Concise Guide to DNS and BIND, The, 1st edition

  • Nicolai Langfeldt

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The Concise Guide to DNS and BIND provides you with the technical depth and expert-level information you need to understand and administer DNS and BIND. Domain Name System (DNS) is a distributed Internet directory service. It is used mainly to translate between domain names and IP addresses, and to control Internet email delivery. Most Internet services rely on DNS to work, and if DNS fails, Web sites cannot be located and email delivery stalls. BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Daemon) is an implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols. This book covers setting up a DNS server and client, DNS domain zones, compiling and configuring BIND, dial-up connections, adding more domains, setting up root servers on private networks, firewall rules, Dynamic DNS (DDNS), subdomains and delegation, caching and name resolution, troubleshooting tools and techniques, debugging and logging, new features in BIND 8.2.2, and it offers introductory information on BIND 9.

Table of contents


About This Book. The Internet Before DNS. DNS to the Rescue. The Versions of BIND. If It's Worth Doing, It's Worth Doing Right.


1. DNS Concepts.

DNS Is a Hierarchic, Distributed Database. What Is a Domain?

Zones and Delegation. Reverse Zones. Duplication and Distribution of Zones. How Resolution Works.

A Records. Recursion. NS Records. CNAME Records. PTR Records. A Reverse Lookup.

DNS as a Tree.

2. DNS in Practice.

The BIND Software.

ISC. Where to Get BIND. Compiling BIND.

Configuring BIND.

named.conf. root.hints. pz/127.0.0.

Testing It All.

ndc: Starting, Restarting, and Reloading BIND. Testing the Zone Files. The Details of DNS Caching.

Resolver Setup.

/etc/resolv.conf. Other Files. Client Resolver.

A Zone.

A Forward Zone. A Reverse Zone. Another Zone.

Subdomains and Delegation. Reverse Delegations for Classless Nets. Secondary Servers.

Adding a Slave Server. Stealth Servers. NOTIFY.

3. Maintenance and Enhancements.

More Practical Details. Maintaining and Changing Zones.

How SOA Records Controls DNS.

DNS Round Robin and Load Distribution. The Trouble with CNAME Records. Wildcard Records.

Restrictions on Wildcards. The Problem with Wildcards.

Logs and Debugging.

BINDs Start, Reload, and Reconfig Logging. Logging Channels. Logging Categories. BINDs Default Logging Configuration. Controlling Debug Logging.

Adding More Domains. Contingency Planning.

Internal Redundance. External Redundance. Extended Outages.

Practical Uses of Forwarding.

The Australian Academic and Research Network. Forwarding in Your Network.

Maintaining the root.hints File.

4. Getting a Domain.

Top-Level Domains and Their Owners.

Finding the TLD Owners. Finding the Reverse Zone Owners. The whois Database.

Getting the Domain.

Slave Servers. When Your Domain Is Taken.

Paying for Everything.


5. Using Dig and nslookup.


Query Type. Query Options. Dig Options. Dig Batch Files. Dig's Output. Using Dig.


6. Troubleshooting DNS.

Staying Out of Trouble. Network Problems. Delegation Problems. Reverse Lookup Problems. Masters, Slaves, and Serial Numbers. Caching and TTLs. Zone Data Mistakes. The Log File(s).

Zone File and Configuration Errors. Zone Transfers, Slave Zones. Dynamic DNS. Resolving. Miscellaneous.

7. The DNS Tool Chest.

The Internet.

Internet-Based Tools.

Maintenance Tools.

h2n. Webmin. Mkrdns.

Quality Control.

dnswalk. DOC. nslint. nsping.

8. Security Concerns.

About Security. How Secure Is DNS and BIND?

Spoofing DNS. ACLs. Blackholing. Bad Servers.

Resource Use.

Cache Cleaning. Zone Transfers.

chroot and Least Privilege. Query ID Pool. Hiding Your BIND Version. BIND 9 and DNSSEC. DNS on Firewalls. Firewall Rules and DNS. Split DNS, NAT, and Network Hiding.

Split DNS on a Firewall. Large Networks and Split DNS.

9. Dynamic DNS.

Of RRsets. Of Masters and Slaves.

Accepting and Doing Updates.

The DNS Server. The Dynamic Zone. The Client.

Slave Server Issues. Reverse Zones. A One Host Zone. DHCP.

Mixing DNS and DHCP Implementations. DHCP and Static DNS Entries. DHCP and Dynamic DNS Entries. Dynamic Updates by the Client.

10. DNS and Dial-Up Connections.

Moderating BIND. Cutting Off BIND.

Pulling the Plug. Killing BIND. Packet Filter Rules. Auto-Dialing. IP Routing and Interfaces.

11. DNS on a Closed Network.

In a Simple Network. Internal Rootservers.

A Traditional Rootserver. Stub Zones Only. A Rootserver with Stub Zones.

Slave and Cache Servers. Structuring Your DNS.

12. Interfacing DNS in Programs.

The UNIX Resolver.

gethostbyname and gethostbyaddr. Other Functions in the Resolver.

DNS from Perl.

The Net::DNS Module.

DNS from Python. DNS in Shell Scripts. Asynchronous Resolving.

GNU adns. arlib. DNScache Library.

13. Resource Records.

RRs in Current Use.

A (Address). AAAA (IPv6 Address). ATMA (ATM Address). CNAME (Canonical Name of an Alias). HINFO (Host Information). MX (Mail Exchanger). NS (Authoritative Nameserver). NSAP. PTR (Pointer to Other Name). PX (X.400 Mapping). RP (Responsible Person). RT (Route Through). SOA (Start Of Authority). SRV (Service Locator). TXT (Text Information). X25 (X25 Routing Information).

Experimental RRs.

AFSDB (AFS Database Location). ISDN. KEY (Public Key). LOC (Location). KX (Key Exchange). NULL. NAPTR (Name Authority Pointer). NXT (Next Valid Name). SIG (Signature). SINK (The Kitchen Sink Record).

Obsolete RRs.

EID (Endpoint Identifier). GPOS (Geographical Position). ISDN (ISDN Address). MB (Mailbox). MD (Mail Destination). MF (Mail Forwarder 883). MG (Mail Group Member). MINFO (Mailbox or Mail-List Info). MR (Mail Rename). NIMLOC (NIMROD Locator). NSAP_PTR (NSAP Variant of PTR Record). WKS (Well Known Service).


14. A Guide to BIND.

Migrating from BIND 4 to BIND.

Configuration File Conversion. CNAME. Query Source. Name Checking.

ndc in BIND.

Configuring BIND.

Zones. Glue Fetching. Forwarders. Recursive Servers. Query Logging. Zone Transfers. Resource Limits. Address Sorting. Bogus Nameservers. Inverse Query. Query Domain. Name Checking.


Debugging. Reloading Zones. Zone Access Lists.

15. Compiling and Maintaining BIND.

About BIND. Getting BIND. Keeping It Current. Compiling BIND. Installing BIND. Customizing for Chrooted Environments.

The Chroot Environment. The Scripts.

16. BIND.

The Goals of BIND. Why Use BIND. Compiling BIND. The Documentation.

Administrator Reference Manual. New Configuration Options.

Running BIND.

named. rndc. lwresd.

New Resource Limits. Views. New RRs.

DNAME, Domain Alias. A6, IPv6 Address.

Scalability. Security Enhancements.


IPv6 Support.

17. Miscellany.

How ncd Works.


Address Sorting.

Sortlist. Topology. Sorting Is Out of Band.

Checknames, Legal Hostnames. The Limits of BIND. The Housekeeping of BIND.

Interface Scanning. Zone Transfers. Statistics. Memory Statistics.

The Rest of the Options.

fake-iquery. treat-cr-as-space. min-roots. has-old-clients. auth-nxdomain. rfc2308-type1.


Appendix A. named.conf Man Page.

NAMED.CONF(5) System Programmer's Manual NAMED.CONF(5). NAME. named.conf-configuration file for named(8).

Overview. General Syntax.

Converting from BIND 4.9.x.

Documentation Definitions.

Address Match Lists.

Syntax. Definition and Usage.

The Logging Statement.

Syntax. Definition and Usage. The Channel Phrase. The Category Phrase.

The Options Statement.

Syntax. Definition and Usage. Pathnames. Boolean Options. Resource Limits. Periodic Task Intervals. Topology. Resource Record Sorting. RRset Ordering. Tuning.

The Zone Statement.

Syntax. Definition and Usage. Classes. Options.

The acl Statement.

Syntax. Definition and Usage.

The key Statement.

Syntax. Definition and Usage.

The trusted-keys Statement.

Syntax. Definition and Usage.

The server Statement.

Syntax. Definition and Usage.

The controls Statement.

Syntax. Definition and Usage.

The include Statement.

Syntax. Definition and Usage.

Examples. Files. See Also.

Appendix B. Bibliography.

Books. RFCs.

Notes. Current. Related. Historical Documents.


Published by Que Publishing (November 3rd 2000) - Copyright © 2000