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  5. Deaf Education in the 21st Century: Topics and Trends

Deaf Education in the 21st Century: Topics and Trends, 1st edition

  • Nanci A. Scheetz

Published by Pearson (May 23rd 2011) - Copyright © 2012

1st edition

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A contemporary text designed to prepare future professionals to successfully work with deaf and hard of hearing students.


Specifically developed as a current and comprehensive look at the rapidly evolving field of deaf education, this first edition text covers a wide array of critical topics regarding deaf and hard-of-hearing education including cognition, social development, personal development, myths and misconceptions, postsecondary opportunities and employment, cochlear implants, and personnel training. Supplemented with a variety of illustrations, charts, and tables, Deaf Education in the 21st Century has been carefully written and organized to prepare today’s students to work effectively with this population.

Table of contents

Chapter One:  Deaf Education in the 21st Century:  Trends, Topics, and  

        Technology:  A Brief Overview

        Overview of the Text

           What we know about the field today

Chapter Two:  Myths and Misconceptions about People Who Are Deaf   

            People Who Are Deaf Can’t Hear Anything

            Myths Surrounding the Causes of Hearing Loss

            All Children Who Are Deaf Have Parents Who Are Deaf

            All People Who Are Deaf Can Read Lips

            People Who Are Deaf Can’t Read

            People Who Are Deaf Can’t Talk

            American Sign Language (ASL) is Just English on the Hands

            American Sign Language is Consistent Throughout the United States

            American Sign Language is International

            Hearing Aids Enable Deaf People to Hear Speech

            All People Who Are Deaf Wish They Could Hear

            People Who Are Deaf Are Not as Intelligent as People Who Can Hear

            People Who Are Deaf Can’t Drive, Fly Planes, or Operate Motor Boats

            Individuals Who Are Deaf Have More Serious Emotional Problems than Hearing   People

            People Who Are Deaf Can’t Work

            People Who Are Deaf Are Very Quiet

            All People Who Are Deaf Know Sign Language


Chapter Three:  A Look at the Field of Deaf Education:  Where We’ve Been — Where We Are Today

Prevalence, Etiology and Identification


            Hard of Hearing


            Prevalence of Hearing

Diversity in the United States

Diversity within the Deaf Community

Educational Settings

Modes of Communication

Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants

Closed Captioning Technology

Use of Computer Technology

Video Relay Services (VRS) and Video Relay Interpreters (VRI)

Speech- to-Text Technology


Organizations, Clubs, and Cultural Events

Dimensions of Deafness:  Identity, Ethnicity, and Social Development



Chapter Four:  The Art of Hearing and Hearing Loss

The Nature of Sound

Acoustics of Speech

The Hearing Mechanism

Structure and Function of the Ear

            The Outer Ear

            The Middle Ear

            The Inner Ear

Auditory Connections in the Brain

The Physiology of Hearing

Prevalence and Etiology of Auditory Dysfunction


                    Hearing Loss

                    Degrees of Hearing Loss

                    Hard of Hearing


            Etiology of Auditory Dysfunction

Conductive Hearing Loss

Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Congenital Losses

Genetically Inherited Hearing Loss

            Autosomal Dominant Disorders

            Autosomal Recessive Disorders

            X-Linked Disorders

Acquired Losses

Maternal Rubella

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)


Prematurity or Birth Complications

Other High Risk Factors for Hearing Loss

            Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN)

            Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Causes of Hearing Loss in Adults

            Noise Exposure

            Ototoxic Drugs

            The Aging Process

            Meniere’s Disease

Diseases of the Central Auditory System



Chapter Five:  Family Dynamics:  Response to Diagnosis, Interpersonal Relationships, Impact on the Family Unit

Anticipation, Expectations, and Responses to the Birth of a Baby

Hearing Parents Response to the Diagnosis

Deaf Parents Response to the Diagnosis

Characteristics of Healthy Families

Factors that Contribute to Healthy Families with Deaf Children

Communication:  Connecting and Interacting with Others and Society

The Building Blocks for Communication

Selecting a Mode of Communication:  Factors Families Consider

Sibling Relationships

Sibling Relationships:  Interactions between Deaf and Hearing Children

Self-Esteem:  A Reflection of One’s Self-Image



Chapter Six: Language Acquisition: Acquiring the Building Blocks for Communication


The Components of Language









Stages of Language Development

Modes of Communication

            Oral Methods:  Acquiring Spoken Language

                    Auditory Verbal

                    Auditory Oral

                    Natural Oralism/Natural Auralism

                    Maternal Reflective Method

Visual Modes of Communication

            American Sign Language

            Manually Coded English Sign Systems

                    Rochester Method

                    Signed English

                    Seeing Essential English (SEE I)

                    Signing Exact English (SEE II)

                    Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE)

                    Contact Signing or Pidgin Signed English

            Multimodal Communication Approaches

                     Cued Speech

                    Sign Supported Speech

                    Simultaneous Communication

                    Total Communication

                    Bilingual Communication:  ASL and English

Impact of Prelingual Hearing Loss on Language Development

            Enhancing Language Development Through the Use of American Sign Language

            Enhancing Language Development Through an Auditory Verbal Approach



Chapter Seven:  Hearing Assessment, Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants, and

Modern Technology

Identifying Hearing Loss: The Hearing Evaluation

Pure-Tone Testing       

Bone-Conduction Testing

Classification of Hearing Loss

Speech Reception Threshold Tests

Social Adequacy Index

Neonatal Screening

            Otoacoustic Emission (OAEs)

            Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR)

Infants and Toddlers

School Age Children

The Function and Components of Hearing Aids





            Additional Components

            Pitch or Tone Control

            Telecoil Circuitry


Types of Hearing Aids

Over the Ear (OTE) or Behind the Ear (BTE)

All In the Ear (AIE) or In the Ear (ITE)

            In the Ear (ITE)

            In the Canal (ITC)

            Completely in the Canal (CIC)

Low Profile Aids

CROS Hearing Aids

BiCROS Hearing Aids

IROS Hearing Aids

Bone Conduction Hearing Aids

Implantable Bone Conduction Hearing Aid Device

Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Aids

Digital Technology

Cochlear Implants

Binaural and Monaural Hearing Aid Fittings

Hearing Aid Orientation

            Psychological and Emotional Ramifications of Hearing Loss

Group Listening Systems

            Audio Loops

            FM (Frequency Modulation) Systems

            AM Systems

            Infared Systems

Individual Amplification Systems

            Assistive Listening Devices

            Telephone Amplifiers

Additional Devices for Individuals who Experience Difficulty Hearing


Chapter Eight:  Educational Settings:  From Tradition to Current Practice

A Brief Historical Overview: School Reform since the 1960s

            Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) (1965)

            Vocational Rehabilitation Act (VRA) (Public Law 93-112, Section 504)

            Educational Amendments Act (Public Law 93-380) (1974)

            Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EACHCA) Public Law 94-

                142, Part B (1975)

            Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments (Public Law 99-457)

            First Wave of Educational Reform

            Second Wave of Educational Reform

            Third Wave of Educational Reform

            Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (Public Law 101-336)

            Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (PL 101-476)

            Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (PL 105-17)

            Reauthorization of IDEA (Public Law 108-446)

            Educating Deaf Students: The Oral/Manual Controversy

Educational Environments

            Residential School Programs

Day Schools

Regular Education Classes

            Early Intervention Programs

            Mainstreamed Programs

            Inclusion Programs

            Resource Rooms and Separate Classes

            Co-teaching/Co-enrollment for Students who are Deaf and Hard of


The Role of the Itinerant Teacher

The Role of the Interpreters in Inclusive Classrooms

Achievement:  A Look at Deaf Students in the K-12 Setting



Chapter Nine:  Literacy:  Unlocking the Curriculum through Reading and Writing

Reading: A Process Involving Language and Cognition

            Bottom-Up Theories

            Top-Down Theories

            Interactive Theories

Report: National Reading Panel

Additional Factors Contributing to Literacy

            Barriers to Reading Comprehension:  Factors that Impact Students

             who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

                    Phonemic Awareness in deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

                    Use of Phonics by Deaf and Hard of Hearing Readers

                    Fluency within Readers who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

                    Comprehension of Text

                    Vocabulary Development

Bilingual Programs: Teaching Deaf Children to Read

            Shared Reading Program

            Reading Milestones/Reading Bridge

Reading Strategies: Literacy Practices Used with Deaf and Hard of Hearing


            Writing, Spelling, and Deaf Students

            Process Approach to Writing

            Writing Strategies



Chapter Ten:  Cognition:  Thought Processes and Intellectual Development

A Brief Historical Overview

            A Brief History

            Related Research

Development of Visual Attention by Hearing and Deaf Children

            Theory of Mind

Memory Systems:  Storing Visual and Spatial Information

            The Articulatory Loop

Research:  Short-Term Memory Encoding by Students who Are Deaf or Hard of  Hearing

            The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad

Research:  Use of Visuo-Spatial Memory Between Deaf Signers and Non-


Why Implement Cognitive Intervention

            A Method


Selecting a Cognitive Intervention Program

Professional Actions

Intellectual Functioning:  Cognition as it Relates to Intelligence Tests

            What Intelligence Tests Measure

            Additional Views



            Intellectual Testing and Deafness

            Developing Metacognitive Skills

Feuerstein’s View of Cognitive Growth

Incorporating Thinking Skills across the Curriculum



Chapter Eleven:  Personal, Social, and Cultural Development

Sharing Cultural Values and Beliefs:  Impact on Self Concept and Identity

            Culturally Deaf Identity:  Mark

            Culturally Hearing Identity:  Oliver

            Bicultural Identity:  Amanda

School settings:  influence on cultural perceptions

            Socialization Experiences in Mainstream/Included Educational


            Developing a Self-Concept and Feelings of Self Esteem

Research with Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:  A Glimpse into Self-Concept and    Self-Esteem



Chapter Twelve:  Economics, Postsecondary Opportunities and Employment Trends

Labor Force Projections:  A Look at Where We Are and Where We Are

            Expected to be in 2018

Supporting Individuals who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing so They Can Become

            Gainfully Employed

Providing Support Services:  The Role of Vocational Rehabilitation

            Support Services for People who are Deaf and Low Functioning

            Professionals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in the Workforce

Support Services:  Making Post-Secondary Institutions Accessible for Students

            Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Career Experiences of College Educated Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals

A Look at Underemployment Found with respect to Individuals who are Deaf

    Or Hard of Hearing

Employment Trends and Employer Expectations


Chapter Thirteen:  Individuals who are Deaf with Additional Disabilities

Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing Children with Additional Disabilities: 

            Cognitive/Intellectual Conditions

                    Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing who also have a Learning


                    Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing with Emotional Behavioral


                    Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing with an Intellectual


                    Individuals who are deaf with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

                    Individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing with Attention-Deficit/

                                    Hyperactivity Disorder

Legal Blindness and Uncorrected Visual Problems

Individuals who are Deaf-Blind

Individuals who are deaf who have Cerebral Palsy

Other Disabling Conditions



Chapter Fourteen:  Preparing Personnel to Serve Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Characteristics of Master Teachers



Master Teachers in Deaf Education

            Classroom Discourse

            Use of Teaching Strategies

            Teacher Attitudes

            Teacher Behaviors and Competencies

            Schools for the Deaf or Separate Schools

            Teachers in Resource Rooms and Separate Classes

            The Co-teacher or Collaborative Teacher

            The Itinerant Teacher

Educational Interpreters:  Characteristics of Effective Communication


            The Role of the Educational Interpreter

Best Practices When Interpreting in the Primary Grades

Best Practices When Interpreting in the Elementary and Middle School Setting

Best Practices When Interpreting in High School Settings

Best Practices When Interpreting in Post-Secondary Settings



Chapter Fifteen:  Epilogue

Summary of Current Relevant Research in the Field

Future Projections and Trends

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