Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry by McMurry, Ballantine, Hoeger, and Peterson provides background in chemistry and biochemistry with a relatable context to ensure students of all disciplines gain an appreciation of chemistry’s significance in everyday life.
Known for its clarity and concise presentation, this book balances chemical concepts with examples, drawn from students’ everyday lives and experiences, to explain the quantitative aspects of chemistry and provide deeper insight into theoretical principles. The Seventh Edition focuses on making connections between General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry through a number of new and updated features — including all-new Mastering Reactions boxes, Chemistry in Action boxes, new and revised chapter problems that strengthen the ties between major concepts in each chapter, practical applications, and much more.
This package contains:
- Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Seventh Edition
- Concepts to Review call attention to the connections between general, organic, and biological chemistry–connections which students might not recognize otherwise. Starting with Chapter 3, the Concepts to Review section at the beginning of the chapter lists topics from earlier chapters that form the basis for discussion in the current chapter.
- Concept link icons indicate areas where previously covered concepts are relevant to the discussion at hand. This highly praised feature provides cross-references and highlights important chemical themes as they are revisited.
- Looking Ahead notes call attention to connections to concepts in forthcoming chapters. These notes illustrate to the students why what they are learning in this discussion will be useful in understanding future concepts.
- NEW! Concept Maps at the end of appropriate chapters illustrate and reinforce the connections between concepts discussed in each chapter, and concepts in previous or later chapters.
- Worked Examples provide problem-solving strategies to enable student understanding.
- Most Worked Examples include an Analysis section that precedes the Solution. The Analysis lays out the approach to solving a problem of the given type.
- When appropriate, a Ballpark Estimate gives students an overview of the relationships needed to solve the problem, and provides an intuitive approach to arrive at a rough estimate of the answer.
- The Solution presents the worked-out example using the strategy laid out in the Analysis and, in many cases, includes expanded discussion to enhance student understanding.
- When applicable, following the Solution there is a Ballpark Check that compares the calculated answer to the Ballpark Estimate, and verifies that the answer makes chemical and physical sense.
- Key Concept Problems integrated throughout the chapters focus attention on the use of essential concepts, as do the Understanding Key Concepts problems at the end of each chapter. These problems immediately focus students’ attention on essential concepts and tests their comprehension.
- Understanding Key Concepts problems are designed to test students’ mastery of the core principles developed in the chapter. Students thus have an opportunity to ask “Did I get it?” before they proceed.
- Most of these Key Concept Problems use graphics or molecular-level art to illustrate the core principles and will be particularly useful to visual learners.
- Comprehensive problems within the chapters, for which brief answers are given in an appendix, cover every skill and topic to be understood. One or more problems follow each Worked Example and ¬others stand alone at the ends of sections. These allow students to practice and test their mastery of core principles within each chapter.
- More color-keyed, labeled equations–Students often skip looking at a chemical equation while reading. The text extensively uses color to highlight the aspects of chemical equations and structures under discussion, a continuing feature of this book praised by users.
- Applications are both integrated into the discussions in the text and set off from the text as Chemistry in Action boxes. Each Chemistry in Action feature provides sufficient information for reasonable understanding and extends the concepts discussed in the text in new ways. The application is followed by a cross-reference to end-of-chapter problems that can be assigned by the instructor.
- NEW! Mastering Reactions feature boxes include How Addition Reactions Occur, How Elimination Reactions Occur, and Carbonyl Additions; they discuss how these important org
New to This Edition
- NEW and updated Chemistry in Action boxes (formerly Application boxes) provide a stronger thread among each application example, drawing connections between General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry.
- NEW Mastering Reactions boxes discuss the “how” behind a number of organic reactions in relative depth.
- NEW and revised In-chapter questions–specifically related to Chemistry in Action applications and Mastering Reactions–strengthen the connection between the chapter content and practical applications.
- NEW Concept Maps are added to appropriate chapters to draw connections between General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry—particularly those chapters dealing with intermolecular forces, chemical reactions and energy, acid-base chemistry, and relationships between functional groups, proteins and their properties.
- NEW and updated concept links provide more visual reminders to indicate where new material builds on concepts from previous chapters. Updated questions in the end of chapter section build on Concept Links. Questions will require students to recall information learned in previous chapters.
- NEW and updated end-of-chapter (EOC) problems–Approximately 20-25% of the end-of-chapter problems have been revised to enhance clarity.
- All chapter goals are now tied to end-of-chapter (EOC) problem sets. Chapter summaries include a list of EOC problems that correspond to the chapter goals, for a greater connection between problems and concepts.
- Chapters 1 and 2 have been restructured, with greater emphasis on building math skills.
- Chapter 6 (Chemical Reactions) has been reorganized into two chapters: Chapter 5 (Classification and Balancing of Chemical Reactions), and Chapter 6 (Chemical Reactions: Mole and Mass Relationships). This restructuring enables students to narrow their focus; chapter 5 focuses on the qualitative aspect of reactions, while chapter 6 focuses on calculations.
Table of Contents
1. Matter and Measurements
1.1 Chemistry: The Central Science
1.2 States of Matter
1.3 Classification of Matter
1.4 Chemical Elements and Symbols
1.5 Elements and the Periodic Table
1.6 Chemical Reaction: An Example of a Chemical Change
1.7 Physical Quantities
1.8 Measuring Mass, Length, and Volume
1.9 Measurement and Significant Figures
1.10 Scientific Notation
1.11 Rounding Off Numbers
1.12 Problem Solving: Unit Conversions and Estimating Answers
1.13 Temperature, Heat, and Energy
1.14 Density and Specific Gravity
2. Atoms and the Periodic Table
2.1 Atomic Theory
2.2 Elements and Atomic Number
2.3 Isotopes and Atomic Weight
2.4 The Periodic Table
2.5 Some Characteristics of Different Groups
2.6 Electronic Structure of Atoms
2.7 Electron Configurations
2.8 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
2.9 Electron-Dot Symbols
3. Ionic Compounds
3.2 Periodic Properties and Ion Formation
3.3 Ionic Bonds
3.4 Some Properties of Ionic Compounds
3.5 Ions and the Octet Rule
3.6 Ions of Some Common Elements
3.7 Naming Ions
3.8 Polyatomic Ions
3.9 Formulas of Ionic Compounds
3.10 Naming Ionic Compounds
3.11 H _ and OH _ Ions: An Introduction to Acids and Bases
4. Molecular Compounds
4.1 Covalent Bonds
4.2 Covalent Bonds and the Periodic Table
4.3 Multiple Covalent Bonds
4.4 Coordinate Covalent Bonds
4.5 Characteristics of Molecular Compounds
4.6 Molecular Formulas and Lewis Structures
4.7 Drawing Lewis Structures
4.8 The Shapes of Molecules
4.9 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity
4.10 Polar Molecules
4.11 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds
5. Classification and Balancing of Chemical Reactions
5.1 Chemical Equations
5.2 Balancing Chemical Equations
5.3 Classes of Chemical Reactions
5.4 Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines
5.5 Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions
5.6 Redox Reactions
5.7 Recognizing Redox Reactions
5.8 Net Ionic Equations
6. Chemical Reactions: Mole and Mass Relationships
6.1 The Mole and Avogadro’s Number
6.2 Gram–Mole Conversions
6.3 Mole Relationships and Chemical Equations
6.4 Mass Relationships and Chemical Equations
6.5 Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield
7. Chemical Reactions: Energy, Rates, and Equilibrium
7.1 Energy and Chemical Bonds
7.2 Heat Changes during Chemical Reactions
7.3 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
7.4 Why Do Chemical Reactions Occur? Free Energy
7.5 How Do Chemical Reactions Occur? Reaction Rates
7.6 Effects of Temperature, Concentration, and Catalysts on Reaction Rates
7.7 Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium
7.8 Equilibrium Equations and Equilibrium Constants
7.9 Le Châtelier’s Principle: The Effect of Changing Conditions on Equilibria
8. Gases, Liquids, and Solids
8.1 States of Matter and Their Changes
8.2 Intermolecular Forces
8.3 Gases and the Kinetic–Molecular Theory
8.5 Boyle’s Law: The Relation between Volume and Pressure
8.6 Charles’s Law: The Relation between Volume and Temperature
8.7 Gay-Lussac’s Law: The Relation between Pressure and Temperature
8.8 The Combined Gas Law
8.9 Avogadro’s Law: The Relation between Volume and Molar Amount
8.10 The Ideal Gas Law
8.11 Partial Pressure and Dalton’s Law
8.13 Water: A Unique Liquid
8.15 Changes of State
9.1 Mixtures and Solutions
9.2 The Solution Process
9.3 Solid Hydrates
9.5 The Effect of Temperature on Solubility
9.6 The Effect of Pressure on Solubility: Henry’s Law
9.7 Units of Concentration
9.9 Ions in Solution: Electrolytes
9.10 Electrolytes in Body
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About the Author(s)
, educated at Harvard and Columbia, has taught approximately 17,000 students in general and organic chemistry over a 30-year period. A Professor of Chemistry at Cornell University since 1980, Dr. McMurry previously spent 13 years on the faculty at the University of California at Santa Cruz. He has received numerous awards, including the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship (1969–71), the National Institute of Health Career Development Award (1975–80), the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award (1986–87), and the Max Planck Research Award (1991).
David S. Ballantine received his B.S. in Chemistry in 1977 from the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, VA, and his Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1983 from the University of Maryland at College Park. After several years as a researcher at the Naval Research Labs in Washington, DC, he joined the faculty in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Northern Illinois University, where he has been a professor since 1989. He was awarded the Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award in 1998 and has been departmental Director of Undergraduate Studies since 2008. In addition, he is the coordinator for the Introductory and General Chemistry programs, and is responsible for supervision of the laboratory teaching assistants.
Carl A. Hoeger received his B.S. in Chemistry from San Diego State University and his Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1983. After a postdoctoral stint at the University of California, Riverside, he joined the Peptide Biology Laboratory at the Salk Institute in 1985 where he ran the NIH Peptide Facility while doing basic research in the development of peptide agonists and antagonists. During this time he also taught general, organic, and biochemistry at San Diego City College, Palomar College, and Miramar College. He joined the teaching faculty at University of California, San Diego in 1998. Dr. Hoeger has been teaching chemistry to undergraduates for over 20 years, where he continues to explore the use of technology in the classroom; his current project involves the use of video podcasts as adjuncts to live lectures. In 2004 he won the Paul and Barbara Saltman Distinguished Teaching Award from UCSD. He is deeply involved with the General Chemistry program at UCSD, and also shares partial responsibility for the training and guidance of teaching assistants in the Chemistry and Biochemistry departments.
Virginia E. Peterson received her B.S. in Chemistry in 1967 from the University of Washington in Seattle, and her Ph.D. in Biochemistry in 1980 from the University of Maryland at College Park. Between her undergraduate and graduate years she worked in lipid, diabetes, and heart disease research at Stanford University. Following her Ph.D. she took a position in the Biochemistry Department at the University of Missouri in Columbia and is now Professor Emerita. When she retired in2011 she had been the Director of Undergraduate Advising for the department for 8 years and had taught both senior capstone classes and biochemistry classes for nonscience majors. Although retired Dr. Peterson continues to advise undergraduates and teach classes. Awards include both the college level and the university-wide Excellence in Teaching Award and, in 2006, the University’s Outstanding Advisor Award and the State of Missouri Outstanding University Advisor Award. Dr. Peterson believes in public service and in 2003 received the Silver Beaver Award for service from the Boy Scouts of America.
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