# Introduction to Engineering Analysis, 4th edition

• Kirk D. Hagen

4th edition

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## Overview

For use in the first-year engineering course. This text is also suitable for individuals interested in adopting a problem-solving approach to engineering problems.

The goal of this text is to introduce a general problem-solving approach for the beginning engineering student.  Thus, Introduction to Engineering Analysis  focuses on how to solve (any) kind of engineering analytical problem in a logical and systematic way. The book helps to prepare the students for such analytically oriented courses as statics, strength of materials, electrical circuits, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, etc.

Chapter 1 The Role of Analysis in Engineering         1

1.1 Introduction         1

1.2 Analysis and Engineering Design         4

1.3 Analysis and Engineering Failure         7

Chapter 2 Dimensions and Units         15

2.1 Introduction         15

2.2 Dimensions         16

2.3 Units         20

2.4 SI Units         25

2.5 English Units         32

2.6 Mass and Weight         35

2.7 Unit Conversions         41

Chapter 3 Analysis Methodology         51

3.1 Introduction         51

3.2 Numerical Calculations         52

3.2.1 Approximations         53

3.2.2 Significant Figures         54

3.3 General Analysis Procedure         61

3.4 The Computer as an Analysis Tool         77

3.4.2 Equation Solvers and Mathematics Software         80

3.4.3 Programming Languages         80

3.4.4 Specialty Software         82

3.4.5 Finite Element Software         82

Chapter 4 Mechanics         91

4.1 Introduction         91

4.2 Scalars and Vectors         94

4.2.1 Vector Operations         96

4.2.2 Vector Components         97

4.2.3 Unit Vectors         99

4.3 Forces         103

4.4 Free-Body Diagrams         110

Procedure for Constructing Free-Body Diagrams         110

4.5 Equilibrium         116

4.6 Stress and Strain         123

4.6.1 Stress         124

4.6.2 Strain         125

4.6.3 Hooke’s Law         126

4.6.4 Stress—Strain Diagram         127

4.7 Design Stress         131

Chapter 5 Electrical Circuits         145

5.1 Introduction         145

5.2 Electric Charge And Current         147

5.3 Voltage         155

5.4 Resistance         158

5.5 Ohm’S Law         162

5.6 Simple DC Circuits         165

5.7 Kirchhoff’s Laws         172

5.7.1 Kirchhoff’s Current Law         172

5.7.2 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law         173

Chapter 6 Thermodynamics         185

6.1 Introduction         185

6.2 Pressure and Temperature         186

6.2.1 Pressure         187

6.2.2 Temperature         189

6.3 Forms of Energy         193

6.3.1 Potential Energy         194

6.3.2 Kinetic Energy         195

6.3.3 Internal Energy         195

6.3.4 Total Energy         196

6.4 Work and Heat         198

6.4.1 Mechanical Work         199

6.4.2 Heat         203

6.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics         207

6.6 Heat Engines         214

6.7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics         217

Chapter 7 Fluid Mechanics         227

7.1 Introduction         227

7.2 Fluid Properties         230

7.2.1 Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity         230

7.2.2 Bulk Modulus         233

7.2.3 Viscosity         234

7.3 Fluid Statics         239

7.3.1 Pressure—Elevation Relationship         239

7.3.2 Forces on Submerged Surfaces         241

7.4 Flow Rates         243

7.5 Conservation of Mass         246

Chapter 8 Renewable Energy         258

8.1 Introduction         258

8.1.1 Environmental Considerations         260

8.2 Solar         261

8.2.1 Solar Energy Systems         262

8.2.2 Photovoltaic Systems         265

8.3 Wind         274

8.3.1 Basic Energy Analysis of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine         278

8.4 Hydro         281

8.4.1 Basic Energy Analysis of a Hydropower Plant         283

8.5 Geothermal         285

8.5.1 Basic Energy Analysis of a Binary Plant         286

8.6 Marine         290

8.6.1 Tidal         290

8.6.2 Ocean         291

8.6.2.2 Ocean Waves         292

8.7 Biomass         296

Chapter 9 Data Analysis: Graphing         302

9.1 Introduction         302

9.2 Collecting and Recording Data         305

9.2.1 Data Identification and Association         305

9.2.2 Accuracy, Precision, and Error         306

9.2.3 Recording Data         310

9.3 General Graphing Procedure         312

9.3.1 Dependent and Independent Variables         314

9.3.2 Variable Ranges         315

9.3.3 Graph Paper         315

9.3.4 Location of Axes         316

9.3.5 Graduation and Calibration of Axes         317

9.3.6 Axis Labels         320

9.3.7 Data Point Plotting         321

9.3.8 Curves         322

9.3.9 Legends and Titles         324

9.3.10 Graphing with Computer Software         324

9.4 Curve Fitting         328

9.4.1 Common Mathematical Functions         329

9.4.2 Method of Selected Points         330

9.4.3 Least Squares Linear Regression         337

9.5 Interpolation and Extrapolation         341

Chapter 10 Data Analysis: Statistics         355

10.1 Introduction         356

10.2 Data Classification and Frequency Distribution         357

Data Classification Guidelines         358

10.3 Measures of Central Tendency         361

10.3.1 Mean         361

10.3.2 Median         362

10.3.3 Mode         365

10.4 Measures of Variation         365

10.5 Normal Distribution         368

Appendix

Index

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