Interdomain Multicast Routing: Practical Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems Solutions: Practical Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems Solutions, 1st edition

  • Brian M. Edwards
  • Leonard A. Giuliano
  • Brian R. Wright

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Increasing numbers of ISPs have begun implementing multicast infrastructure. Soon the Internet will provide multicast connectivity between any two points on the Internet the way it provides for unicast traffic today. Long-evolving protocols are reaching maturity, and enterprise networks and ISPs around the world are ramping up their multicast infrastructure. Now, more than ever, network engineers must be ready to deal with new applications that capitalize on the simultaneous, efficient delivery of data and imagery to multiple recipients.

Interdomain Multicast Routing is the key to unlocking the complexities of this growing technology. Starting with a summary of the technology and its relevant protocols, this book shows readers the big picture before revealing a detailed analysis of important protocols and the way they work with one another. Throughout, the authors focus on both Cisco Systems and Juniper Networks technology--the two leading vendors of routers and routing technology. Real-life examples are used to clearly illustrate key concepts. Specific topics covered in Interdomain Multicast Routing include:

  • Background and in-depth analyses of multicast routing using PIM-SM and MSDP
  • Comparison of Any-Source and Source-Specific multicast delivery models
  • Explanation of how MBGP and M-ISIS can be used side by side to build a dedicated multicast environment
  • A detailed breakdown of the differences between IGMP versions 1, 2, and 3
  • A step-by-step guide to understanding the MSDP RPF-peer selection rules
  • Lists of packet formats for IGMP, PIM, and MSDP
  • A complete glossary that clarifies important terms and acronyms and provides their definitions

Practical and thorough in coverage, Interdomain Multicast Routing is an important addition to any network engineer's bookshelf.


Table of contents



1. Interdomain Multicast Fundamentals.

What Is Multicast?

Internetworking Basics.

Multicast Basics.

Reverse Path Forwarding.

Populating the RPF Table.

Interdomain Multicast Routing.

Where Is Multicast?

Multicast on the LAN.


IGMP Proxying.

Layer 3 to Layer 2 Mapping.

Layer 2 Switches.

ASM versus SSM.

Addressing Issues.


Multicast Performance in Routers.

RP Load.

Disclaimers and Fine Print.

Why Multicast?

Multicast Lacks the “Killer App”.

The Content versus Audience Chicken-and-Egg Scenario.

The “How Do We Charge for It?” Syndrome.

Multicast Protocols Are Complex and May Break the Unicast Network.

Cannibalization of Unicast Bandwidth Revenues.

End-to-End Connectivity Required.

Lack of Successful Models.

Not Ready for Prime-Time Television.

Susceptibility to DoS.

Unfriendly Last Mile Technologies, Less Friendly Firewalls.

The Need for Multicast.

Final Outlook.

2. IMR Overview.

Receiving Multicast Traffic: IGMP from the Perspective of the Host.

Detecting Multicast Receivers: IGMP from the Perspective of the Router.

Generating Multicast Traffic.

Detecting Multicast Sources.

Routing Multicast Traffic within a Domain Using PIM-SM.

Phase 1: Building the RPT That Delivers Packets from the RP to Interested Listeners.

Phase 2: Building the Distribution Tree that Delivers Packets from the Source to the RP.

Phase 3: Building the SPT that Delivers Packets Directly from the Source to the Interested Listeners.

Routing Multicast Traffic across Multiple Domains with MSDP.

MSDP in the Example Network.

Populating a Routing Table Dedicated to RPF Checks with MBGP.

MBGP in the Example Network.

3. Multicast Routing Protocols.

Dense Protocols.



Sparse Protocols.

Sparse-Dense Mode.

4. Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM).


PIM Versions.

Version 1.

Version 2.

Group-to-RP Mapping.

Static Group-to-RP Mapping.

Dynamic Group-to-RP Mapping: Cisco Systems Auto-RP.

Dynamic Group-to-RP Mapping: PIM Bootstrap.

Anycast RP.

PIM Register Message Processing.

Distribution Tree Construction and Teardown.

Scenario 1: Source Comes Online First, Then a Receiver Joins.

Scenario 2: Second Receiver Joins after SPT Is Set Up for Another Receiver.

Scenario 3: Receiver Ends Group Membership.

Scenario 4: Conference Model.

Designated Routers and Hello Messages.

PIM Assert Messages.

Multicast Scoping.

5. Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP).


MSDP Operation.

MSDP Peering Sessions.

The MSDP SA Message.

Determining the RPF Peer.

The Current Versions RPF-Peer Rules.

RPF Rules from Draft Version 2

Avoiding Pitfalls.

Mesh Groups.

MSDP Policy.

SA Storms, Ramen, and MSDP Rate Limiting.

Outlook for MSDP.

6. Source-Specific Multicast (SSM).


Overview of SSM Operation.

SSM Addresses.


Advantages and Disadvantages of SSM.

IGMPv3 in SSM.

IGMP Version Compatibility.


7. Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP (MBGP).


Other Ways to Populate the Multicast RPF Table.

Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems Conventions.

Recursive Lookup for BGP Next Hops.

BGP and Related Terminology.

BGP Internals—Foundation for Understanding MBGP.


BGP Route Selection.

Extending BGP: MBGP.

MBGP Internals.

BGP Capabilities Negotiation.

New Path Attributes in MBGP.

Using MGBP for Multicast Routing.

Manipulation of Path Attributes.

8. Multitopology Routing in Intermediate System to Intermediate System (M-ISIS).

Overview of IS-IS.

IS-IS Background8.1.2 ISO Addresses

IS-IS Areas and Levels.

Type Length Values (TLVs).

Specifics of IS-IS.

IS-IS Packets.

IS-IS Neighbor State Machine on Point- to-Point Links.

IS-IS on Multiaccess Networks.

Exchanging Link-State Information with Neighbors.

Interarea Leaking.

Extending TLVs.

Overview of M-ISIS.

Specifics of M-ISIS.

Forming Adjacencies.


Examples of Using M-ISIS.

9. Configuring and Verifying Multicast Routing on Juniper Networks Routers.

Configuring IGMP and PIM.

Enabling Interfaces for IGMP and PIM.

SSM Group Range.

The Tunnel PIC and the pe and pd Interfaces.

Configuring Static Group-to-RP Mapping.

Configuring the PIM Bootstrap Mechanism.

Configuring Auto-RP.

Configuring Anycast RP.

Monitoring PIM Join State and Multicast Forwarding.

Configuring MSDP.

Configuring a Dedicated RPF Table.

Configuring MBGP.

Configuring M-ISIS.

Configuring OSPF to Place Routes in inet.2.

Configuring DVMRP to Provide RPF Information to PIM.

10. Configuring and Verifying Multicast Routing on Cisco Systems Routers.

Configuring PIM and IGMP.

Enabling Interfaces for IGMP and PIM.

SSM Group Range.

Configuring Static RP.

Configuring the PIM-SM Bootstrap Mechanism.

Configuring Auto-RP.

Configuring Anycast RP.

Monitoring PIM Join State and Multicast Forwarding.

Configuring MSDP.

Configuring a Dedicated RPF Table.

Configuring MBGP.

Configuring DVMRP to Provide RPF Information to PIM.

11. Case Study: Service Provider Native Deployment.

Network Architecture.





ISP Router Configurations.

ISP RP Configuration: Juniper Networks.

ISP RP Configuration: Cisco Systems.

ISP Non-RP Configuration: Juniper Networks.

ISP Non-RP Configuration: Cisco Systems.

Customer Router Configurations.

Customer Without RP Configuration: Juniper Networks.

Customer Without RP Configuration: Cisco Systems.

Customer RP Configuration: Juniper Networks.

Customer RP Configuration: Cisco Systems.

SSM-Only Domain.

SSM-Only Configuration: Juniper Networks.

SSM-Only Configuration: Cisco Systems.

12. Management Tools for Multicast Networks.


Multicast Routing MIB (ipMRouteStdMIB).

IGMP MIB (igmpStdMIB).



The mtrace Facility.

The MSDP Traceroute Facility.

13. Other Related Topics.

Border Gateway Multicast Protocol (BGMP).

Multicast Address Set Claim Protocol (MASC).

Bi-Directional PIM (Bi-Dir PIM).

Multicast Data Packets and Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP).

Appendix A. IGMP Packet Formats.

IGMP Version 3 Packet Formats.

IGMP Version 2 Packet Formats.

IGMP Version 1 Packet Formats.

Appendix B. PIM Packet Formats.

PIM Version 2 Packet Formats.

PIM Version 1 Packet Formats.

Appendix C. MSDP Packet Formats.

MSDP Packet Formats.



About the Authors.

Index. 0201746123T04022002

Published by Addison-Wesley Professional (April 24th 2002) - Copyright © 2002