Deploying IP Multicast in the Enterprise, 1st edition

  • Thomas Albert Maufer

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Overview


89768-6

IP Multicast: Get ready for the future of Enterprise broadcasting!

With multicasting, it's possible to send data, video, and audio to many requesting clients simultaneously, across the Internet or any other IP-based network. Multicasting is an essential building block for a new generation of applications, such as leading-edge "push" applications (including news and sports updates, real-time stock quotes, and others),software distribution, and certain multimedia applications.

In this book, Thomas A. Maufer-co-author of the "Introduction to IP Multicast Routing" Request for Comments (RFC)-closely examines the protocols which make multicasting possible - and the challenging routing issues that arise in enterprise Multicasting. Maufer explains the rationale for multicast, describes important classes of multicast-enabled applications, and the essentials of multicast IP technology, including the "host group" model and the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).

Ensure successful deployment of a multicast infrastructure over your existing networks by understanding how multicast routing protocols work.Protocols such as the Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol, Multicast Extensions to OSPF, Protocol-Independent Multicast - Dense Mode are discussed, along with the exciting new Protocol-Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode, and Core Based Trees protocols.

Multicast-based transport protocols are discussed, including the Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP), and so-called "reliable" multicast transport protocols are examined. Finally, watch IP Multicast at work in two leading-edge deployments: Networld+Interop's InteropNet, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Understand IP Multicast now -- and deploy it tomorrow.

  • Practical deployment considerations for enterprise intranets
  • Current and future intranet multicast routing protocols
  • Current and emerging applications: Conferencing, whiteboards, news updates, live or pre-recorded media streaming events, software distribution, reliable multicast transport protocols, the Service Location Protocol, etc.
  • Multicast routing interoperability frameworks, "reliable" multicast transport protocols, the Realtime Transport Protocol, and more
  • The history and possible future evolution of the Internet's Mbone
  • For all network engineers and managers developing multicast-enabled applications for use on the Internet or intranet

Table of contents



Introduction.

I. INTRODUCTION AND PRELIMINARIES.

1. Introduction.

What is an Intranet? How Is an Intranet Different? Understanding the Need for Multicast. Broadcast. Replicated Unicast. Network-Layer Multicast.

2. IP Addressing Overview.

The IP Address Space. Unicast. 'Classes' of Network Numbers. Overview. What Is CIDR? Broadcast. Limited Broadcast. All-Subnets Broadcast. Subnet-Specific Broadcast. Anycast. Multicast. Reserved Multicast Addresses. Multicast Address Space. Multicast IP over IEEE 802 LANs. Multicast Summary.

3. Characteristics of Multicast Applications.

Identifying Multicast Applications. Multicast ­ Multimedia. Multicast Applications Are Not Necessarily Bandwidth-Intensive! Multidestination Applications Don't Always Use Multicast. Motivation for Multicast. Multicast Videoconferencing and Your Travel Budget. The Future of Multicast on Your Intranet. The History of IP on Your Intranet. Multicast Is Not Perfect (Yet) . . .

II. MULTICAST IP TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW.

4. Multicast IP Fundamentals.

The Lineage of Multicast Standardization. “Host Group” Model. Controlling the Scope of Multicast Forwarding. Implicit Scoping. TTL-Based Scoping. Administrative Scoping.

5. Overview of the Internet Group.

Management Protocol. IGMP Version 1. IGMPv1 Protocol Overview. The IGMP Report Supression Technique. Detecting Group Membership Changes. End Stations and “Join Latency”. IGMP Version 2. IGMPv2 Querier Election. IGMPv2 New Messages. “Leave Latency” and IGMPv2. IGMPv2 Summary. IGMPv2 and IGMPv1 Coexistence Rules. Rules for IGMPv2 End Stations. Rules for Routers. IGMP Version 3 (Future).

6. Introduction to Multicast Routing and Forwarding.

Multicast Address Allocation. How Are Class D Addresses Assigned? Brief Overview of Routing Techniques. Broadcast and Prune. Examples of Broadcast-and-Prune Multicast Routing Protocols. Shared Trees. Multicast Forwarding versus Multicast Routing. Unicast versus Multicast Forwarding. Multicast Forwarding Procedure. Multicast Routing Protocols: Scalability and Routing Policy Issues.

III. INTRANET MULTICAST ROUTING TODAY.

7. Evolution of Reverse-Path Multicasting (RPM).

Flooding. Reverse-Path Broadcasting (RPB). Reverse-Path Broadcasting: Operation. RPB: Benefits and Limitations. Truncated RPB (TRPB). Reverse-Path Multicasting. Operation. Grafting. RPM's Limitations.

8. Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol.

Physical and Tunnel Interfaces. Basic Operation. DVMRP Router Functions. DVMRP Routing Table. DVMRP Forwarding Table. DVMRP Tree Building and Forwarding Summary. Weaknesses in DVMRP. Deploying DVMRP. “Native” DVMRP Intranet. Backbone between Domains Running Other Multicast Routing Protocols. Connecting to the Internet's Multicast Backbone.

9. Protocol-Independent Multicast—Dense Mode.

Protocol-Independent Multicast Overview. PIM—Dense Mode (PIM-DM) PIM-DM Tree Building and Forwarding Summary.

10. Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF).

Intra-Area Routing with MOSPF. Local Group Database. Datagram's Shortest Path Tree. Forwarding Cache. Interarea Routing with MOSPF. Interarea Multicast Forwarders. An Interarea Datagram's Shortest Path Tree. Inter-Autonomous-System Multicasting with MOSPF. MOSPF Tree Building and Forwarding Summary. Weaknesses of MOSPF. Deploying MOSPF. Mixing MOSPF and OSPF Routers within an OSPF Routing Domain.

IV. INTRANET MULTICAST ROUTING TOMORROW.

11. Core-Based Trees (CBT).

Intra-domain Bootstrapping. Joining a Group's Shared Tree. CBT Tree Maintenance. CBT's Designated Router. Data Packet Forwarding. CBT's Forwarding Cache. Non-Member Sending. CBT Tree Building and Forwarding Summary.

12. Protocol-Independent Multicast—Sparse Mode (PIM-SM).

PIM-SM Bootstrap Mechanisms. A Directly Attached Host Joins a Group. Directly Attached Source Sends to a Group. Shared Tree (RP-Tree) or Shortest Path Tree? PIM-SM Tree Building and Forwarding Summary.

V. INTERNET MULTICAST ROUTING.

13. Today: “MBone”.

MBone Defined. Experimental Overlay. Which Routing Protocol Is Used? MBone Applications. MBone Application Traits. MBone Myth—Not Limited to 512 kbps.

14. Tomorrow: Who Knows?

What's the Goal?. Multicast-Enabled Internet!!. Implication: Eliminate the M-BGP?. Mbone. BGMP/GUM?.

VI. RELATED TOPICS.

15. Multicast Routing Interoperability Frameworks.

Requirements for Multicast Border Routers. An Interoperability Hack: “Proxy IGMP”.

16. Expanding-Ring Searches and Service Location.

Issues with Expanding-Ring Searches Expanding-Ring Searches over Explicit-Join Protocol Regions. Service Location Protocol. How Are Directory Agents Discovered?. Details of SLP. SLP Scalability.

17. Introduction to “Reliable” Multicast Transport.

Protocols. What Is Reliability? Points of Reference. Reliable Unicast Transport (Transmission Control Protocol). Multicast Option for TFTP. Reliable Multicast—Expectations. Requirements for Multicast Reliable Transport Protocol(s). Example 1: Non-Mission-Critical Multicast Stock Ticker. Example 2: Video with Layered (Hierarchical) Coding. One Other Technique. Why Not Just Run TCP Over Multicast? A Partial Fix: Single Connection Emulation.

18. Some Reliable Multicast Transport Protocols.

Some Current Research Projects in Reliable Multicast. Scalable Reliable Multicast. Reliable Multicast Transport Protocol. Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP). Commercial Reliable Multicast Offerings. GlobalCast's Offerings. TIB from TIBCO. StarBurst's MFTP.

19. The Realtime Transport Protocol and Reliability.

Overview of RTP. Overview of RTCP. RTP-Based Reliable Multicast Transport Protocols. Lightweight Reliable Multicast Protocol. Parnes' RTP Extensions to Support SRM.

VII. CASE STUDIES.

20. Networld+Interop's “InteropNet”.

What Is the InteropNet?. How Is the InteropNet Used?. Overview of the InteropNet's Design through the Years. Evolution of Multicast Usage on the InteropNet. Early. Later. Multicast Routing Alternatives for the Future InteropNet. Growth of Multicast Traffic.

21. Multicast IP at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Experimentaton with Multicast Technology. Experimentation and Technology Evaluation. Radio Free vat. Making It Real. Objectives of the Project. Prerequisites for Multicast Deployment. Network Architecture. Future Possibilities.

VIII. APPENDICES.

A. Glossary.

B. IGMP Details.

IGMPv2 Packet Formats. IP Options and the Router Alert Option. The Host Membership Report. The Two Query Messages. The Leave Group Message. IGMPv1 Packet Formats.

C. History of the MBone and Multimedia Conferencing.

D. High-Level Summary of Multicast Routing Protocols.

E. Multicast Standardization.

IETF. IEEE 802.1 Committee.

F. References.

IETF Requests for Comments (RFCs). IETF Internet Drafts. Textbooks. Other.

Index.

Published by Pearson (December 24th 1997) - Copyright © 1998