This book is a practical guide to the international, EC and UK law applying to the various uses of nuclear energy and radioactive substances. The first edition was produced in 1997, and given the renaissance of interest in nuclear power in the UK and worldwide, this new, updated and much expanded edition is timely. It will cover the law relating to the permitting and operation of nuclear power stations, the decommissioning and clean-up of former nuclear facilities, radiological protection, the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, liability and insurance, and the security and transport of radioactive materials. Readers will find a clear framework explaining the development and application of nuclear law, and how domestic law is based on and influenced by international and European requirements and by its historical context. In the commercial context, the chapters dealing specifically with new build and with decommissioning will be vital reading.
Chapter 1 Introduction Attitudes to Radioactivity Measurement and Radiological Protection Exploring the Atom The First Nuclear Reactor The Bomb Development in Canada Post-war Development in the UK Creation of the UK Atomic Energy Authority Civil Nuclear Power: The Early Years The Pressurised Water Reactor Stations Nuclear Reprocessing and Fuel Services Radioactive Waste Management Privatisation of the Nuclear Energy Industry Privatisation and Nuclear Liabilities The Atomic Energy Authority BNFL's Break-up Weapons Production The Future of Nuclear Power Accidents Windscale Kyshtym Three Mile Island Chernobyl Chapter 2 International Aspects Introduction International Commission on Radiological Protection The UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation The International Atomic Energy Agency The IAEA's Role The Nuclear Energy Agency The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Generation IV International Forum Chapter 3 Euratom Introduction The Euratom Treaty Chapter I: Promotion of research Chapter II: Dissemination of Information Chapter III: Health and Safety Chapter IV: Investment Chapter V: Joint undertakings Chapter VI: Supplies Chapter VII: Safeguards Chapter VIII: Ownership Chapter IX: The Nuclear Common Market Chapter X: External relations Inapplicability of Euratom to Military Uses of Nuclear Energy Controversy over Euratom The Nuclear Safety Directive Internal Market Rules on Generation Chapter 4 Licensing Background to Licensing International Law European Community Requirements Licensing of Nuclear Reactors Licensing of Other Installations Prescribed Installations Licensing: The Position of the Atomic Energy Authority Offence of Installation or Operation without Licence Operations Requiring a Section 2 Permit Ministerial Responsibility Scotland The Role of the Health and Safety Executive in Licensing The Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee Liaison with other Bodies and Agencies Health and Safety Duties Generally Nuclear Site Licences: Generally Identity of Site Licensee Non-prescriptive Nature of the Licensing System and Safety Cases Safety Assessment Principles Nuclear Site Licences: Acceptable Risk Tolerability of Risk Applications for Licences Nuclear Site Licences: Consultation Regulation of Defence-related Sites Nuclear Site Licences: Relationship with Electricity Act Consents and Planning Permission The Sizewell B Inquiry Licensing Future Plant Insurance Form of Licence Standard Conditions The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 and the ALARP Concept Conditions on Handling, Treatment and Disposal of Nuclear Matter Periodic Safety Reviews Variation and Revocation of Conditions Lack of Appeal against Licensing Decisions Representations by Trades Unions, etc Relationship of Conditions to Controls under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 Posting of Conditions Contravention of Conditions Corporate Manslaughter Offences: Directors and Similar Officers Institution of Proceedings Penalties Offences under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 Nuclear Installation Prosecutions: Examples Statutory Enforcement Powers Powers arising from Site Licences Revocation and Surrender of Licences Responsibility following Revocation or Surrender Decommissioning Maintenance of List of Licensed Sites Siting and Emergency Procedures Dangerous Occurrences and Nuclear Incidents Licensing a Privatised Nuclear Industry Security Requirements Chapter 5 New Build The Sizewell B Inquiry The Evolution of Policy on New Build The Flawed 2006 Consultation Policy following the Greenpeace Judgment The Planning Act 2008 National Policy Statements The Infrastructure Planning Commission Applications and their Examination Local Impact Reports Criteria for Decisions Progress in Planning New Plant Siting Criteria Coastal Processes and Flooding Strategic Environmental Assessment Public Participation Alternative Sites Appropriate Assessment under the Habitats Directive Environmental Impact Assessment EIA and the Waste Question The Nuclear Safety Convention Devolution Aspects Chapter 6 Liability Introduction: Problems of Liability and Insurance Early UK Legislation International Provisions: Generally Joint Protocol relating to Paris and Vienna Conventions The Paris Convention: Generally The Paris Convention: Channelling of Liability The Paris Convention: Limitation of Liability in Amount The Paris Convention: Limitation of Liability in Time The Paris Convention: Compulsory Cover for Liability The Paris Convention: Single Jurisdiction The 2004 Protocol to amend the Paris Convention The Brussels Supplementary Convention The 2004 Protocol to amend the Brussels Supplementary Convention The Vienna Convention Protocol to amend the Vienna Convention The Convention on Supplementary Compensation Scope of the Paris, Brussels and Vienna Conventions-Non-peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy The Convention on the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships The Convention relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material Multilateral Nuclear Environmental Programme in Russian Federation Euratom Developments Current International Issues in Liability The Environmental Liability Directive The US Approach The Nuclear Installations Act 1965: Generally Section 7: Duty of Licensee of Licensed Site Occurrences involving Nuclear Matter Occurrences on the Licensed Site Occurrences involving Nuclear Matter being Carried Occurrences involving Matter which has been on the Licensed Site or in the Course of Carriage Ionising Radiations Injury to Persons Unborn Children Personal Injury: The Sellafield Litigation Personal Injury: The Industry Compensation Scheme Damage to Property Consequential Loss The Licensee's Property and that of Third Parties Liability of Third Parties in respect of Licensee's Property Duty of the UKAEA Duty of the Crown Duty of Foreign Operators Movements of Nuclear Matter to and from the UK Duty of Carriers Right to Compensation: Section 12 Damage, Injury or Loss outside Section 12 Exclusion of Other Claims Limitation for Maritime Claims Compensation for Damage to Licensee's Property Exclusion, Extension and Reduction of Compensation: Section 13 Provision by Insurance: The Pool Terms of Insurance Provision by other Means Claims exceeding the Aggregate Figure Extension to British Territories Personal Injury Liability outside the Act: The Test Veterans' Litigation Chapter 7 Radiological Protection International Commission on Radiological Protection Nuclear Energy Agency Euratom Basic Safety Standards Proposed Revision of BSS Directive and NORM Implementation of the BSS Directive in the UK The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 Justification: Cases The Justification of Practices Involving Ionising Radiation Regulations 2004 Monitoring of Radioactivity Levels Emergency Preparedness Emergency Food Protection Measures Chapter 8 Safeguards and Security The Nuclear Test-ban and Arms Limitation Treaties Legality of Nuclear Weapons The Non-Proliferation Treaty The Proliferation Security Initiative IAEA Safeguards Euratom Safeguards The Euratom Supply Agency Safeguards in the UK Generally IAEA Safeguards in the UK Euratom Safeguards in the UK Export Controls Import Controls Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty Security Generally The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism IAEA Guidance Security in the UK Nuclear Terrorism Generally Chapter 9 Use of Radioactive Substances Introduction Radioactive Substances and Issues Relating to their Use The Statutory Background: The Radioactive Substances Acts 1948 and 1960 The Enforcing Authority for Radioactive Substances The Meaning of 'Radioactive Material' Definition of 'Mobile Radioactive Apparatus' Prohibition on use of Radioactive Material Registration of Users of Radioactive Material Conditions Breaches of Condition Exemption for Nuclear Sites Specific Exemptions High Activity Sealed Sources Prohibition of use of Mobile Apparatus Registration of Mobile Apparatus Exemptions from Registration of Mobile Apparatus Relationship of Registration under Sections 7 and 10 Cancellation and Variation of Registration Display of Certificate of Registration and Retention of Records Enforcement Notices Prohibition Notices Charges Appeals Powers of the Secretary of State Powers of Entry, Inspection, etc Access to Information Application to Crown Relationship to other Legislation Environmental Permitting Chapter 10 Transport Introduction Safety of Transport International Regulation: Generally Carriage by Sea Carriage by Air Road Transport Rail Transport Inland Waterways Post UK Transport Regulations The Radioactive Material (Road Transport) Act 1991 The Carriage of Dangerous Goods Regulations Transport by Road: Offences Liability and Insurance Transport of Radioactive Material by Rail Transport by Sea Transport by Air Transboundary Waste Movements Generally European Community Regulation The Directive on Supervision and Control of Shipments of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Regulation on Shipments of Radioactive Substances Implementation of Community Requirements in the UK Chapter 11 Decommissioning Introduction Approaches to Decommissioning Convention Obligations EU Developments Decommissioning of Existing Facilities in the UK: Introduction The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Site Licence Companies and Parent Body Organisations Independent Scrutiny Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning Environmental Impact Assessment Nuclear Liabilities during Decommissioning Site Delicensing Decommissioning and New Build Radioactively Contaminated Land Amendment Definition of Radioactively Contaminated Land Procedural Aspects Duty of Inspection Making the Determination Special Sites Remediation Notices Duties of the Enforcing Authority to carry out Remediation The Appropriate Person and Relationship with Rules on Nuclear Damage Part 2A and Licensed Nuclear Sites Chapter 12 Radioactive Waste Introduction Inter-generational Equity Issues International Co-operation on Disposal Facilities Classifying Radioactive Waste The UK National Inventory Radioactive Waste Disposal in the UK: Historical Evolution The Nirex Planning Application Rebuilding the Radioactive Waste Programme CoRWM Spent Fuel Management and Reprocessing High Level Waste Intermediate Level Waste Low Level Waste Plutonium Depleted Uranium Partitioning and Transmutation Waste Substitution Imports and Exports of Waste Geological Disposal International Law The Role of the International Atomic Energy Agency The Joint Convention The IAEA International Action Plan The London Convention OSPAR and the Sintra Statement Sub-seabed Disposal The MOX Plant Case European Community Law Euratom Requirements: Article 37 European Action Plans on Radioactive Waste Disposal Transfrontier Movement of Radioactive Waste Control under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 Radioactive Waste Definition 'End of Waste' Issues Contaminated Material Section 1(2)(b) Disposal and Accumulation The Requirement of Authorisation for Disposal: Section 13 Nuclear Sites-Disposal of Waste The Requirement of Authorisation for Accumulation: Section 14 Exemptions: Section 15 Review of Exemptions Authorisation Procedures: Generally Authorisation Procedure: Non-nuclear Sites Authorisation Procedure: Nuclear Sites Public Consultation on Applications Local Inquiries into Authorisations Environmental Assessment Revocation and Variation of Authorisations The Scope of the Variation Power Review of Authorisations Transfer of Authorisations Effect of Authorisation Functions of Local Authorities-'Special Precautions' Notices and Records Enforcement and Prohibition Notices: Sections 21 and 22 Secretary of State's Powers of Direction Appeals Powers of the Secretary of State relating to Radioactive Waste: Section 29 Power of Appropriate Agency to Dispose of Radioactive Waste and Orphan Sources Rights of Entry, Inspection, etc Offences: Sections 32 to 38 Public Access to Information: Section 39 Relationship of the 1993 Act to Other Statutory Provisions Application to Crown: Section 42 Effect on other Rights and Duties: Section 46 Territorial Jurisdiction Issues in Regulation: Generally UK Strategy for Radioactive Discharges Best Available Techniques ALARA Agency Guidance on Regulation and BAT Solid Waste Disposal Conditioning Waste Authorising New Nuclear Power Stations Appendices Appendix 1 The Nuclear Installations Act 1965 Appendix 2 Standard Nuclear Site Licence Conditions Appendix 3 Convention on Nuclear Safety Appendix 4 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability Consolidated Version, as amended by 1964, 1982 and 2004 Protocols