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Language and Reading Disabilities, 3rd edition

  • Hugh W. Catts
  • Alan G. Kamhi

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Written by leading experts, the third edition of “Language and Reading Disabilities”, maintains its strong clinical focus and thorough coverage of the identification, assessment, and treatment of reading and writing disorders.


This text explores the differences between spoken and written language, the basic factors in reading and language development, the stages of reading development, as well as how to define and classify reading disabilities and understand their clinical implications. Coverage includes how to assess phonemic awareness, word recognition, reading comprehension and the relationship between spelling and other literacy skills, and writing foundations and processes.

Table of contents



Contributors and Affiliations    

CHAPTER 1: Language and Reading: Convergences and Divergences    

Alan G. Kamhi and Hugh W. Catts


Defining Language    






Defining Reading    

Models of Spoken and Written Language Comprehension    

Comprehending Spoken and Written Language    

    Perceptual Analyses    

    Word Recognition    

    Discourse-Level Processes    

Differences between Spoken and Written Language    

    Physical Differences    

    Situational Differences    

    Functional Differences    

    Form Differences    

    Vocabulary Differences    

    Grammatical Differences    

    Processing Differences    

Basic Factors in Reading and Language Development    




CHAPTER 2: Reading Development    

Alan G. Kamhi and Hugh W. Catts


Emergent Literacy Period (Birth—Kindergarten)    

    Joint Book Reading    

    Learning about Print    


The Development of Word Recognition Skills    

    Logographic Stage    

    Alphabetic Stage    

    Orthographic Stage and Automatic Word Recognition    

    Problems with Stage Theories of Word Recognition    

    The Self-Teaching Hypothesis    

    Evaluating the Self-Teaching Hypothesis

The Development of Reading Comprehension    

    Misconceptions about Comprehension Development






CHAPTER 3: Defining and Classifying Reading Disabilities    

Hugh W. Catts, Alan G. Kamhi, and Suzanne A. Adlof


Historical Basis of Reading Disabilities    

    Early Reports    


    Johnson and Myklebust    

    The Modern Era    



    Gender Differences   

Defining Reading Disability    

    Exclusionary Factors    

    IDA Definition        

    Dyslexia as a Specific Learning Disability

    Problems in Word Recognition and Spelling

    Deficits in Phonological Processing

    Unexpected Underachievement

    Secondary Consequences

Classifying Dyslexia and Other Language-Based Reading Difficulties

    Subtypes Based on the Simple View of Reading    

    Classification Studies

    Other Subtyping Methods Based on Word Recognition Skills

    Combining Subtypes in Research and Practice

    Clinical Implications


CHAPTER 4: Causes of Reading Disabilities    

Hugh W. Catts,  alan G. Kamhi, and Suzanne A. Adlof


Extrinsic Causes of Reading Disabilities    

    Early Literacy Experience    

    Reading Instruction    

    Matthew Effects    

Intrinsic Causes of Reading Disabilities    

    Genetic Basis    

    Neurological Basis    

    Visually-Based Deficits    

    Auditory Processing Deficits    

    Attention-Based Deficits    

    Language-Based Deficits    



CHAPTER 5:  Assessment and Instruction for Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition Skills    

Stephanie Al Otaiba,  Marcia L.Kosanovich, and Joseph K. Torgeson


Development and Assessment of Phonemic Awareness    

    The Importance of Phonemic Awareness in Learning to Read    

    Purposes for Assessment of Phonemic Awareness    

    Procedures and Measures Used to Assess Phonemic Awareness    

Development and Assessment of Word Recognition    

    Issues in the Assessment of Word Recognition    

    Commonly Used Measures of Word Recognition Ability    

Code-focused Classroom Instruction and More Intensive Small-Group Supplemental Intervention

    What Do We Know about Effective Code-focused Classroom Instruction?

    What Do We Know about Tier 1 Instructional Strategies that Maximize Reading Outcomes?

    What Do We Know about Training Code-focused Skills through Supplemental Interventions?

    What Do We Know about Poor Responders?

Issues for Future Research and Development



CHAPTER 6: Perspectives on Assessing and Improving Reading Comprehension

Alan G. Kamhi


Defining comprehension

    Reader Abilities

    Text Factors

    Task Factors

    A Model of Comprehension

Assessing Reading Comprehension

Comprehension Instruction

    Strategy Instruction

    Content Goals and Disciplinary Literacy

Summary and Conclusions

CHAPTER 7:  Assessing and Remediating Text Comprehension Problems   

Carol E. Westby


Cognitive and Linguistic Underpinnings for Literacy

    Linguistic Skills for Literacy

    Cognitive Understanding for Text Comprehension

Assessing Language and Cognitive Skills for Text Comprehension    

    Assessing Literate Language Style (Text Microstructures)    

    Assessing Knowledge of Narrative Content Schemata and Text Grammar Schemata (Text Macrostructures)   

    Assessing Recognition/Comprehension of Content Schemata

    Assessing ability to organize schema content and text grammars

Facilitating Text Comprehension    

    Developing Linguistic Microstructures

    Developing Macrostructure Schemas



Children’s Materials    

Appendix A: Books to Develop Connectives/Complex Clauses

Appendix B: Cinderella Stories    


CHAPTER 8:  Spelling Assessment and Intervention: A Multiple Linguistic Approach to   Improving Literacy Outcomes

Kenn Apel, Julie J. Masterson, and Danielle Brimo


The Language Basis of Spelling

    Phonological Knowledge

    Orthographic Pattern Knowledge

    Morphologic Knowledge

    Semantic Knowledge

    Mental Graphemic Representations

Relation between Spelling and Other Literacy Skills

Developmental Spelling Theories

Multi-linguistic Approach to Assessment

    Determining Goals

    Measuring Progress

Multi-Linguistic Approach to Instruction and Intervention

    Prescriptive, Multi-Linguistic Intervention

    Improving Orthographic Pattern Knowledge 

    Other Orthographic Pattern Knowledge Strategies

    Improving Morphological Knowledge

Supplementing Language Knowledge Strategies with Word-Specific Learning Tactics

Multi-linguistic Instruction at the Classroom Level




CHAPTER 9:  Learning to Write    

Cheryl M. Scott


A Framework for Writing    


Emergent and Early School Writing: Age 4-8 Years

Learning to Write Genre-Specific Text: Ages 9+

    Learning the Macrostructure of Writing: Genre Development

    Interpretation of Genre Studies: Effects of Task and Curriculum

    Learning the Microstructure of Writing:  Sentence Grammar

    Learning the Process of Writing

How Well Do Children Write: Incidence of Writing Disorder and National Assessments

Writing, Reading, and Oral Language




CHAPTER 10: Developing Knowledge and Skills for Writing

Carol E. Westby



Developing Writing Foundations

    Production/Transcription Skills

    Cognitive/Linguistic Skills

    Exploring the post-modern genre

    Expository texts

    Syntactic Structures


Developing Writing Processes

    Strategies for Generative Ideas and Planning

    Strategies for Production

    Strategies for Revising


Children’s Books

Appendix 10.1



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Published by Pearson (June 17th 2011) - Copyright © 2012