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For courses in crime prevention, introduction to criminal justice, and criminal justice policy.

Balanced, comprehensive introduction to crime control
Crime Control in America: What Works? provides comprehensive coverage of what works in policing, prosecution, courts, and legislative methods of crime control. It also moves beyond the justice system and examines the effectiveness of crime control at the individual, family, school, and community levels. Finally, it covers environmental criminology and explanations of large-scale crime trends. The 4th edition includes new sections covering the most current and controversial topics in crime control, including the alleged Ferguson effect, immigration enforcement, raising the age of majority, and mass shootings.

Table of contents


Chapter 1: Identifying and Evaluating Crime Control
Crime Control and Prevention
The Crime Problem in America
    Types of Crimes
    The Ever-Expanding Criminal Law
    Incidence of Crime
    Costs of Crime and Criminals
    Is Fear of Crime Worse Than Crime Itself?
Approaches, Not Just Policies
    Official Policies, Written and Unwritten
    Unofficial Approaches
On the Importance of Definitions
    Defining the Crime Problem
    Defining the Solution
    Defining the Desired Outcome
Evaluating Success: An Impossible Task?
    The Hard and Soft Sciences
    The Elusive Criminal Justice Experiment
    You Can Prove Anything with Statistics
    Qualitative and Quantitative Research
    Macro- and Micro-Level Crime Control
Displacement and Diffusion
    Measuring Displacement and Diffusion
The Tentative Nature of Scientific Knowledge
    The Measures Used
    When New Data Become Available
    Alternative Settings: The Generalization Problem
    Other Concerns
Funding and Political Priorities
    Academic Crusaders and Bandwagon Science
Evidence-Based Justice
    Effective Does Not Always Mean Best
A Preview of the Book
    Guns and Drugs: The Real Attention Getters

Chapter 2: Crime Control Perspectives
Operational Perspectives
    Due Process and Crime Control
        Due Process Values
        Crime Control Values
    System and Nonsystem
        A Well-Oiled Machine?
        A Disorganized Mess?
    The Funnel Model of Justice
    The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
Political Perspectives
    Liberals and Conservatives
        Causes of Crime
        Consequences of Crime for Society
        What Should Be Done About Crime?
    Consensus and Conflict
        Causes of Crime
        Consequences of Crime for Society
        What Should Be Done About Crime?
Other Perspectives
    Faith and Fact
    Crime Control and Revenue Generation
    Politics and Ivory Towers
Goals of Crime Control
        General and Specific Deterrence
        Absolute and Marginal Deterrence
        The Limitations of Deterrence
        The Limitations of Retribution
        The Limitations of Incapacitation
        The Limitations of Rehabilitation
    Goals of Crime Control Compared


Chapter 3: Traditional Policing
The Theory of Traditional Policing
Does Hiring More Cops Reduce Crime?
    Reasons Why Hiring More Cops Might Not Reduce Crime
    Lessons from Kansas City
    The Post—Kansas City Intellectual Debate
    The Violent Crime Control Act of 1994
    What Happens When the Police Go on Strike?
    De-Policing and the Alleged “Ferguson Effect”
    A Very Thin Blue Line: Is There Really a Police Presence?
    What Are They Doing on the Job?
    Does It Work?
Freeing up Resources
    One- versus Two-Officer Patrols
    Patrol Downtime Studies
    Does It Work?
Reactive Policing and Random Patrol
    Reactive Policing
        Domestic Violence Arrests
    Rapid Response
    Random Patrol
    Does It Work?
Detective Work and Crime
    The RAND Study
    Recent Developments
    Does It Work?
Private Policing
    Private Security versus Private Policing
    Controversies in Private Policing
    Does It Work?
College Degrees for Cops
    Does It Work?

Chapter 4: Proactive Policing, Directed Patrol, and Recent Advancements
Proactive Arrests
    Proactive Arrests for High-Risk Repeat Offenders
    Proactive Arrests for Specific Offenses
        Targeting Drug Offenders
        Targeting Drunk Drivers
        Targeting Immigrants
    Does It Work?
Directed Patrol
    Classic Studies
    Lawrence Sherman and the Hot Spots
        Directed Patrol of Drug Hot Spots
        Directed Patrol of Gun Violence Hot Spots
    Stop, Question, and Frisk
        Stop, Question, and Frisk: Effects on Crime
    Does It Work?
Broken Windows and Disorder Reduction
    Fear, Disorder, and Crime
    Quality-of-Life Policing
        Micro-Level Research
        Macro-Level Research
    Disorder Reduction
    Missing the Boat on Broken Windows
    Does It Work?
Focused Deterrence
    Group Violence Reduction
    Does It Work?
    Police—Corrections Partnerships
        What Does the Research Show?
    Multijurisdictional Drug Task Forces
    Military Partnerships and Militarization
        The Police—Military Connection
        Police Paramilitary Units
    Does It Work?
Technology and Less-Lethal Weapons
    Safely Ending Pursuits
    Crime Detection Devices
    Less-Lethal Weapons
        Conducted Energy Devices
    Does It Work?
Using Data to Inform Decisions
    Fusion Centers and Intelligence-Led Policing
    Predictive Policing
    Does It Work?

Chapter 5: Community Involvement in Policing
Fixing Strained Police-Community Relations
    Procedural Justice
    The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing
Community Justice
    Problem-Oriented Policing
Community Policing: Some History
    Reasons for Community Policing
Community Policing: What Is It?
    The Definition Problem Rears Its Head
Community Policing: Is It Really Happening?
    Structural Change
    Attitudinal Change
Research on Community Policing Effectiveness
    Moving the Police into the Community
        Citizen Contact Patrol
        Improving the Police Image
        Organizing Neighborhood Watch Programs
        Hosting Community Meetings
        Disseminating Crime Control Newsletters
        Storefronts and Substations
        Specialized Patrols
        Operation Identification
        Police-Sponsored Television and Websites
        Police in Schools
    Does It Work?
    Integrated Community Policing
        The Seattle Approach
        The Hartford Approach
    Does It Work?
    Bringing the Community to the Police
        Citizen Patrol
        Citizen Police Academies
    Does It Work?
Third-Party Policing
    Beyond the Criminal Law
    Some Examples of Third-Party Policing
    Does It Work?

Chapter 6: Prosecutors and Crime Control
The Shift Toward Strategic Prosecution
The Harder Side of Prosecution
    No-Drop Prosecution Policies
    Juvenile Waiver
        Raising the Age of Majority: A Retreat from Waiver?
    Police—Prosecution Partnerships
        Partnering to Reduce Gun Violence
    Federal—State Partnerships
        Richmond’s, Virginia, Project Exile
        Texas Exile
    Project Safe Neighborhoods
    Does It Work?
The Softer Side of Prosecution
    Victim Assistance
    Community Prosecution
        The Structure of Community Prosecution
        Nontraditional Restraining Orders
        Code Enforcement
        Nuisance Abatement
        Community Prosecution Research
    Deferred Prosecution
    Deferred Sentencing
    Does It Work?
A Plea Bargaining Pandemic?
    Arguments for and Against Plea Bargaining
    Attempts to Limit Plea Bargaining
    Ad Hoc Plea Bargaining
    Does It Work?


Chapter 7: Crime Control Through Legislation
Legislative Bans
    Where There’s a Demand, There’s a Supply
    Historical Lessons
        Gambling and Prostitution
    Bans and Their Enforcement
    Gun Bans
        Ban Specific Guns and Gun Possession
    Drug Bans
        The Scope of America’s Drug Problem
        Drug Ban Problems
    Does It Work?
Legislative Gun Controls
    Altering Gun Designs
    Regulating Gun Transactions
    Denying Gun Ownership to Dangerous Persons
    The Right-to-Carry Controversy
    Concealed Carry Laws
    Does It Work?
Public Notification and Related Laws
    Megan’s Law
        Legal Issues
        Effects on Crime
    Punitive Sanctions for Sex Offenders
    Sex Offender Residency Restrictions
    Does It Work?
Other Legislative Approaches
    White-Collar Crime Laws
    Does It Work?
    Antiterrorism Laws
        The USA Patriot Act
        The USA Freedom Act
    Does It Work?

Chapter 8: Crime Control in the Courts and Beyond
Courts and Incapacitation
    Pretrial Incapacitation
        Preventive Detention
        Setting Bail at a High Level
Does It Work?
    Examples of Programmatic Diversion
    Diversion Evaluations
Does It Work?
    A Brief History of Shaming
    Examples of Shaming Penalties
        Public Exposure Penalties
        Debasement Penalties
        Apology Penalties
        Reverse Burglary?
    Criticisms of Shaming
    Braithwaite’s Reintegrative Shaming
    Shaming and Recidivism
Does It Work?
Restorative Justice
    Examples of Restorative Justice
    What the Research Shows
Does It Work?
Antigang Injunctions
Does It Work?
Problem-Solving Courts
    Drug Courts
        Possible Limitations of Drug Courts
        The Empirical Evidence
    Domestic Violence Courts
        Therapeutic Jurisprudence
        A Domestic Violence Court in Operation
        The Evidence
    Community Courts
        The Midtown Community Court
        The Research
    Teen Courts
    Other Specialized Courts
        Homeless Courts
        Mental Health Courts
        Reentry Courts
Does It Work?

Chapter 9: Sentencing
Nonprison Sentences
    Traditional Fines
    Day Fines
    Does It Work?
Types of Prison Sentences
Prison Strategies Without Regard to Sentence Length
    Selective Incapacitation
    Civil Commitment
    More Prisoners, Less Crime?
    Less Prisoners, More Crime?
Supermax Prisons
    Does It Work?
Does Sentence Length Matter?
    Thinking About Various Types of Offenders
    Can Incarceration Cause Crime?
    Sentence Length and Crime
    Does It Work?
Determinate Sentencing
    The Hydraulic Displacement of Discretion
    Impact on Prison Populations
    Impact on Crime 
    Does It Work?
Sentence Enhancements
    Sentence Enhancements for Guns
        More on Deterrence
        More on Incapacitation
        State-Specific Research
        Multisite Research
    Sentence Enhancements for Hate-Motivated Offenses
    Does It Work?
Mandatory Sentencing
    A Life of Their Own?
    Mandatory Sentences for Drug Offenders
    Mandatory Sentences for Drunk Driving
    Mandatory Sentences for Persistent Offenders
    Three-Strikes Legislation
        The Supporters
        The Critics
        Some Legislative Details
        To Deter or Not To Deter
        Deterrence and Incapacitation
        Variations in Enforcement
        The Research
    Mandatory Death Sentences?
    Does It Work?
Capital Punishment
    Our Stubborn Adherence to Capital Punishment
    Does the Death Penalty Deter Crime?
    Does It Work?
    Methods of Castration
    European Origins
    California’s Law
    Effects on Recidivism
    Does It Work?

Chapter 10: Probation, Parole, and Intermediate Sanctions
The Organization and Administration of Probation and Parole
    Common Probation and Parole Conditions
Probation and Parole Issues
    To Serve or To Supervise
    Caseload Concerns
        Probation and Recidivism
        Parole and Recidivism
        Caseloads and Crime
    Offender Characteristics Over Time
    Are Parolees Equipped to Reenter Society?
    Consequences to Society of Prisoner Reentry
    Improving Probation and Parole
    Reentry Initiatives
    Does It Work?
Intermediate Sanctions
    The Net Widening Problem
    A Typology of Intermediate Sanctions
    Community Restraints
        Intensive Supervision Probation
        Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring
        GPS Monitoring
    Structure and Discipline
        Adult Boot Camps
        Juvenile Boot Camps
    Hybrid Intermediate Sanctions
        Shock Probation
        Halfway Houses
        Day Reporting Centers
        Foster and Group Homes
        Scared Straight
    Does It Work?

Chapter 11: Rehabilitation, Treatment, and Job Training
A Movement Toward the Left
    Some Definitions
Criminals Are Not Created Equal
    Targeting Cognitive Skills
        Morals Training
        Reasoning Training
    Anger Management
    Improving Victim Awareness
    Life Skills Training
    Does It Work?
    Treating Drug Addicts
        In Prison
        Out of Prison
        Drug Testing and Treatment
    Treating Sex Offenders
        In Prison
        Out of Prison
        The Big Picture
    Does It Work?
    Does It Work?
Job Training
    The Employment—Crime Connection
    Job Training for Convicts
        Education as Job Training
        Vocational Training
        Correctional Industries
        Work Release
    Job Training for the General Population
    Housing Dispersal and Mobility Programs
    Does It Work?
More Lessons from Meta-Analysis


Chapter 12: Individual, Family, and Household Crime Control
Government May Still Be Involved
Individual Crime Control
    Guns and Personal Defense
        Measuring Gun Prevalence
        How Often Are Guns Used in Self-Defense?
        Debunking the “Good Guy to the Rescue” Narrative
        Gun Prevalence and Crime
        Anecdotal Accounts
        Armed Resistance and Crime Completion
        Armed Resistance and Victim Injury
        Do Criminals Care?
        Compensating Risks and Offsetting Behavior
        Guns and Accidental Deaths
        Comparing the United States to Other Nations
        A Gun in Every Home?
    Risk-Avoidance Behaviors
        Characteristics of Victims
        Research Complications
    Risk-Management Behaviors
        Self-Defense Training
        Forceful Resistance
        Nonforceful Resistance
    Does It Work?
Household and Family Crime Control
    The Aim of Crime Control in Households and Families
    How Families Influence Delinquency and Youth Victimization
    Varieties of Crime Control in Households and Families
        Parent Training and Education
        Family Preservation Therapy
        Multisystemic Therapy
        Financial Assistance to Families
    Does It Work?

Chapter 13: Crime Control in the Community and in Schools
Community Crime Control
    What Is Community?
    The Social Ecology of Crime
        Mobility and Change
        Racial Composition
        Population Density
        More on Families
        Social Disorganization and Collective Efficacy
        Concentrated Disadvantage
        Communities and Crime: A Two-Way Relationship?
    Financial Assistance to Communities
        Enterprise Zones
        Community Development Block Grants
        Community Investment Programs
        Justice Reinvestment
    Other Methods of Community Crime Control
        Mobilizing Residents
        Antigang Initiatives
        Youth Mentoring
        After-School Programs
        Publicity Campaigns
    Does It Work?
School-Based Crime Control
    Crime in Schools
    The Role of Schools in Crime Control
    The Role of the Government in School-Based Crime Control
    Targeting the School Environment
        Building Administrative Capacity
        Normative Education
        Managing Classrooms and Education
        Separate Classrooms for At-Risk Youths
    Targeting Students
        Instructional Interventions
        Drug Abuse Resistance Education
        Gang Resistance Education
        Behavior Modification
        Other Methods of Crime Control in Schools
    Does It Work?

Chapter 14: Reducing Criminal Opportunities Through Environmental Manipulation
Some Perspective
A Quick Return to Theory
    Rational Offenders
    Crime Pattern Theory
    Territorial Functioning and Defensible Space
    The Return of the Broken Windows Theory
How Environmental Manipulation Occurs
    Access Control
    Activity Support
    Motivation Reinforcement
The Effectiveness of Environmental Manipulation
    Residential Areas
        Areas Surrounding Residences
        Comprehensive Approaches
    Life Behind the Wall: Gated Communities
    Does It Work?
        Bars and Taverns
    Does It Work?
        Public Transit
    Does It Work?
    Other Places
        Parking Garages
        Open Spaces
        Parking Meters and Public Phones
    Does It Work?


Chapter 15: Putting It All Together and Explaining Crime Trends
A Quick Review
    Effective Crime Control
Three Important Themes
    Beyond the Justice System
    Early Intervention Is Key to Success
    More Research Is Needed
Explaining Crime Trends
    Liberal Explanations
        Economic Conditions
        Demographic Shifts
        Citizen Attitudes
        Family Conditions
        Gun Control
    Conservative Explanations
        More and Better Policing
        More Prisoners
        Other Criminal Justice Policies
        More Concealed Weapons Permits
        More Capital Punishment
    Other Explanations
        Cultural Shifts
        Waning of the Crack Epidemic
        Legalization of Abortion

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