For the calculus-based General Physics course primarily taken by engineers and science majors (including physics majors).
This long-awaited and extensive revision maintains Giancoli's reputation for creating carefully crafted, highly accurate and precise physics texts. Physics for Scientists and Engineers combines outstanding pedagogy with a clear and direct narrative and applications that draw the student into the physics. The new edition also features an unrivaled suite of media and on-line resources that enhance the understanding of physics.
This book is written for students. It aims to explain physics in a readable and interesting manner that is accessible and clear, and to teach students by anticipating their needs and difficulties without oversimplifying.
Physics is a description of reality, and thus each topic begins with concrete observations and experiences that students can directly relate to. We then move on to the generalizations and more formal treatment of the topic. Not only does this make the material more interesting and easier to understand, but it is closer to the way physics is actually practiced.
• Greater clarity
No topic, no paragraph in this book was overlooked in the search to improve the clarity of the presentation. Many changes and clarifications have been made, both small and not so small. One goal has been to eliminate phrases and sentences that may slow down the principle argument: keep to the essentials at first, give the elaborations later.
• Color is used pedagogically to bring out the physics. Different types of vectors are given different colors. This book has been printed in 5 colors (5 passes through the presses) to provide better variety and definition for illustrating vectors and other concepts such as fields and rays. The photographs opening each Chapter, some of which have vectors superimposed on them, have been chosen so that the accompanying caption can be a sort of summary of the Chapter.
• The wide range of Applications have been carefully chosen and integrated into the text so as not to interfere with the development of the physics, but rather to illuminate it.Some serve only as examples of physical principles, some are treated in greater depth. To make it easy to spot the Applications, a Physics Applied marginal note is placed in the margin. A list of Applications shall appear after the Table of Contents.
• Problem Solving Marginal Notes are included throughout the Chapters to emphasize key Problem Solving strategies.
• Problem Solving Boxes
Found throughout the book, each box outlines a step-by-step approach to get students thinking about and involved in the problem at hand.
• Step-by-Step Examples
Following most Problem Solving Boxes, the next Example is worked step-by-step following the steps of the preceding Problem Solving Box to show students how this tool can be
• Estimation Examples
These help students develop skills for making order-of-magnitude estimates, even when data is scarce, or when you might never have guessed any result was possible.
New to This Edition
Great effort has been made to keep important derivations and arguments on facing pages. Students then don’t have to turn back and forth. [Throughout the book readers see before them, on two facing pages, an important slice of physics.]
Revised Vector Notation
Arrows over boldface symbols are now used to denote vectors in text and in art. Provides consistency with the way students write vectors in homework and the way professors write vectors on the board.
New “Chapter Opening Questions” (COQs)
These multiple-choice questions at the beginning of each Chapter immediately engage students with key Chapter concepts, presenting common student misconceptions. Students revisit the COQs later in the Chapter, as an Exercise, to see if their answers have changed. Answers to all Exercises are given at the end of the Chapter.
New Chapter Contents listing on the Chapter-Opening Page
Gives students an overview of Chapter topics without forcing them to turn back to the TOC.
New “Approach” Steps in worked-out Examples
Added to each worked-out Example, the Approach steps help students understand the reasoning behind the method used to solve the problem and answer their questions of "how/where do I start?"
New “Note” Sections in worked-out Examples
Added to many worked-out Examples after the Solution, these Notes sometimes remark on the solution itself, mention an application, or give an alternate approach to solving the problem.
Integrated throughout the Chapters, Exercises give students a chance to check their understanding through practice before they proceed to other topics. [Answers are given at the end of the Chapter.]
New Caution marginal notes
These notes in the margin of the text warn students of common mistakes / misconceptions about the topic at hand.
New Computer / Numerical Problems
In most Chapters, with an optional introduction in Section 2-9, these are optional and often level III Problems grouped together at the end of most Chapters. These problems require a numerical solution, often requiring a computer, spreadsheet, or programmable calculator to do the sums.
New Examples and Applications
- New optional Example 1-9 Planck length on this smallest meaningful unit of measurement.
- New optional Section 2-9 Graphical Analysis and Numerical Integration, including Example 2-22 Numerical Integration, describing techniques students can use to solve problems numerically, using a computer or graphing calculator. Problems that use these numerical techniques are found at the end of many Chapters.
- New Example 6-10 Lagrange Point L1 explores how to determine the distance to Lagrange Point L1.
- Chapters 7 and 8 on Work and Energy were carefully revised including the issue of work done by friction.
- Chapters 10 and 11 on Rotational Motion were reorganized such that coverage of Angular Momentum is entirely in Chapter 11.
- Chapters 30 and 31 on Inductance and AC Circuits were combined into one Chapter.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 21: ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD
21—1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation
21—2 Electric Charge in the Atom
21—3 Insulators and Conductors
21—4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope
21—5 Coulomb’s Law
21—6 The Electric Field
21—7 Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions
21—8 Field Lines
21—9 Electric Fields and Conductors
21—10 Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field
21—11 Electric Dipoles
*21—12 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology; DNA
*21—13 Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics
CHAPTER 22: GAUSS’S LAW
22—1 Electric Flux
22—2 Gauss’s Law
22—3 Applications of Gauss’s Law
*22—4 Experimental Basis of Gauss’s and Coulomb’s Law
CHAPTER 23: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
23—1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference
23—2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field
23—3 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges
23—4 Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution
23—5 Equipotential Surfaces
23—6 Electric Dipole Potential
23—7 E Determined from V
23—8 Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt
23—9 Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope
CHAPTER 24: CAPACITANCE, DIELECTRICS, ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE
24—2 Determination of Capacitance
24—3 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
24—4 Electric Energy Storage
*24—6 Molecular Description of Dielectrics
CHAPTER 25: ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND RESISTANCE
25–1 The Electric Battery
25–2 Electric Current
25–3 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors
25–5 Electric Power
25–6 Power in Household Circuits
25–7 Alternating Current
25–8 Microscopic View of Electric Current: Current Density and Drift Velocity
*25–10 Electrical Conduction in the Nervous System
CHAPTER 26: DC CIRCUITS
26-1 EMF and Terminal Voltage
26-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel
26-3 Kirchoff’s Rules
26-4 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery
26-5 Circuits Containing Resistor and Capacitor (RC Circuits)
26-6 Electric Hazards
*26-7 Ammeters and Voltmeters
CHAPTER 27: MAGNETISM
27-1 Magnets and Magnetic Fields
27-2 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields
27-3 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of
27-4 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field
27-5 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment
*27-6 Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers
27-7 Discover and Properties of the Electron
*27-8 The Hall Effect
*27-9 Mass Spectrometer
CHAPTER 28: SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD
28-1 Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire
28-2 Force between Two Parallel Wires
28-3 Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb
28-4 Ampere’s Law
28-5 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid
28-6 Biot-Savart Law
*28-7 Magnetic materials—Ferromagnetism
*28-8 Electromagnets and Solenoids–Applications
*28-9 Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis
*28-10 Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
CHAPTER 29: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND FARADAY’S LAW
29-1 Induced EMF
29-2 Faraday’s Law of Induction; Lenz’s Law
29-3 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor
29-4 Electric Generators
*29-5 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents
29-6 Transformers and Transmission of Power
29-7 A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field
*29-8 Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, Seismograph, GFCI
CHAPTER 30: INDUCTANCE, ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS, AND AC CIRCUITS
30-1 Mutual Inductance
30-3 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
30-4 LR Circuits
30-5 LC Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations
30-6 LC Oscillations with Resistance (LRC Circuit)
30-7 AC Circuits with AC Source
30-8 LRC Series AC Circuit
30-9 Resonance in AC Circuits
*30-10 Impedance Matching
CHAPTER 31: MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
31-1 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Ampere’s Law and Displacement Current
31-2 Gauss’s Law for Magnetism
31-3 Maxwell’s Equations
31-4 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
*31-5 Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, from Maxwell’s Equations
31-6 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
31-7 Measuring the Speed of Light
31-8 Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector
*31-9 Radiation Pressure
*31-10 Radio and Television; Wireless Communication
CHAPTER 32: LIGHT: REFLECTION AND REFRACTION
32-1 The Ray Model of Light
32-2 The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction
32-3 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror
32-4 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
32-5 Refraction: Snell’s Law
32-6 Visible Spectrum and Dispersion
32-7 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics
*32-8 Refraction at a Spherical Surface
CHAPTER 33: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
33-1 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
33-2 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification
33-3 Combinations of Lenses
33-4 Lensmaker’s Equation
33-5 Cameras, Film and Digital
33-6 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses
33-7 Magnifying Glass
*33-9 Compound Microscope
*33-10 Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors
CHAPTER 34: THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT; INTERFERENCE
34-1 Waves Versus Particles; Huygens’ Principle and Diffraction
34-2 Huygens’ Principle and the Law of Refraction
34-3 Interference—Young’s Double-Slit Experiment
34-4 Intensity in the Double-Slit Interference Pattern
34-5 Interference in Thin Films
*34-6 Michelson Interferometer
*34-7 Luminous Intensity
CHAPTER 35: DIFFRACTION AND POLARIZATION
35-1 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk
35-2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern
35-3 Diffraction in the Double-Slit Experiment
35-4 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures
35-5 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit
*35-6 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification
35-7 Diffraction Grating
*35-8 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy
*35-9 Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating
*35-10 X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction
*35-12 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
*35-13 Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere
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About the Author(s)
Douglas C. Giancoli obtained his BA in physics (summa cum laude) from UC Berkeley, his MS in physics at MIT, and his PhD in elementary particle physics back at the UC Berkeley. He spent 2 years as a post-doctoral fellow at UC Berkeley’s Virus lab developing skills in molecular biology and biophysics. His mentors include Nobel winners Emilio Segrè and Donald Glaser.
He has taught a wide range of undergraduate courses, traditional as well as innovative ones, and continues to update his textbooks meticulously, seeking ways to better provide an understanding of physics for students.
Doug’s favorite spare-time activity is the outdoors, especially climbing peaks. He says climbing peaks is like learning physics: it takes effort and the rewards are great.
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