In most of the sciences, introductory college courses focus on concepts rather than their practical application, with the latter reserved for more advanced study. An exception to this has been the fields of information systems and computer science, in which instruction has tended to focus directly on the tools of the trade, such as the technical aspects of word processing, spreadsheets, and databases. The philosophy of The Computer Continuum, however,is to concentrate on the concepts of information systems and computer science, such as data representation, operating systems, programming languages, and algorithms.
New to This Edition
- Now includes updated content in use of smart phones and wireless networks
- The use of abbreviations to the new pop culture usage of abbreviations for text messaging.
- Discussion of Unicode and hardware updates.
- The move from floppies to USB storage devices, and the recent updates in CPUs and operating systems including Vista, and the Macintosh 10.5 operating systems.
- Changes that have occurred in the networking concepts including discussions of cloud computing.
- Hollywood screen star Hedy Lamarr's patented contribution to wireless communication network
- New discussions of social networking and cloud computing, with updated discussion of e-commerce.
- Chapter 9, now "Personal Security and Privacy," has been moved up from chapter 14 to a more natural placement following Networking, which includes the Internet, and the World Wide Web chapters. Chapter 9 has been updated with information about new threats on security and privacy and includes current methods of guarding our safety and the safety of our computers.
- Includes an expanded discussion of streaming media as well as a new section on the copyright ownership of images found on the Web and of ownership of images taken by the photographer. Education fair use of images is also discussed. Also included in chapter 10 is an updated discussion of digital television, a comparison of HD DVD and Blu-ray technology, and the current state of speech recognition with comparisons of the speech recognition capabilities of Microsoft Word, the inclusion of speech recognition as a part of the Vista operating system, and the speech to text translation of digital audio recorders using Dragon Naturally Speaking
- Includes a new section on protein folding. The section explains how simulation is used to explore the structure of DNA and how computers are used world wide to assist in new discoveries via a distributed network. A game-like simulator is discussed showing the basic structures of DNA.
- Comes with WebCT Vista and Blackboard 8 for January 2010
Table of Contents
Preliminaries: Where We’re Going
CHAPTER 1 Computers: A First Look
1.1 Beyond the Computer Invasion
A Day in the 21st Century • TECH TALK: Current Dictionaries Reveal the Pervasiveness of Computers
1.2 What Is (and Isn’t) a Computer?
Examples from History • Scales and Calculators • VOICES FROM THE PAST: Stonehenge–The First Computer? • Wireless Communication and Network Access • Computers Large and Small
1.3 The Many Kinds of Computers
General-Purpose versus Special-Purpose Computers • Digital versus Analog Computers • THE CUTTING EDGE: Biological Computers–Using DNA
1.4 The General-Purpose Electronic Digital Computer
PART I — BUILDING BLOCKS: HOW COMPUTERS WORK
CHAPTER 2 Metamorphosis of Information
2.1 What Is Information?
VOICES FROM THE PAST: Claude E. Shannon–A Theory of Communication
2.2 Representation of Numbers
TECH TALK: A Serious Conversion Problem
2.3 Representation of Symbols and Text
2.4 Representation of Images
TECH TALK: An Intergalactic Message
2.5 Representation of Sounds, Music, and Speech
Representation of Simple Musical Sounds • Representing Music Using MIDI • Representation of Any Sound by Digital Recording • Representing Speech
2.6 Representing the Instructions of Programs
The Word Hunt Instruction Set • About Computer Instructions • THE CUTTING EDGE: Representation of the Human Genome
CHAPTER 3 Computer Hardware Components: CPU, Memory, and I/O
3.1 Basic Concepts of Computer Hardware
3.2 Sources of Data for the Computer
3.3 Input Devices
Connecting Hardware to the Computer • Common Technologies for Storing Binary Information • Secondary Memory Input Devices • Speed and Access Time • Cost/Removable versus Nonremovable Capacity • Type of Access
3.4 Primary Memory
3.5 The Central Processing Unit
Arithmetic Unit of the CPU • Control Unit of the CPU • Instruction Decoding Unit of the CPU • TECH TALK: Fetch/Execute and the Clock
3.6 Output Devices
Floppy Disk Drives and Hard Drives • Display Monitors • Audio Output Devices • Optical Disks: CD-ROM and DVD • Storage Capacity • Storage Devices of the Future
3.7 Moving Information within the Computer
3.8 Categories of Computers
VOICES FROM THE PAST: The Father of the Electronic Digital Computer • Calculator • Palmtop Computer • Microcomputer • THE CUTTING EDGE: Quantum Computers • Workstation and Minicomputer • Mainframe Computer • Supercomputer
CHAPTER 4 Computer Languages, Algorithms, and Program Development
4.1 Communicating with a Computer
4.2 The Role of Languages in Communication
Semantics (Meaning) • Syntax (Form) • Participants
4.3 The Program Language Continuum
In the Beginning . . . • Machine Code–The First Generation • Assembly Language–The Second Generation • VOICES FROM THE PAST: Amazing Grace • People-Oriented Programs–The Third Generation • Nonprocedural Languages–The Fourth Generation • Object-Oriented Programming • Is There a Fifth Generation?
4.4 Assembled, Compiled, or Interpreted Languages
4.5 Programming for Everyone
Using Macros • Using HTML to Create Web Pages • Scripting
4.6 Building a Program
The First Step: Understanding the Problem • Developing the Algorithm • Writing the Program • Documenting the Program • Testing and Debugging the Program • TECH TALK: Introducing Java–A Software System for Online Multimedia
4.7 Software Development: A Broader View
THE CUTTING EDGE: Software-Defined Hardware
CHAPTER 5 Hardware and Software: Putting It Together
5.1 Reviewing Key Concepts
5.2 Two Conceptual Computers
5.3 The ROBOT Computer: Programs and Algorithms
The Robot’s Domain • VOICES FROM THE PAST: John von Neumann • Hardware–Defining ROBOT Capabilities • External Hardware Features • ROBOT Characteristics • THE CUTTING EDGE: Robots by the Dozen • Software–The ROBOT’s Language • ROBOT Programs • Using the ROBOT • Getting the ROBOT Out of a Loop
5.4 The Pencil and Paper Computer
Input and Output Units • Memory • Central Processing Unit (CPU) • The Pencil and Paper Computer Instruction Set • TECH TALK: Plug and Play • Loading and Executing a Pencil and Paper Program • A Final Example
CHAPTER 6 Operating Systems: The Genie in the Computer
6.1 What Is an Operating System?
Computers without Operating Systems • BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
6.2 Booting the Computer
Cold Boot • Warm Boot • Booting with Multiple Operating Systems
6.3 User Interfaces
The Graphical User Interface (GUI) • Command-Line Interface • UNIX and Linux • TECH TALK: UNIX–Operating System of Choice for Professionals
6.4 Files and File Management
Naming Files • The Hierarchical File Structure
6.5 Input and Output of Information
General Issues in Processing Files • Device Drivers
6.6 Memory Limitations: Cache and Virtual Memory
Cache Memory • Primary/Secondary Memory Cache • RAM Cache Memory Virtual Memory
6.7 Context Switching and Multitasking
Context Switching • VOICES FROM THE PAST: Multics, the Granddaddy of Operating Systems • Multitasking
6.8 Operating Systems for the Networked World
Parallel Processing • Networks and Distributed Processing • THE CUTTING EDGE: Distributed Processing and Operating Systems • Real Time and Process Control
CHAPTER 7 Network Concepts and Communications
7.1 Introduction: "Everything Is Connected to Everything"
7.2 Communication Basics of Networks
Types of Connections–Physical Connection versus Wireless • Physical Network Links • Wireless Network Links • Properties of Transmission • Type of Signal • Speed of Signal • Type of Data Movement on the Link • Method of Transmission • Single-Channel versus Multichannel Transmission
7.3 The Physical Organization of Networks
Linking Computers Together–Direct-Connect Networks • Networks on Different Scales • Desk Area Networks • Local Area Networks • VOICES FROM THE PAST: Computer Networks–The Beginning • Metropolitan Area Networks • Wide Area Networks
7.4 Software Architecture of the Network
The Rules of Operation: Protocols of a Network • The Architecture of the Internet • TECH TALK: TCP/IP and Application Ports • Client/Server Model • Other Hardware Necessary for Networks
THE CUTTING EDGE: The Maturing of the Client/Server Model
PART II — FOUNDATIONS: APPLYING THE CONCEPTS
CHAPTER 8 The Internet and the Web: Worldwide Transformation
8.1 A Powerful Voice
8.2 The Internet: Struggling to Maturity
8.3 The Internet: Early User Interfaces
Before the World Wide Web
8.4 Using Today’s Internet
E-Mail • Peer-to-Peer File Sharing • Usenet and Listservs • THE CUTTING EDGE: Internet2 and the Evolving National LambdaRail • Chatrooms and Instant Messaging
8.5 The World Wide Web: Internet’s Most Common Access
Who Owns the Web?
8.6 Navigating the Web
VOICES FROM THE PAST: Vannevar Bush (1890—1974)–An Enigma • Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Hot Links
8.7 Understanding Web Addresses (URLs)
8.8 The Web and You
Accessing the Web (Internet Service Providers) • Surfing the Web • TECH TALK: The Deep Web • Downloading Software • Free Downloads • Shareware • Creating a Web Presence
8.9 The New Web Presence: Blogs
8.10 The Web in Business: The Growth of E-Commerce
Paying for E-Commerce Purchases • Privacy and Consumer Profiling
8.11 Software Applications: Search Engines
What Are Search Engines and How Do They Work? • Using a Search Engine Effectively
CHAPTER 9 Multimedia
9.1 What Is Multimedia?
9.2 Visual Media: Manipulating Images
Processing Existing Digital Images • TECH TALK: Graphics Formats from GIF to JPEG • Image Enhancement • Image Restoration
9.3 Visual Media: Creating Images
Creating Line Images • Vector versus Raster Graphics • Solid Forms to 3D • TECH TALK: Diplodocuses of the Jurassic in 3D
9.4 Visual Media: Animation and Video
Traditional Animation • VOICES FROM THE PAST: Ivan Sutherland–Computer Graphics Guru • Special Effects and Morphing • Digitizing and Manipulating Video • Basic Video Concepts • Common CODECs • DVD, the Digital Versatile Disc • Digital Video Players • Streaming Media
9.5 Audio Media: Human Speech
Recorded Speech • Speech Synthesis: Making a Computer Speak • Recognizing Spoken Words • The Voiceprint • Recognizing Disjointed Speech • Recognizing Continuous Speech
9.6 Audio Media: Music
The Computer and Recorded Music • Compact Disc Technology • Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) • MP3 Compressed Music • Recorded Audio Forms and Formats • Size and Quality of Sound Files • Sound File Formats • Hardware and Software Needs • MIDI: A Revolution in Music • Using MIDI Instruments • Using a Sequencer
9.7 Software Applications: Internet Music and Audio
Streaming Audio • Sound Files • MIDI Files • THE CUTTING EDGE: Convergence
CHAPTER 10 Databases: Controlling the Information Deluge
10.1 Introduction: Information Overload
10.2 The Technology for Data Collection
In the Beginning There Was Nothing • Mark-Sensor Data Collection Sheets • Remote Electronic Data Sensing • TECH TALK: Collecting Data from Earth’s Surface: A Satellite Update • Bar Codes • Data Probe Tools • Voice Recognition Data Entry • Online Interactive Data Entry
10.3 Retrieving Data
FBI Fingerprint Processing: A Study in Data Retrieval • Historical Handling of Fingerprint Data • Visualization of Information from Databases • THE CUTTING EDGE: Biometrics–The New Wave of Identification • Population Growth • Knee Noises • Heart Blood Flow
10.4 The Role of Statistics: Transforming Data into Information
Percents • Probability • Importance of Probability and Percents • Selecting Data for Statistical Analysis • Correlation
10.5 Creating a Custom Database
Database Structure and Design • VOICES FROM THE PAST: E. F. Codd and the Relational Database • Using a Relational Database System • Data Marts, Data
Warehouses, and Data Mining • Database Advantages • Ethical Hazards of Database Systems • Misrepresentation of Data • Invasion of Privacy
10.6 Software Applications: Web-Database Connectivity
What Is Web-Database Connectivity? • Key Advantages of Web-Database Connectivity • Getting Started • Oracle WebDB: An Integrated Solution
CHAPTER 11 Simulation: Modeling the Physical World
11.1 Reasons for Simulation
Forecasting or Predicting the Future • TECH TALK: Monte Carlo Simulation • Accessing the Inaccessible or Impossible • Experimentation and Testing • VOICES FROM THE PAST: Herbert A. Simon–Simulating Human Cognition • Education and Training
11.2 Building a Model
11.3 Monopoly Game Simulation
Programming Getting Out of Jail • Probabilities of the Game • Developing a Winning Strategy
11.4 SimCity: Simulation of City Planning
Overview of SimCity • Planning Details in a Feedback Environment • Strategies and the Model
11.5 Design and Implementation of Computer Simulations
Simulation Languages and Modeling Systems
11.6 Virtual Reality
Fundamentals of Virtual Reality • CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment • Virtual Surgery: A Use of Virtual Reality
11.7 Software Applications: Electronic Spreadsheets as Simulation Tools
Continuous Simulation Model • Probabilistic Simulation Model • Simulation Model with Feedback • THE CUTTING EDGE: MOOs (MUDs Object Oriented)
EMPOWERMENT: EXTENDING OUR LIMITS
CHAPTER 12 Artificial Intelligence and Modeling the Human State
12.1 What Is Intelligence: Artificial or Not?
12.2 Modeling Human Intelligence
Modeling the Human Knowledge System • VOICES FROM THE PAST: Marvin Minsky–A Leader in AI • Knowledge Acquisition • Knowledge Retrieval by Searching • Brute-Force Search–Looking at Every Possibility • Heuristic Searching • Reasoning • Learning Systems • Common Sense
12.3 Natural Language Communication
ELIZA: An Experiment in Communication • Semantic Translation Problems
12.4 Expert Systems
Expert System Overview • Structure of an Expert System • Expert Systems in the Arts • TECH TALK: Bots and Intelligent Agents
12.5 Neural Networks
The Neuron • Neural Networks • Training a Neural Network • Neural Networks in Action
12.6 Evolutionary Systems
The Genetic Algorithm • Genetic Programming • THE CUTTING EDGE: The Computer as an Inventor
12.7 Complex Adaptive Systems
Defining the Complex Adaptive System • Chaos • Artificial Life
12.8 Software Applications: Natural Language Translation
Web-Based Language Translation
CHAPTER 13 Pushing the Envelope of Human Potential
13.1 Historical Perspective
The "Education Factory" • The Seed of Educational Change • VOICES FROM THE PAST: Seymour Papert–A Visionary Looks at Kids, Computers, and Learning
13.2 Why Are Computers Effective Teaching Tools?
13.3 What Can Computers Teach?
Cognitive Learning • Psychomotor Skills • Social Interaction
13.4 What Can Computers Help Us Learn?
TECH TALK Information Age Music Class–Composition and Performance
13.5 High-Tech Tools That Help Us Learn
CD-ROM and DVD • Local Area Networks • The Internet and the Web • Distance Learning • Presentation Technology
13.6 Real and Virtual Classrooms
The Brick and Cement Classroom • The Virtual Classroom
13.7 Software Applications: Electronic Test Generators
THE CUTTING EDGE: An Intelligent Essay Assessor • What Is an Electronic Test Generator and What Does It Do? • The Electronic Test Bank • Building a Test Using the inQsit Online Testing Program • Loading the Test Bank • Creating a Test • Taking a Test • Reporting Test Results
CHAPTER 14 Personal Security and Privacy
14.1 Introduction to Issues of Personal Security and Privacy
14.2 Fundamental Concepts in Personal Security
Viruses, Worms and Trojan Horses • VOICES FROM THE PAST: Phil Zimmermann–E-Mail Privacy for Everyone • Spyware • Phishing
14.3 The Annoying Types of Computer Assaults Affecting Personal Security and Privacy
Spam • Adware and Popups • Denial of Service Attacks • TECH TALK: Wireless Standards: Bluetooth and Wi-Fi
14.4 How to Protect Personal Security and Privacy from Hackers, Business, and Government
Protection from Viruses, Worms and Trojan Horses • Protection from Spyware and Adware/Popups • Protection from Unauthorized Access • Protection from Phishing • THE CUTTING EDGE: RFID • Protection from Spam
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
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About the Author(s)
Kurt F. Lauckner received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Michigan in 1968. While a member of the Department of Mathematics at Eastern Michigan University, he took a major role in creating that school’s Computer Science program. Over the past 30 years, he has developed a concepts approach to teaching computer literacy, and his “Computer Science Concepts and Practical Applications” has grown into EMU’s primary computer literacy course, currently enrolling several hundred students per year.
Zenia C. Bahorskireceived her Ph.D. in Technology from Eastern Michigan University in 2009. She received her master's degree in Educational Psychology with a Concentration in Education Technology in 1990 from Eastern Michigan University. She received her B.S. degree in 1988 in Secondary Teaching of Computer Science and Mathematics and obtained her secondary teaching certificate in 1988. Dr. Bahorski has been teaching as a tenured Instructor in the Department of Computer Science since 1990. Her main teaching interests have been in computer fluency, computer science teacher education, and human-computer interaction. Zenia Bahorski has worked closely with Kurt Lauckner over the past twenty years, contributing to the development of the textbooks and supplemental materials.
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