

12B The Spinal Cord
Procedure: Examining Spinal Cord Anatomy

12C Electroencephalography
Procedure: Recording an EEG and Identifying Brain Waves

Lab Exercise 13: The Peripheral Nervous System

13A Cranial Nerves
Procedure 1: Identifying the Cranial Nerves and Their Functions
Procedure 2: Testing the Response of Cranial Nerves
Procedure 3: Identifying Cranial Nerves on a Preserved Sheep Brain

13B Spinal Nerves
Procedure: Identifying the Spinal Nerves and Their Functions

13C Sensation
Procedure 1: Identifying Sensory Receptors in the Skin
Procedure 2: Determining the Size of a Receptive Field

13D Reflexes
Procedure: Demonstrating Reflex Arcs

Lab Exercise 14: The Autonomic Nervous System and Homeostasis

14A Anatomy of the ANS
Procedure: Identifying Components of the Autonomic Nervous System

14B Physiology of the ANS
Procedure: Examining the Effect of Stress on the ANS

Lab Exercise 15: The Special Senses

15A Overview of the Special Senses
Procedure: Identifying Stimuli Detected and Special Sense Receptors Used

15B Olfaction and Gustation
Procedure 1: Examining the Structures of Olfaction and Gustation
Procedure 2: Examining the Relationship between Smell and Taste

15C Anatomy of the Eye
Procedure 1: Examining the Structures of the Eye
Procedure 2: Dissecting the Preserved Eye

15D Visual Tests and Demonstrations
Procedure 1: Performing the Visual Acuity Test Using the Snellen Eye Chart
Procedure 2: Conducting an Astigmatism Test
Procedure 3: Performing the Near Point of Accommodation Test
Procedure 4: Testing for Color Blindness
Procedure 5: Demonstrating the Pupillary Reflex
Procedure 6: Demonstrating a Blind Spot

15E Anatomy of the Ear
Procedure: Examining the Structures of the Ear

15F Hearing and Equilibrium Tests
Procedure 1: Performing the Auditory Acuity Test
Procedure 2: Performing the Sound Localization Test
Procedure 3: Performing the Weber Test
Procedure 4: Performing the Rinne Test
Procedure 5: Performing the Bárány Test
Procedure 6: Performing the Romberg Test

Lab Exercise 16: The Endocrine System

16A Overview of the Endocrine System
Procedure: Understanding the Endocrine System

16B Anatomy of the Endocrine System
Procedure 1: Examining the Anatomy of the Hypothalamus, Pituitary, and Pineal Glands
Procedure 2: Examining the Anatomy of the Thyroid, Parathyroid, and Thymus
Procedure 3: Examining the Anatomy of the Pancreas
Procedure 4: Examining the Anatomy of the Adrenal Glands
Procedure 5: Examining the Anatomy of the Gonads

16C PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: Metabolism and Thyroid Hormone
PEx Activity 2: Plasma Glucose, Insulin, and Diabetes Mellitus
PEx Activity 3: Hormone Replacement Therapy
PEx Activity 4: Measuring Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Lab Exercise 17: The Cardiovascular System I: The Heart

17A Structure of the Heart
Procedure 1: Identifying the Anatomy of the Heart
Procedure 2: Dissecting a Preserved Heart

17B Blood Flow Pathway through the Heart
Procedure: Tracing the Pathway of Blood through the Heart

17C Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Procedure: Identifying the Components of Cardiac Muscle Tissue

17D The Cardiac Cycle
Procedure 1: Recording Electrical Activity in the Heart
Procedure 2: Auscultating Heart Sounds

17E PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: Investigating the Refractory Period of Cardiac Muscle
PEx Activity 2: Examining the Effect of the Vagus Nerve Stimulation
PEx Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Temperature on Heart Rate
PEx Activity 4: Examining the Effect of Chemical Modifiers on Heart Rate
PEx Activity 5: Examining the Effects of Various Ions on Heart Rate

Lab Exercise 18: The Cardiovascular System II: The Blood Vessels

18A Blood Vessel Anatomy
Procedure: Identifying Blood Vessels and Their Anatomy

18B Major Arteries and Veins
Procedure 1: Identifying Major Arteries and Veins
Procedure 2: Blood Flow Tracing

18C Pulse Palpation and Pulse Rate
Procedure: Palpating Pulse and Calculating Pulse Rate Before and After Exercise

18D Arterial Blood Pressure
Procedure: Measuring Blood Pressure Before and After Exercise

18E Ankle-Brachial Index
Procedure: Determining the Ankle-Brachial Index Using a Doppler Ultrasound Device

18F PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: Studying the Effect of Blood Vessel Radius on Blood Flow Rate
PEx Activity 2: Studying the Effect of Blood Viscosity on Blood Flow Rate
PEx Activity 3: Studying the Effect of Blood Vessel Length on Blood Flow Rate
PEx Activity 4: Studying the Effect of Blood Pressure on Blood Flow Rate
PEx Activity 5: Studying the Effect of Blood Vessel Radius on Pump Activity
PEx Activity 6: Studying the Effect of Stroke Volume on Pump Activity
PEx Activity 7: Compensation in Pathological Cardiovascular Conditions

Lab Exercise 19: Blood

19A Formed Elements of Blood
Procedure 1: Identifying the Formed Elements of Blood
Procedure 2: Performing a Differential White Blood Cell Count

19B Blood Disorders
Procedure 1: Identifying Blood Disorders and Parasitic Infections
Procedure 2: Identifying Vessel Abnormalities and Blood Clots

19C Blood Typing
Procedure 1: Determining Blood Types Using Simulated Blood
Procedure 2: Determining Blood Type Compatibility

19D PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: Hematocrit Determination
PEx Activity 2: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
PEx Activity 3: Hemoglobin Determination
PEx Activity 4: Blood Typing
PEx Activity 5: Blood Cholesterol

Lab Exercise 20: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

20A Overview of the Lymphatic System
Procedure 1: Identifying the Tissues and Organs of the Lymphatic System
Procedure 2: Tracing Lymph Flow
Procedure 3: Examining a Lymphatic Vessel

20B Anatomy of the Lymphatic System
Procedure: Examining Lymphatic Tissue and Organs

20C Immunity
Procedure: Testing for the Presence of the Zika Virus Using a Simulated ELISA Kit

20D PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: Using Direct Fluorescent Antibody Technique to Test for Chlamydia
PEx Activity 2: Comparing Samples with Ouchterlony Double Diffusion
PEx Activity 3: Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
PEx Activity 4: Western Blotting Technique

Lab Exercise 21: The Respiratory System

21A Overview of the Respiratory System
Procedure: Identifying the Organs of the Respiratory System

21B Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Procedure 1: Examining the Structures and Organs of the Upper Respiratory System
Procedure 2: Examining the Structures and Organs of the Lower Respiratory System
Procedure 3: Comparing Healthy Lung Tissue to Damaged Lung Tissue

21C Pulmonary Ventilation
Procedure 1: Understanding Pulmonary Ventilation
Procedure 2: Using a Handheld Spirometer

21D Control of Breathing
Procedure: Demonstrating How Various Factors Affect Breathing

21E PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: Measuring Respiratory Volumes and Calculating Capacities
PEx Activity 2: Comparative Spirometry
PEx Activity 3: Effect of Surfactant and Intrapleural Pressure on Respiration

Lab Exercise 22: The Digestive System

22A Overview of the Digestive System
Procedure 1: Identifying the Organs of the Digestive System
Procedure 2: Examining the Histology of the Alimentary Canal

22B Anatomy of the Digestive System
Procedure 1: Examining the Oral Cavity and Pharynx
Procedure 2: Examining the Esophagus and Stomach
Procedure 3: Examining the Intestines
Procedure 4: Examining the Accessory Organs of the Digestive System

22C Nutrient Digestion
Procedure 1: Investigating Amylase Activity
Procedure 2: Investigating Pepsin Activity
Procedure 3: Investigating Lipase Activity

22D PhysioEx™ Activities

PEx Activity 1: Assessing Starch Digestion by Salivary Amylase
PEx Activity 2: Exploring Amylase Substrate Specificity
PEx Activity 3: Assessing Pepsin Digestion of Protein
PEx Activity 4: Assessing Lipase Digestion of Fat

Lab Exercise 23: Metabolism and Nutrition

23A Overview of Metabolism
Procedure: Examining the Effects of Exercise on Cellular Respiration

23B Nutrition and Body Mass
Procedure 1: Calculating Metabolic Rate
Procedure 2: Calculating Body Mass Index

Lab Exercise 24: The Urinary System

24A Overview of the Urinary System
Procedure: Identifying Organs of the Urinary System

24B Anatomy of the Urinary System
Procedure 1: Examining the Anatomy of the Kidney
Procedure 2: Dissecting a Preserved Kidney
Procedure 3: Identifying the Blood Vessels of a Kidney
Procedure 4: Identifying the Components of a Nephron
Procedure 5: Examining the Anatomy of the Urinary Tract

24C Physiology of the Urinary System
Procedure 1: Understanding the Big Picture of Renal Physiology
Procedure 2: Tracing the Flow of Fluid through the Urinary System
Procedure 3: Performing a Urinalysis

24D PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: The Effect of Arteriole Radius on Glomerular Filtration
PEx Activity 2: The Effect of Pressure on Glomerular Filtration
PEx Activity 3: Renal Response to Altered Blood Pressure
PEx Activity 4: Solute Gradients and Their Impact on Urine Concentration
PEx Activity 5: Reabsorption of Glucose via Carrier Proteins
PEx Activity 6: The Effect of Hormones on Urine Formation

Lab Exercise 25: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis

25A Homeostasis
Procedure: Examining the Effects of Buffers

25B PhysioEx™ Activities
PEx Activity 1: Hyperventilation
PEx Activity 2: Rebreathing
PEx Activity 3: Renal Responses to Respiratory Acidosis and Respiratory Alkalosis
PEx Activity 4: Respiratory Responses to Metabolic Acidosis

Lab Exercise 26: The Reproductive System

26A Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
Procedure 1: Examining Male Reproductive System Organs and Structures
Procedure 2: Tracing Sperm from Production to Ejaculation

26B Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
Procedure: Examining Female Reproductive Organs and Structures

26C Physiology of the Reproductive Systems
Procedure 1: Identifying the Stages of Meiosis
Procedure 2: Examining Sperm
Procedure 3: Understanding Hormonal Regulation of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
Procedure 4: Examining Ovarian Follicles

Lab Exercise 27: Human Development

27A Overview of Human Development
Procedure: Identifying Events during Prenatal Development

27B Pregnancy and Childbirth
Procedure: Identifying Events during Childbirth

Cat Dissection Exercises
1. The Muscular System of the Cat
2. The Spinal Nerves of the Cat
3. The Respiratory System of the Cat
4. The Digestive System of the Cat
5. The Cardiovascular System of the Cat
6. The Urinary System of the Cat
7. The Reproductive System of the Cat

Pig Dissection Exercises
1. Examining Surface Anatomy and Preparing the Fetal Pig for Dissection
2. Skeletal Muscles of the Fetal Pig
3. Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves of the Fetal Pig
4. Endocrine System of the Fetal Pig
5. Cardiovascular System of the Fetal Pig
6. Digestive System of the Fetal Pig
7. Respiratory System of the Fetal Pig
8. Urinary System of the Fetal Pig
9. Reproductive System of the Fetal Pig

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