Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, 3rd edition

  • Karen C. Timberlake

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Overview

The Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry is your guide to success in the chemistry lab. The text contains 35 experiments related to the content of general, organic, and biological chemistry courses, as well as basic/preparatory chemistry courses. Clear instructions and strategic questions ensure that you're prepared at the start and able to reinforce your learning at the conclusion of each experiment. Exercises requiring additional calculations and critical thinking will help you apply lab concepts to real life.

The 3rd Edition includes new art, including figures to help you visualize chemical concepts and updated diagrams of laboratory equipment. Laboratory Goals and Lab Information have also been added preceding each experiment to help focus and inform your efforts.

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2014

ISBN-13: 9780137538614

Table of contents

Preface
To the Student
Using This Laboratory Manual
Working Safely in the Laboratory
Commitment to Safety in the Laboratory
A Visual Guide to Laboratory Equipment
Graphing Experimental Data
Using the Laboratory Burner
Using a Pipet

1. Measurement and Significant Figures
Measuring Length
Measuring Volume
Measuring Mass

2. Conversion Factors and Problem Solving
Rounding Off
Significant Figures in Calculations
Equalities and Conversion Factors
Problem Solving Using Conversion Factors

3. Density and Specific Gravity
Density of a Liquid
Specific Gravity
Density of a Solid
Graphing Mass and Volume

4. Temperature and Specific Heat
Temperature
Specific Heat of a Metal
Energy and Nutrition
Energy Values for Foods

5. Energy and Matter
A Heating Curve for Water
Graphing a Cooling Curve for Salol
Energy in Changes of State: Heat of Fusion

6. Atoms and Elements
Elements and Symbols
The Periodic Table
The Atoms
Isotopes and Atomic Mass

7. Electronic Configuration and Periodic Properties
Flame Tests
Electron Configurations
Atomic Radius

8. Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Equations
Radiation Measurement
Radiation Levels from Radioactive Sources
Effect of Shielding on Radiation Level
Effect of Time on Radiation Level
Effect of Distance on Radiation Level

9. Compounds and Their Bonds
Ions: Transfer of Electrons
Ionic Compounds and Formulas
Metals in Ionic Compounds with Variable Charge
Polyatomic Ions
Molecular Compounds
Electron-Dot Formulas and Molecular Shape

10. Chemical Reactions and Equations
Magnesium and Oxygen
Zinc and Copper (II) Sulfate
Reactions of Metals and HCl
Reactions of Ionic Compounds
Sodium Carbonate and HCl
Hydrogen Perioxide

11. Moles and Chemical Formulas
Finding the Simplest Formula
Formula of a Hydrate 114

12. Gas Laws
Boyle's Law
Charles's Law

13. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Air
Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere
Carbon Dioxide in the Expired Air

14. Solutions, Electrolytes, and Concentration
Polarity of Solutes and Solvents
Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Electrolytes in Body Fluids
Concentration of a Sodium Chloride Solution

15. Soluble and Insoluble Salts
Soluble and Insoluble Salts
Solubility of KNO3
Testing the hardness of Water
Purification of Water

16. Testing for Cations and Anions
Flames Tests for K+ , Ca2+ , and Na+ Ions
Tests for Ammonium Ion, NH4+ , and Iron(III) Ion, Fe3+
Tests for Negative Ions (Anions)
Writing the Formula of Your Unknown Salt
Testing Consumer Products for Some Cations and Anions

17. Properties of Solutions
Identification Tests
Osmosis and Dialysis
Filtration

18. Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium
Factors That Affect the Rate of a Reaction
Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible Reactions
Changing Equilibrium Conditions: Le Châtelier's Principle

19. Acids, Bases, pH and Buffers
Reference Colors for pH Using Red Cabbage Indicator
Measuring pH
Effect of Buffers on pH

20. Acid-Base Titration
Acetic Acid in Vinegar
Titration of an Antacid

21. Organic Compounds: Alkanes
Comparison of Organic and Inorganic Compounds
Alkanes
Functional Groups

22. Reactions of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Types of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Addition Reaction: Bromine Test
Oxidation: Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4 ) Test
Identification of Unknown

23. Alcohols and Phenols
Structures of Alcohols and Phenol
Properties of Alcohols and Phenol
Oxidation of Alcohols
Ferric Chloride Test
Identification of Unknown

24. Aldehydes and Ketones
Structures of Some Aldehydes and Ketones
Odor of Aldehydes and Ketones
Solubility, Iodoform Test, and Benedict's

25. Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Carboxylic Acids and Their Salts
Esters
Saponificiation

26. Aspirin and Other Analgesics
Preparation of Aspirin
Testing Aspirin Products
Analysis of Analgesics

27. Amines and Amides
Structure, Classification, and Solubility of Amines
Neutralization of Amines with Acid
Amides
Hydrolysis of an Amide

28. Synthesis of Acetaminophen
Synthesis of Acetaminophen

29. Types of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides

30. Tests for Carbohydrates
Benedict's Test for Reducing Sugars
Seliwanoff's Test for Ketoses
Fermentation Test
Iodine Test for Polysaccharides
Hydrolysis of Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
Testing Foods for Carbohydrates

31. Lipids
Physical Properties of Lipids and Fatty Acids
Triacylglycerols
Bromine Test for Unsaturation
Preparation of Hand Lotion

32. Saponification and Soaps
Saponification: Preparation of Soap
Properties of Soap and Detergents

33. Amino Acids
Amino Acids
Chromatography of Amino Acids

34. Peptides and Proteins
Peptides
Proteins
Denaturation of Proteins
Isolation of Casein (Milk Protein)
Color Tests for Proteins

35. Enzymes
Effect of Enzyme Concentration
Effect of Temperature
Effect of pH
Inhibition of Enzyme Activity

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