Very Young Children with Special Needs: A Foundation for Educators, Families, and Service Providers, 5th edition

  • Vikki F. Howard, 
  • Betty Fry Williams, 
  • Denielle Miller, 
  • Estee Aiken

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Part 1 Foundations

Chapter 1 Philosophy of Early Education

The Importance of an Attitude of Science

What Is an Attitude of Science?

The History of Disability Rights



What Is Meant by Personalization in Early Education and Intervention?
The Implications of Personalization

The Importance of Being Culturally Sensitive

Population Trends
Family Composition
Summary on Diversity

The Importance of Serving Children in the Context of a Family

What Is a Family?

The Importance of Working Collaboratively

Close Up: The 2011 Annual Report of the Children’s Defense Fund
Teaming Models
Collaboration in Early Intervention
Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities: Relationship-Based Approaches

The Importance of Ethical Conduct and Advocacy

Advocacy Issues
How to Get Involved in Advocacy

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

CHAPTER 2 Relationship-Based Teaming with Families

Close Up: Paraeducators in Special Education Programs

Relationship-Based Services to Families

Facts Related to Understanding Families
Parental Responses to the Diagnosis of a Disability
Family Hardiness
Barriers to Relationships

Communication Between Parents and Professionals

Active Listening
Communicating Well

Special Skills for Communicating with Parents at the Time of Diagnosis

Conferencing with Parents

Responses to Family Priorities

Constraints and Conflicts
Cultural Constraints
Close Up: The Journey to Accepting Support

Formation of Collaborative Teams

Teaming and IDEIA
Responsibilities of Collaborative Teams

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

Part 2 Human Development, Typical and Atypical

CHAPTER 3 Principles of Human Development

Importance and Use of Knowledge of Human Development

Prenatal Growth and Development

Child Growth and Development

Close Up: The Effect of War on Children in Iraq
Patterns of Growth
Developmental Patterns
Physical Growth
Theories of Development

Principles and Patterns of Development

Infants Are Highly Competent Organisms
Infants Are Socially Interactive
Infants Are Active Learners
Infant Development Is Multidimensional
Developmental Sequencing Is Universal
Skills Become More Specialized
Plasticity Is a Phenomenon of Brain Development
Critical Learning Periods Exist in Normal Development
Infant Relationships Are the Key to Cognitive Development
Children Undergo Several Transitions
Individual Differences Exist Among Children

Factors Influencing Development

Family Structure
Psychological Factors

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

CHAPTER 4 Human Development: Birth to Six

Milestones of Development

Motor Development

Gross Motor Development
Fine Motor Skills

Language Development

Language Form
Morphological Development
Language Content
Language Use

Factors Affecting Language Development

Cognitive Development

Theories of Cognition

Social-Emotional Development

Social Play

Self-Help Development

Independent Eating and Drinking Skills
Dressing Skills
Toileting Skills
Personal Responsibility

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

CHAPTER 5 Development and Risk During Prenatal, Natal, and Postnatal Stages

Prenatal Growth and Development

Effects of Prematurity on Body Systems

Maternal Conditions Affecting Pregnancy Outcomes

Preconceptual Maternal Conditions
Prenatal Maternal Conditions
Common Conditions of Gestation

Maternal/Infant Natal Complications

Prolapsed Cord/Entangled Cord

Neonatal Conditions

Hypoxic—Ischemic Perinatal Brain Injury
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
Close Up: Why Does the United States Have Such a High Infant Mortality Rate?

Postnatal Conditions

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
Neutral Thermoregulation
Intraventricular Hemmorhage (IVH)
Apnea of Prematurity
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
Failure to Thrive

Intervention for Infants Born Prematurely

In Utero Toxins and Pregnancy Outcomes

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Prenatal Exposure to Drugs
Implications for Infants and Children Prenatally Exposed to Drugs
Chemical Toxic Exposure in Fetal Environment

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

CHAPTER 6 Conditions Affecting the Neurological Function

Diagnostic Tools

X rays
Computerized Axial Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Functional Imaging

Neurological Disabilities

Cerebral Palsy
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Traumatic Brain Injury
Close Up: The Promise of Stem Cell Research

Congenital Physical Malformations

Neural Tube Defects

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

CHAPTER 7 Inborn Variations of Development


Cellular Activity of Genetics
Single Gene Disorders
Chromosome Disorders
Multifactorial Disorders
Prenatal Testing
Gene Therapy

Genetic Variations in Development

Cystic Fibrosis
Close Up: Designer Babies
Down Syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome
Muscular Dystrophy
Sickle Cell Disease
Turner Syndrome

Syndromes with Unknown Causes

Autism Spectrum Disorder
Tourette Syndrome

Physical Anomalies

Congenital Heart Defects
Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

CHAPTER 8 Sensory Impairments and Infections

Hearing Impairments

Hearing Process
Hearing Loss
Identification of Hearing Loss
Developmental Implications and Resolutions
Informing and Working with Parents

Visual Impairments

Visual Process
Causes of Visual Impairment
Close Up: Childhood Epidemics of the 21st Century
Developmental Implications and Resolutions
Informing and Working with Parents

Infections in Early Childhood

Bacterial Infections
Viral Infections
Meningitis and Encephalitis

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

Part 3 Educational Programs and Services

CHAPTER 9 Discretionary Programs for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act: Public Law 108-446

IDEIA, Part C Regulations

Family-Centered Early Intervention

Service Coordination
Interagency Services
Eligible Children
Developmental Delay
Procedural Safeguards


IDEIA Guidelines for Assessment
Eligibility Determination
Program Planning
Close Up: Randomized Trial of Intensive Early Intervention for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Family Assessment
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Development
Selecting IFSP Family-Centered Outcomes
A Sample IFSP

Effective Family-Centered Early Intervention

Evidence-Based Practice

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

CHAPTER 10 Mandated Services for Young Children

A Change of Perspective

Parent Rights and Responsibilities

The Individualized Education Program

Present Levels of Academic and Functional Performance
Annual Goals and Short-Term Objectives
Guidelines for Developing Good Objectives
Special Education and Related Services
Least Restrictive Environment

Other Considerations

Instructional Methods
Experiences and Activities
The Physical Environment
Material Adaptations
Data Collection and Evaluation
Assistive Technology
Close Up: The Changing Culture of Childhood: A Perfect Storm
Supplementary Aids and Services
Challenging Behavior

Creating Quality IEPS

Best Practices in Preschool Intervention

Successful Inclusion

In Conclusion

Study Guide Questions

Author Index
Subject Index

Published by Pearson (August 29th 2013) - Copyright © 2014

ISBN-13: 9780133377965

Subject: Special Education

Category: Early Childhood Special Education

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