Fundamental Concepts of Educational Leadership and Management, 3rd edition

  • Taher A. Razik, 
  • Austin D. Swanson

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1. The Imperative for Educational Reform
Adapting to a Global Society
Causes for Concern
International Comparisons of Academic Achievement
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Trends
Links between Education and Economic Considerations
Family and Peer Influences on School Success
The Education Reform Movement
Waves of Educational Reform
Emerging Patterns of Reform
The Scope and Structure of School Governance
The Historical Development of Public Education
The Current Organization of School Governance
Summary and Fundamental Concepts

2. The Power of Systems Thinking for Educational Change
Conceptualizing Systems
The Development of Systems Thinking
Systems Definitions
Systems Frameworks
Systems Properties Explored
Other Properties of Systems
Complex Systems
Organizational Implications of Systems Thinking
Groundbreaking: Early Organizational Theories
Changes in Management Roles and Contexts
Organizational Change
Contingency Theory
Misconceptions About Systems Thinking
Systemic Interventions
Feedback Requirements
Looking Toward the Future
Unrest in Organizations
Regulating Variety in Organizations
Metaphor and System Modeling in Educational Administration
Liberating Systems Theory: The Critical Stance
Summary and Fundamental Concepts
Case Study

3. Schools as Organizational Systems
Ways of Thinking about Organizations
Systems Thinking and Learning Organizations
Systems Thinking in Education
Learning Organizations
Internal Processes of Organizations
Decision Making
Other Characteristics of Organizations
Size, Structure, and Complexity
Organizational Health and Effectiveness
Images of Organizations
The Machine Metaphor
The Organism Metaphor
The Brain Metaphor
Metaphors of New Science
Self-Organizing Organizations
Reflections on Organizational Theory and Practice
Conflicts Between Theory and Practice
Psychic Prisons
A Fruitful Field for Further Study
Summary and Fundamental Concepts
Case Study

4. Leadership for Learning Organizations
Leadership or Management
Conceptualizing Leadership
Leadership Trait Theories
Behavioral Theory
Power Influence
Leadership Styles
Contingency Theories and Models
Situational Determinants Theories and Models
Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Multiple Approaches to Leadership
Leadership within a Cultural Context
Women in Authority
Leadership for Sustainable Change
A New Paradigm for Leadership
Summary and Fundamental Concepts
Case Study

5. Human Relations: The Base for Educational Leadership
The Development of Human Relations Concepts
The Stage of Classical Thinking (Pre-1930's)
The Stage of Systematic Development (1930-1950)
The Stage of Teaching and Practice (1950-1960)
The Stage of Refinement (1960-1970)
The Stage of Decline (1970-1980)
The Stage of Evolving (1980- Present)
Conceptualizing Human Relations Theories
Definitions of Human Relations
Optimistic Assumptions of Human Nature
Clinical and Ethical Dimensions
The Importance of Human Needs
Human Motivation and Human Behavior
The Role of Motivation in Performance
Morale and Productivity
The Significance of Informal Organizations
The Application of Human Relations Concepts
Theoretical Perspectives of Human Relations
Human Nature
Theory X and Theory Y
Pygmalion Leadership
Human Motivation
Process Models
Expectancy Models
Behaviorist Models
Social Learning Models
Content Models
Common Human Needs
Leadership Considerations
Motivation at Work
Morale in Organizations
Major Morale Factors
Morale, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity
Approaches to Studying Morale
The Quality of Work Life
Informal Organizations
Informal Leaders
The Effects of Informal Organizations
The Inevitability of Informal Organizations
Human Relations Theory in Educational Administration
Democratic Educational Administration
The Human Relations Movement in Education
From Democratic Administration to Human Relations Management
The Effects of the Human Relations Movement on Educational Administration
A New Frame of Leadership
A New Paradigm for Educational Leadership
A Motivational Model for Educational Leadership
Contemporary Issues in Human Relations
Summary and Fundamental Concepts
Case Study

6. Communication: The Breath of Organizational Life
Systemic Metaphors of Communication
Theory Building and Judgment
Diversity in Communication Theories: A Twenty-First Century Paradox
Theory Genres in Communication
Metaphors and Assumptions in Organizational Communication
Distinguishing Features of Organizational Communication
Factors Affecting Clarity, Credibility, and Directionality of Organizational Messages
Types of Message Directionality
Other Factors Affecting Organizational Communication
A Sampling of Approaches to Organizational Communication
Structural and Functional Approaches
Behavioral Approaches
Approaches Related to the Process of Organizing
Socio-psychological Perspective on Individual Communication in Organizations
Pathways to the Future
Synthesizing Known Principles of Organizational Communication
Combining the Metaphors
Moving Forward: Potential New Directions
Creating Effective Communication in an Organization
Summary and Fundamental Concepts
Case Study

7. The Impact of Personal Values on Decision Outcomes
Philosophical Guides to Leadership
Realism, Logical Positivism, and Postpositivism
Critical Theory
Interpretivistic Theory/Constructivism
Implications for Inquiry and Practice
Value and Value Systems
Values Defined
Values and Archetypes of Leadership
Values as Part of Organizational Cultures
Organizational Leadership: Values and Vision
Values, Democracy, and Followership
Values Analysis
Reflection in Practice
Identifying Theories-in-Practice of Organizations
Value Analysis of Problems
Inquiry into Educational Issues
Paradigms of Inquiry
Inquiry and Educational Administration
Quandaries of Inquiry
Simple to Complex
Heirarchical to Heterarchical
Determenacy to Indetermenacy
Linear Causality to Mutual Causality
Assembly to Morphogenesis
Objective to Perceptual
Inquiry Processes and the Paradigm Debates
Summary and Fundamental Concepts
Case Study

8. Evaluation
Educational Evaluation: A Brief History
The Early Beginnings of Evaluation
The Modern Development Stages of Evaluation
The Basic Aspects of Educational Evaluation
Commonality Within Diversity
Evaluation Modes and Purposes
Evaluation Targets and Processes
Evaluation Perspectives and Models
Applications of Educational Evaluation
Perspectives on Teaching and Teacher Evaluation
Purposes of Teacher Evaluation
Teacher Evaluation Methods
Teacher Evaluation Models
Evaluation: Administrators
Purposes of Administrative Evaluation
Principles of Administrative Evaluation
Administrative Evaluation Models
Program Evaluation
Perspectives on Program Evaluation
Program Evaluation Approaches and Models
Examples of Program Evaluation Models
Standards and Requirements for Educational Evaluation
Requirements for Conducting Evaluations
Evaluation and Accountability
The Future
Summary and Fundamental Concepts
Case Study

9. The Role of Information Technology
Types of Information Systems and Their Uses
Informal Information Systems
Formal Information Systems
Types of Information Systems
Integrated Information Systems
Using Information Systems
The Role of Information Technology in Instruction and Learning
Technological Change and Education
Emerging Information Age Schools
Personalization/Individualization of Instruction
New Roles for Teachers and Other Staff
Prototype and Implemented Integrated Information Systems to Manage Individualized Instruction
The Information Age System
The Breakthrough System
Making Schools Smarter System
Student@Centre Internet and CASE21
Summary and Fundamental Concepts

10. Educational Policy Formulation in a Mixed Economy
Education: A Public and Private Good
The Influence of the Marketplace on Public Policy
The Free Market
Government and the Market
Issues Involved in Governmental Intervention
When Should the Government Intervene?
External Economics
Extraordinary Risks
Natural Monopolies
Other Reasons for Intervention
Alternative Methods of Governmental Intervention
Allocation of Authority among Levels of Government and Individuals
Models of Political Decision Making
Systems Theory
Group Theory
Elite Theory
Distinctions between Judicial and Legislative Influence on Educational Policy Formulation
Impact of Collective Bargaining on Policy Formulation
Examining Educational Reform Efforts within Political Frameworks
Reform at the District Level
State Level Reforms
Summary and Fundamental Concepts

11. District and School-Based Decision Making: Strategy Formation and Planning
Decision-Making Models
Normative Models
The Economic Model
The Expected Utility Model
Descriptive Models
The Administrative Model
Idiographic Factors that Influence Decision Making
Decision-making Heuristics and Biases
Anchoring and Adjustment
Confirmation Bias
Hindsight Bias
Group and Participative Decision Making
Common Errors in Administrative Decision Making
The Implications of Systems Theory and Decision Making
Strategy Formation and Planning at the District and School Levels
Strategy Formation
Mission Statements
Belief Statements
Strategic Policies
Intermediate Planning
Internal and External Analyses
Gap Analyses
Strategic Objectives
Integrated Action Plans
Tactical Planning Including Budgeting
Tactical Planning
School-Based Decision Making
Arguments for Administrative Decentralization
School-Level Strategy Formation and Planning
School Based Budgeting
Summary and Fundamental Concepts
Case Study

12. The Allocation of Resources to and within Educational Organizations: Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency
Equity in the Allocation of Resources to Schooling
The Extent of Inequities in Resource Allocation
Intra-district Equity Studies
Summary of Horizontal Equity Considerations
Defining and Measuring Adequacy
Econometric Approaches
Empirical Approaches
Using Whole School Reform Models and Professional Expertise
Promoting High Student Achievement Efficiently
External Efficiency
Rate of Return Approach
Internal Efficiency
Education Production Functions
Production Functions Explained
Illustrative Production Functions Studies
Technical Efficiency
Effective Schools Research
Evaluation Studies
School Reform Networks
Economies and Diseconomies of Scale
Aligning Economic and Technical Efficiency
Current Practice
Rethinking the Allocation of Teacher Resources
Summary and Fundamental Concepts

13. Systemic Change
Basic Issues
What Is Change?
Types of Change
Resistance to Change
Theoretical Implications of Change
Strategies for Change
Models for Planned Change and Their Use
Problem-Solving Models
Research—Development—Diffusion—Utilization Models
Social Interaction Models
Linkage Models
Organizational Variables within Models
Leadership and Change
What Is a Change Agent or Change System?
Characteristics of Effective Change Agents
Functions of Effective Change Agents
Managing Planned Change
Decision Making
Effecting Educational Change
Models for Educational Change
Phases of Educational Change
Effective Change Agents in Schools
Planning for a Changing Future in Education
The Fate of Educational Changes
Problematic Features of Change
Challenge and Opportunity
Summary and Fundamental Concepts
Case Studies

14. Educational Leadership in a Flat World
The Challenge
Responses to the Challenge
Structural Reform
Standards-Based Accountability
Parental Choice of Schooling
School-Based Decision Making
School Reforms
Whole-School Reform
Small Schools
Extended School Day and Year
Curricular Reforms
Subject Matter
Individualized Instruction
Professional Development
Critique of the Reform Efforts
Systems Theory as a Guide for Education Leaders
Implications for Persons in Leadership Positions in Education
Coordinating a System of Schools
Transformational Leadership
Moral Leadership
School Culture and Participatory Democracy
Parting Thoughts
Name Index
Subject Index

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2010

ISBN-13: 9780137549481

Subject: Educational Leadership

Category: Introduction to Educational Leadership

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