Very Young Children with Special Needs, 5th edition

  • Vikki F. Howard
  • Betty Fry Williams
  • Denielle Miller
  • Estee Aiken

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Once again, the author team of Vikki F. Howard, Betty Fry Williams, Denielle Miller, and Estee Aiken have written a comprehensive introduction to early childhood special education and early intervention resource for professionals preparing to work with infants, toddlers and preschool children with disabilities and their families. Very Young Children with Special Needs: A Foundation for Educators, Families, and Service Providers, Loose Leaf Version, 5/e remains a foundational text that is practical, offering readers a thorough review of early intervention and early childhood special education, and the most detailed information available about the causes of disabling conditions in young children. Readers will be provided with “best practices” for supporting diverse families, five philosophical issues important to effective intervention and support to young children and their families, and unique coverage of typical child development across physical, emotional, language and cognitive domains.



0133399923 / 9780133399929 Very Young Children with Special Needs: A Foundation for Educators, Families, and Service Providers, Loose-Leaf Version with Pearson eText -- Access Card


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0133112152 / 9780133112153 Very Young Children with Special Needs: A Foundation for Educators, Families, and Service Providers Loose Leaf Version

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Table of contents


Part 1  Foundations

Chapter 1 Philosophy of Early Education                                                                

The Importance of an Attitude of Science    

What Is an Attitude of Science?   

The History of Disability Rights    




What Is Meant by Personalization in Early Education and Intervention?    

The Implications of Personalization    

The Importance of Being Culturally Sensitive    

Population Trends    


Family Composition    

Summary on Diversity    

The Importance of Serving Children in the Context of a Family   

What Is a Family?    


The Importance of Working Collaboratively    

Close Up: The 2011 Annual Report of the Children’s Defense Fund

Teaming Models    

Collaboration in Early Intervention    

Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities: Relationship-Based Approaches

The Importance of Ethical Conduct and Advocacy   

Advocacy Issues    

How to Get Involved in Advocacy    

In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 2  Relationship-Based Teaming with Families                    

Close Up: Paraeducators in Special Education Programs

Relationship-Based Services to Families  

Facts Related to Understanding Families    

Parental Responses to the Diagnosis of a Disability    

Family Hardiness   

Barriers to Relationships    

Communication Between Parents and Professionals   

Active Listening    

Communicating Well    

Special Skills for Communicating with Parents at the Time of Diagnosis    

Conferencing with Parents    

Responses to Family Priorities    

Constraints and Conflicts    

Cultural Constraints    

Close Up: The Journey to Accepting Support

Formation of Collaborative Teams    

Teaming and IDEIA   

Responsibilities of Collaborative Teams    

In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions    


Part 2  Human Development, Typical and Atypical

CHAPTER 3  Principles of Human Development                                      

Importance and Use of Knowledge of Human Development   

Prenatal Growth and Development    

Child Growth and Development    

Close Up: The Effect of War on Children in Iraq

Patterns of Growth    


Developmental Patterns   

Physical Growth    

Theories of Development    

Principles and Patterns of Development    

Infants Are Highly Competent Organisms    

Infants Are Socially Interactive    

Infants Are Active Learners   

Infant Development Is Multidimensional    

Developmental Sequencing Is Universal    

Skills Become More Specialized    

Plasticity Is a Phenomenon of Brain Development    

Critical Learning Periods Exist in Normal Development    

Infant Relationships Are the Key to Cognitive Development   

Children Undergo Several Transitions    

Individual Differences Exist Among Children    

Factors Influencing Development    

Family Structure    


Psychological Factors    




In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions


CHAPTER 4  Human Development: Birth to Six                                        

Milestones of Development    

Motor Development    

Gross Motor Development    

Fine Motor Skills    

Language Development   

Language Form   

Morphological Development   

Language Content    

Language Use    

Factors Affecting Language Development    

Cognitive Development    

Theories of Cognition    

Social-Emotional Development    

Social Play    

Self-Help Development    

Independent Eating and Drinking Skills    

Dressing Skills    

Toileting Skills    

Personal Responsibility    

In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 5  Development and Risk During Prenatal, Natal, and Postnatal Stages                                                                                                   

Prenatal Growth and Development    

Effects of Prematurity on Body Systems    

Maternal Conditions Affecting Pregnancy Outcomes   

Preconceptual Maternal Conditions    

Prenatal Maternal Conditions    

Common Conditions of Gestation    

Maternal/Infant Natal Complications    

Prolapsed Cord/Entangled Cord    

Neonatal Conditions    

Hypoxic—Ischemic Perinatal Brain Injury   

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome    

Close Up: Why Does the United States Have Such a High Infant Mortality Rate?

Postnatal Conditions    


Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)    

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)    

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)   


Neutral Thermoregulation    

Intraventricular Hemmorhage (IVH)    

Apnea of Prematurity    


Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)    



Failure to Thrive    

Intervention for Infants Born Prematurely    

In Utero Toxins and Pregnancy Outcomes    

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome    

Prenatal Exposure to Drugs    

Implications for Infants and Children Prenatally Exposed to Drugs    

Chemical Toxic Exposure in Fetal Environment    

In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 6  Conditions Affecting the Neurological Function   

Diagnostic Tools    

X rays   

Computerized Axial Tomography    

Magnetic Resonance Imaging    

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy   

Functional Imaging    



Neurological Disabilities    

Cerebral Palsy    


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)    

Traumatic Brain Injury    

Close Up: The Promise of Stem Cell Research

Congenital Physical Malformations    

Neural Tube Defects    



In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions   


CHAPTER 7  Inborn Variations of Development                                    


Cellular Activity of Genetics   

Single Gene Disorders    

Chromosome Disorders   

Multifactorial Disorders   

Prenatal Testing    

Gene Therapy   

Genetic Variations in Development    

Cystic Fibrosis    

Close Up: Designer Babies

Down Syndrome    

Fragile X Syndrome    

Muscular Dystrophy    


Sickle Cell Disease    

Turner Syndrome    

Syndromes with Unknown Causes    

Autism Spectrum Disorder   

Tourette Syndrome    

Physical Anomalies    

Congenital Heart Defects    

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate    

In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 8  Sensory Impairments and Infections                                 

Hearing Impairments   

Hearing Process   

Hearing Loss    

Identification of Hearing Loss    

Developmental Implications and Resolutions    

Informing and Working with Parents    

Visual Impairments   

Visual Process    

Causes of Visual Impairment    

Close Up: Childhood Epidemics of the 21st Century

Developmental Implications and Resolutions    

Informing and Working with Parents    

Infections in Early Childhood    

Bacterial Infections    

Viral Infections    

Meningitis and Encephalitis    

In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions   


Part 3  Educational Programs and Services

CHAPTER 9  Discretionary Programs for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs                                                                                    

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act: Public Law 108-446    

IDEIA, Part C Regulations    

Family-Centered Early Intervention   

Service Coordination    

Interagency Services    

Eligible Children    

Developmental Delay

Procedural Safeguards    


IDEIA Guidelines for Assessment    

Eligibility Determination    

Program Planning    

Close Up: Randomized Trial of Intensive Early Intervention for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

Family Assessment    

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Development    

Selecting IFSP Family-Centered Outcomes

A Sample IFSP    

Effective Family-Centered Early Intervention    

Evidence-Based Practice    

In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 10   Mandated Services for Young Children  

A Change of Perspective    

Parent Rights and Responsibilities    

The Individualized Education Program    

Present Levels of Academic and Functional Performance   

Annual Goals and Short-Term Objectives    

Guidelines for Developing Good Objectives    

Special Education and Related Services    

Least Restrictive Environment    

Other Considerations    

Instructional Methods    

Experiences and Activities    


The Physical Environment    

Material Adaptations   

Data Collection and Evaluation    

Assistive Technology    

Close Up: The Changing Culture of Childhood: A Perfect Storm

Supplementary Aids and Services    

Challenging Behavior    

Creating Quality IEPS    

Best Practices in Preschool Intervention    

Successful Inclusion    

In Conclusion   

Study Guide Questions    



Author Index                                                                                                                                                           

Subject Index

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Published by Pearson (September 4th 2013) - Copyright © 2014