Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations, 7th edition

  • Virginia Peck Richmond, 
  • James C. McCroskey, 
  • Mark L. Hickson

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Grounded in the social-scientific approach, Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations offers students a clear and accessible insight into the principles of nonverbal communication and their applications in real world scenarios.


Engaging features throughout the book prompt self-assessment and application, providing students with a grasp of nonverbal immediacy and a deep understanding of how influential nonverbal communication is to basic human communication. Students attain the fundamental knowledge of nonverbal communication and behaviors and the resulting outcomes, while simultaneously exploring the application of nonverbal communication in a variety of settings, including dating, school, work, internationally, and in the courtroom.

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2012

ISBN-13: 9780137612994

Subject: Communication

Category: Communication Styles & Methods


Table of Contents

  • Preface
  1. Communication and Nonverbal Behavior
    • Myths about Nonverbal Communication
    • Nonverbal versus Verbal Messages
    • The Linguistic Distinction
    • The Continuity Distinction
    • The Processing Distinction
    • The Outcome Distinction
    • The Absolute Distinction
    • Intentionality and Nonverbal Communication
    • Culture and Nonverbal Communication
    • Functions of Nonverbal Messages
    • Complementing
    • Contradicting
    • Accenting
    • Repeating
    • Regulating
    • Substituting
    • Categories of Nonverbal Messages
    • Physical Appearance
    • Gesture and Movement
    • Face and Eye Behavior
    • Vocal Behavior
    • Space
    • Touch
    • Environment
    • Time
    • Glossary of Terminology
  2. Physical Appearance
    • Attractiveness
    • Types of Attractiveness
    • What Is Attractive Today May Be Out Tomorrow
    • Image Fixation
    • Judgments Generated
    • Attractiveness: A Double-Edged Sword?
    • Effects of Attractiveness
    • Personal Body Concept
    • Nonverbal Messages of Body Shape and Size
    • Nonverbal Messages of Height, Weight, and Skin Color
    • Nonverbal Messages of Hair
    • Appearance and Dress
    • Why Do People Dress the Way They Do?
    • Generalizations about Dress
    • Artifacts and Accessories
    • Glossary of Terminology
  3. Gesture and Movement
    • A Theoretical Look at Gesture and Movement
    • Structural Approach to Kinesics
    • External Variable Approach to Kinesics
    • Types of Gesture and Movement
    • Emblems
    • Illustrators
    • Regulators
    • Affect Displays
    • Adaptors
    • Deception cues
    • Posture
    • How Does Posture Communicate?
    • Communicative Potential of Posture
    • Movement and COMMUNICATOR STYLE
    • The Dramatic Style
    • The Dominant Style
    • The Animated Style
    • The Relaxed Style
    • The Attentive Style
    • The Open Style
    • The Friendly Style
    • The Contentious Style
    • The Impression-Leaving Style
    • General Communicator Styles
    • Effects of Body Movements and Gestures
    • Communicator Style
    • Simplifying Encoding and Decoding
    • Role of Illustrators in Decoding
    • Positive and Negative Perceptions
    • Research on Immediacy
    • Glossary of Terminology
  4. Facial Behavior
    • Importance of Facial Expressions
    • Perspectives on Acquisition and Development
    • Perspective 1: Evolution and Natural Selection
    • Perspective 2: External Factors
    • Perspective 3: Innate and Learned
    • Facial Management and Expression of Emotion
    • Styles of Facial Expressions
    • Primary Affect Displays and Communication
    • Variations of Facial Expressions
    • Glossary of Terminology
  5. Eye Behavior
    • Properties and Functions of Eye Behavior
    • Properties of Eye Behavior
    • Functions of Eye Behavior
    • Types of Eye Behaviors
    • CLEMs
    • Eye Behavior and Individual Differences
    • Nature of Relationships
    • Cultural Differences
    • Contextual Differences
    • Personality Differences
    • Gender Differences
    • Glossary of Terminology
  6. Vocal Behavior
    • Categories of Vocal Behavior
    • Voice Set
    • Voice Qualities and Vocalizations
    • Voice Printing
    • Silence and Pauses
    • Uses of Silence in Communication
    • Vocal Behavior and Turn-Interaction Management
    • Turn-Maintaining
    • Turn-Yielding
    • Turn-Requesting
    • Turn-Denying
    • Interruptions
    • Accent and Dialect
    • Effects of Vocal Behavior
    • Vocal Behavior and Emotions
    • Vocal Behavior and Personality
    • Vocal Behavior and Learning
    • Vocal Behavior and Persuasion
    • Vocal Behavior and Attractiveness
    • Vocal Behavior and Confidence
    • Vocal Characteristics of Good Delivery
    • Glossary of Terminology
  7. Space and Territoriality
    • Phenomenon of Territoriality
    • Categories of Territory
    • Territorial Defense and Encroachment
    • Types of Negative Encroachment
    • Encroachment Reactions
    • Factors Influencing Territorial Defense
    • Personal Space
    • Interpersonal Distance
    • Gender Differences
    • Cultural Differences
    • Age Differences
    • Personality Differences
    • Stigmas
    • Psychiatric and Deviant Groups
    • Crowding and Density
    • The Impact of High Density
    • Glossary of Terminology
  8. Touch and Communication
    • Life-Span Development and Touch
    • Touch in Animals
    • Human Development
    • Categories of Touch
    • Professional-Functional Touch
    • Social-Polite Touch
    • Friendship-Warmth Touch
    • Love-Intimacy Touch
    • Sexual-Arousal Touch
    • Touch Norms and Communication
    • Cultural Differences
    • Gender Differences
    • Touch Apprehension
    • What Does Touch Communicate?
    • Touch and Emotion
    • Touch and Status
    • Touch and Self-Intimacy
    • Effects of Touch Deprivation
    • Glossary of Terminology
  9. Environment and Physical Surroundings
    • Perceptual Characteristics of Environment
    • Perception of Formality
    • Perception of Warmth
    • Perception of Privacy
    • Perception of Familiarity
    • Perception of Constraint
    • Perception of Distance
    • Architecture and Environment
    • Spatial Arrangement
    • The Shapes of Tables
    • Seating Arrangement
    • Arrangement of Office Space
    • Other Environmental Factors
    • Environmental Attractiveness
    • Color in the Environment
    • Lighting in the Environment
    • Temperature and the Environment
    • Scent and Smell
    • Importance of Scents
    • Glossary of Terminology
  10. Time
    • Time Orientations
    • Psychological Time Orientation
    • Biological Time Orientation
    • Cultural Time Orientation
    • Punctuality
    • Monochronic and Polychronic Time
    • Effects of the Use of Time
    • Glossary of Terminology
  11. Immediacy and Communication
    • Immediacy
    • Verbal Immediacy
    • Nonverbal Behaviors
    • Nonverbal Immediacy
    • Physical Appearance
    • Gesture and Body Movements
    • Facial Expression and Eye Behavior
    • Vocal Behavior
    • Spatial Behavior
    • Tactile Behavior
    • Environmental Factors
    • Scent and Smell
    • Temporal Factors
    • Outcomes of Immediacy
    • Increased Liking, Affiliation, and Affect
    • More Approachable Communication Style
    • More Responsiveness, Understanding, and Assertiveness
    • Increased Solidarity between Participants
    • Decreased Anxiety
    • Decreased Status Differences
    • Increased Perceptions of Communication Competence
    • Drawbacks of Immediacy
    • Glossary of Terminology
  12. Female-Male Nonverbal Communication
    • Definition Issues: Sex and Gender
    • Development of Nonverbal Behavior in Females and Males
    • Distinctive and Similar Characteristics: The Dilemma
    • Appearance and Attractiveness
    • Gesture and Movement
    • Face and Eye Behavior
    • Vocal Behavior
    • Space
    • Touch
    • Liking and Courtship of the American Female and Male
    • Avoiding Problems
    • Nonverbal Sensitivity
    • Advantages of Immediacy
    • Disadvantages of Immediacy
    • The Androgynous Person
    • Glossary of Terminology
  13. Supervisor and Employee Relationships
    • Distinctive Characteristics
    • Role of Nonverbal Messages
    • Physical Appearance
    • Gesture and Movement
    • Face and Eye Behavior
    • Vocal Behavior
    • Space
    • Touch
    • Environment
    • Time
    • Conclusions about Supervisor-Employee Relationships
    • Immediacy in the Workplace
    • Advantages of Immediacy
    • Disadvantages of Immediacy


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