Chemistry: The Central Science

Chemistry: The Central Science, 14th edition

  • Theodore E. Brown, 
  • H Eugene LeMay, 
  • Bruce E. Bursten, 
  • Catherine Murphy, 
  • Patrick Woodward, 
  • Matthew E. Stoltzfus

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Overview

Chemistry: The Central Science approaches the subject with unrivaled problem sets to help you understand key concepts. Designed to help you achieve success in general chemistry, the text helps to think about the practical, real-world use of chemistry. The robust digital experience utilizes notable scientific accuracy and currency with remarkable clarity. The dynamic author team builds on their expertise and experience as leading researchers and award-winning teachers. Their goal is help you develop conceptual understanding and apply that knowledge to everyday chemistry. Data-driven problem and question revisions by the authors incorporate educational research and data from thousands of users.

Published by Pearson (August 14th 2020) - Copyright © 2018

ISBN-13: 9780136873891

Subject: Chemistry

Category: Introductory Chemistry

Table of contents

BRIEF CONTENTS

1. Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement
2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry
4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution
5. Thermochemistry
6. Electronic Structure of Atoms
7. Periodic Properties of the Elements
8. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding
9. Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
10. Gases
11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces
12. Solids and Modern Materials
13. Properties of Solutions
14. Chemical Kinetics
15. Chemical Equilibrium
16. Acid-Base Equilibria
17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
18. Chemistry of the Environment
19. Chemical Thermodynamics
20. Electrochemistry
21. Nuclear Chemistry
22. Chemistry of the Nonmetals
23. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
24. The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry

Appendices
Mathematical Operations
Properties of Water
Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25ο C)
Aqueous Equilibrium Constants
Standard Reduction Potentials at 25ο C

Answers to Selected Exercises
Answers to Give It Some Thought
Answers to Go Figure
Answer to Selected Practice Exercises

Glossary
Photo and Art Credits

DETAILED CONTENTS

1. Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement
1.1 The Study of Chemistry
The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry
Why Study Chemistry?
1.2 Classifications of Matter
States of Matter
Pure Substances
Elements
Compounds
Mixtures
1.3 Properties of Matter
Physical and Chemical Changes
Separation of Mixtures
1.4 The Nature of Energy
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
1.5 Units of Measurement
SI Units
Length and Mass
Temperature
Derived SI Units
Volume
Density
Units of Energy
1.6 Uncertainty in Measurement
Precision and Accuracy
Significant Figures
Significant Figures in Calculations
1.7 Dimensional Analysis
Conversion Factors
Using Two or More Conversion Factors
Conversions Involving Volume
Chemistry Put To Work: Chemistry and the Chemical Industry
A Closer Look: The Scientific Method
Chemistry Put To Work: Chemistry in the News
Strategies For Success: Estimating Answers
Strategies For Success: The Importance of Practice
Strategies For Success: The Features of This Book

2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
2.1 The Atomic Theory of Matter
2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Cathode Rays and Electrons
Radioactivity
The Nuclear Model of the Atom
2.3 The Modern View of Atomic Structure
Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes
2.4 Atomic Weights
The Atomic Mass Scale
Atomic Weight
2.5 The Periodic Table
2.6 Molecules and Molecular Compounds
Molecules and Chemical Formulas
Molecular and Empirical Formulas
Picturing Molecules
2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds
Predicting Ionic Charges
Ionic Compounds
2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds
Names and Formulas of Acids
Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds
2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds
Alkanes
Some Derivatives of Alkanes
A Closer Look: Basic Forces
A Closer Look: The Mass Spectrometer
A Closer Look: What Are Coins Made Of?
Chemistry and Life: Elements Required by Living Organisms
Strategies For Success: How to Take a Test

3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry
3.1 Chemical Equations
Balancing Equations
A Step-by-Step Example of Balancing a Chemical Equation
Indicating the States of Reactants and Products
3.2 Simple Patterns of Chemical Reactivity
Combination and Decomposition Reactions
Combustion Reactions
3.3 Formula Weights
Formula and Molecular Weights
Percentage Composition from Chemical Formulas
3.4 Avogadro's Number and the Mole
Molar Mass
Interconverting Masses and Moles
Interconverting Masses and Numbers of Particles
3.5 Empirical Formulas from Analyses
Molecular Formulas from Empirical Formulas
Combustion Analysis
3.6 Quantitative Information from Balanced Equations
3.7 Limiting Reactants
Theoretical and Percent Yields
Strategies For Success: Problem Solving
Chemistry and Life: Glucose Monitoring
Strategies For Success: Design an Experiment

4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution
4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions
Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
How Compounds Dissolve in Water
Strong and Weak Electrolytes
4.2 Precipitation Reactions
Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds
Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions
Ionic Equations and Spectator Ions
4.3 Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions
Acids
Bases
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
Identifying Strong and Weak Electrolytes
Neutralization Reactions and Salts
Neutralization Reactions with Gas Formation
4.4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation and Reduction
Oxidation Numbers
Oxidation of Metals by Acids and Salts
The Activity Series
4.5 Concentrations of Solutions
Molarity
Expressing the Concentration of an Electrolyte
Interconverting Molarity, Moles, and Volume
Dilution
4.6 Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis
Titrations
Chemistry Put To Work: Antacids
Strategies For Success: Analyzing Chemical Reactions

5. Thermochemistry
5.1 The Nature of Chemical Energy
5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics
System and Surroundings
Internal Energy
Relating E to Heat and Work
Endothermic and Exothermic Processes
State Functions
5.3 Enthalpy
Pressure-Volume Work
Enthalpy Change
5.4 Enthalpies of Reaction
5.5 Calorimetry
Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
Constant-Pressure Calorimetry
Bomb Calorimetry (Constant-Volume Calorimetry)
5.6 Hess's Law
5.7 Enthalpies of Formation
Using Enthalpies of Formation to Calculate Enthalpies of Reaction
5.8 Bond Enthalpies
Bond Enthalpies and the Enthalpies of Reactions
5.9 Foods and Fuels
Foods
Fuels
Other Energy Sources
A Closer Look: Energy, Enthalpy, and P-V Work
A Closer Look: Using Enthalpy as a Guide
Chemistry and Life: The Regulation of Body Temperature
Chemistry Put To Work: The Scientific and Political Challenges of Biofuels

6. Electronic Structure of Atoms
6.1 The Wave Nature of Light
6.2 Quantized Energy and Photons
Hot Objects and the Quantization of Energy
The Photoelectric Effect and Photons
6.3 Line Spectra and the Bohr Model
Line Spectra
Bohr's Model
The Energy States of the Hydrogen Atom
Limitations of the Bohr Model
6.4 The Wave Behavior of Matter
The Uncertainty Principle
6.5 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals
Orbitals and Quantum Numbers
6.6 Representations of Orbitals
The s Orbitals
The Orbitals
The and Orbitals
6.7 Many-Electron Atoms
Orbitals and Their Energies
Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
6.8 Electron Configurations
Hund's Rule
Condensed Electron Configurations
Transition Metals
The Lanthanides and Actinides
6.9 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
Anomalous Electron Configurations
A Closer Look: Measurement and the Uncertainty Principle
A Closer Look: Thought Experiments and Schrödinger's Cat
A Closer Look: Probability Density and Radial Probability Functions
Chemistry and Life: Nuclear Spin and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

7. Periodic Properties of the Elements
7.1 Development of the Periodic Table
7.2 Effective Nuclear Charge
7.3 Sizes of Atoms and Ions
Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii
Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii
7.4 Ionization Energy
Variations in Successive Ionization Energies
Periodic Trends in First Ionization Energies
Electron Configurations of Ions
7.5 Electron Affinity
Periodic Trends in Electron Affinity
7.6 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
Metals
Nonmetals
Metalloids
7.7 Trends for Group 1A and Group 2A Metals
Group 1A: The Alkali Metals
Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Metals
7.8 Trends for Selected Nonmetals
Hydrogen
Group 6A: The Oxygen Group
Group 7A: The Halogens
Group 8A: The Noble Gases
A Closer Look: Effective Nuclear Charge
Chemistry Put To Work: Ionic Size and Lithium-Ion Batteries
Chemistry and Life: The Improbable Development of Lithium Drugs

8. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding
8.1 Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule
The Octet Rule
8.2 Ionic Bonding
Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation
Electron Configurations of Ions of the s- and p-Block Elements
Transition Metal Ions
8.3 Covalent Bonding
Lewis Structures
Multiple Bonds
8.4 Bond Polarity and Electronegativity
Electronegativity
Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
Dipole Moments
Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonding
8.5 Drawing Lewis Structures
Formal Charge and Alternative Lewis Structures
8.6 Resonance Structures
Resonance in Benzene
8.7 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Odd Number of Electrons
Less Than an Octet of Valence Electrons
More Than an Octet of Valence Electrons
8.8 Strengths and Lengths of Covalent Bonds
A Closer Look: Calculation of Lattice Energies: The Born-Haber Cycle
A Closer Look: Oxidation Numbers, Formal Charges, and Actual Partial Charges

9. Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
9.1 Molecular Shapes
Applying the VSEPR Model to Determine Molecular Shapes
Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles
Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells
Shapes of Larger Molecules
9.2 The VSEPR Model
Applying the VSEPR Model to Determine Molecular Shapes
Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles
Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells
Shapes of Larger Molecules
9.3 Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity
9.4 Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap
9.5 Hybrid Orbitals
sp Hybrid Orbitals
sp2 and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals
Hypervalent Molecules
Hybrid Orbital Summary
9.6 Multiple Bonds
Resonance Structures, Delocalization, and p Bonding
General Conclusions about s and p
9.7 Molecular Orbitals
Molecular Orbitals of the Hydrogen Molecule
Bond Order
9.8 Bonding in Period 2 Diatomic Molecules
Molecular Orbitals for Li2 and Be2
Molecular Orbitals from 2p Atomic Orbitals
Electron Configurations for B2 through Ne2
Electron Configurations and Molecular Properties
Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
Chemistry and Life: The Chemistry of Vision
A Closer Look: Phases in Atomic and Molecular Orbitals
Chemistry Put To Work: Orbitals and Energy

10. Gases
10.1 Characteristics of Gases
10.2 Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer
10.3 The Gas Laws
The Pressure-Volume Relationship: Boyle's Law
The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles's Law
The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro's Law
10.4 The Ideal-Gas Equation
Relating the Ideal-Gas Equation and the Gas Laws
10.5 Further Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation
Gas Densities and Molar Mass
Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions
10.6 Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures
Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions
10.7 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
Distributions of Molecular Speed
Application of Kinetic-Molecular Theory to the Gas Laws
10.8 Molecular Effusion and Diffusion
Graham's Law of Effusion
Diffusion and Mean Free Path
10.9 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior
The van der Waals Equation
Strategies for Success: Calculations Involving Many Variables
A Closer Look: The Ideal-Gas Equation
Chemistry Put To Work: Gas Separations

11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces
11.1 A Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
11.2 Intermolecular Forces
Dispersion Forces
Dipole-Dipole Interactions
Hydrogen Bonding
Ion-Dipole Forces
Comparing Intermolecular Forces
11.3 Select Properties of Liquids
Viscosity
Surface Tension
Capillary Action
11.4 Phase Changes
Energy Changes Accompany Phase Changes
Heating Curves
Critical Temperature and Pressure
11.5 Vapor Pressure
Volatility, Vapor Pressure, and Temperature
Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point
11.6 Phase Diagrams
The Phase Diagrams of and
11.7 Liquid Crystals
Types of Liquid Crystals
Chemistry Put To Work: Ionic Liquids
A Closer Look: The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation

12. Solids and Modern Materials
12.1 Classification of Solids
12.2 Structures of Solids
Crystalline and Amorphous Solids
Unit Cells and Crystal Lattices
Filling the Unit Cell
12.3 Metallic Solids
The Structures of Metallic Solids
Close Packing
Alloys
12.4 Metallic Bonding
Electron-Sea Model
Molecular Orbital Model
12.5 Ionic Solids
Structures of Ionic Solids
12.6 Molecular Solids
12.7 Covalent-Network Solids
Semiconductors
Semiconductor Doping
12.8 Polymers
Making Polymers
Structure and Physical Properties of Polymers
12.9 Nanomaterials
Semiconductors on the Nanoscale
Metals on the Nanoscale
Carbon on the Nanoscale
A Closer Look: X-ray Diffraction
Chemistry Put To Work: Alloys of Gold
Chemistry Put To Work: Solid-State Lighting
Chemistry Put To Work: Modern Materials in the Automobile
Chemistry Put To Work: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials

13. Properties of Solutions
13.1 The Solution Process
The Natural Tendency toward Mixing
The Effect of Intermolecular Forces on Solution Formation
Energetics of Solution Formation
Solution Formation and Chemical Reactions
13.2 Saturated Solutions and Solubility
13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility
Solute-Solvent Interactions
Pressure Effects
Temperature Effects
13.4 Expressing Solution Concentration
Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb
Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
Converting Concentration Units
13.5 Colligative Properties
Vapor-Pressure Lowering
Boiling-Point Elevation
Freezing-Point Depression
Osmosis
Determination of Molar Mass from Colligative Properties
13.6 Colloids
Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids
Colloidal Motion in Liquids
Chemistry and Life: Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins
Chemistry and Life: Blood Gases and Deep-Sea Diving
A Closer Look: Ideal Solutions with Two or More Volatile Components
A Closer Look: The van't Hoff Factor
Chemistry and Life: Sickle-Cell Anemia

14. Chemical Kinetics
14.1 Factors That Affect Reaction Rates
14.2 Reaction Rates
Change of Rate with Time
Instantaneous Rate
Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry
14.3 Concentration and Rate Laws
Reaction Orders: The Exponents in the Rate Law
Magnitudes and Units of Rate Constants
Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws
14.4 The Change of Concentration with Time
First-Order Reactions
Second-Order Reactions
Zero-Order Reactions
Half-Life
14.5 Temperature and Rate
The Collision Model
The Orientation Factor
Activation Energy
The Arrhenius Equation
Determining the Activation Energy
14.6 Reaction Mechanisms
Elementary Reactions
Multistep Mechanisms
Rate Laws for Elementary Reactions
The Rate-Determining Step for a Multistep Mechanism
Mechanisms with a Slow Initial Step
Mechanisms with a Fast Initial Step
14.7 Catalysis
Homogeneous Catalysis
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Enzymes
A Closer Look: Using Spectroscopic Methods to Measure Reaction Rates: Beer's Law
Chemistry Put To Work: Methyl Bromide in the Atmosphere
Chemistry Put To Work: Catalytic Converters
Chemistry and Life: Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogenase

15. Chemical Equilibrium
15.1 The Concept of Equilibrium
15.2 The Equilibrium Constant
Evaluating Kc
Equilibrium Constants in Terms of Pressure, Kp
Equilibrium Constants and Units
15.3 Understanding and Working with Equilibrium Constants
The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants
The Direction of the Chemical Equation and K
Relating Chemical Equation Stoichiometry and Equilibrium Constants
15.4 Heterogeneous Equilibria
15.5 Calculating Equilibrium Constants
15.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants
Predicting the Direction of Reaction
Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations
15.7 Le Châtelier's Principle
Change in Reactant or Product Concentration
Effects of Volume and Pressure Changes
Effect of Temperature Changes
The Effect of Catalysts
Chemistry Put To Work: The Haber Process
A Closer Look: Temperature Changes and Le Châtelier's Principle
Chemistry Put To Work: Controlling Nitric Oxide Emissions

16. Acid-Base Equilibria
16.1 Arrhenius Acids and Bases
16.2 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
The H+ Ion in Water
Proton-Transfer Reactions
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
16.3 The Autoionization of Water
The Ion Product of Water
16.4 The pH Scale
pOH and Other "p" Scales
Measuring pH
16.5 Strong Acids and Bases
Strong Acids
Strong Bases
16.6 Weak Acids
Calculating Ka from pH
Percent Ionization
Using Ka to Calculate pH
Polyprotic Acids
16.7 Weak Bases
Types of Weak Bases
16.8 Relationship Between Ka and Kb
16.9 Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions
An Anion's Ability to React with Water
A Cation's Ability to React with Water
Combined Effect of Cation and Anion in Solution
16.10 Acid-Base Behavior and Chemical Structure
Factors That Affect Acid Strength
Binary Acids
Oxyacids
Carboxylic Acids
16.11 Lewis Acids and Bases
A Closer Look: Polyprotic Acids
Chemistry Put To Work: Amines and Amine Hydrochlorides
Chemistry and Life: The Amphiprotic Behavior of Amino Acids

17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
17.1 The Common-Ion Effect
17.2 Buffers
Composition and Action of Buffers
Calculating the pH of a Buffer
Buffer Capacity and pH Range
Addition of Strong Acids or Bases to Buffers
17.3 Acid-Base Titrations
Strong Acid-Strong Base Titrations
Weak Acid-Strong Base Titrations
Titrating with an Acid-Base Indicator
Titrations of Polyprotic Acids
17.4 Solubility Equilibria
The Solubility-Product Constant, Ksp
Solubility and Ksp
17.5 Factors That Affect Solubility
The Common-Ion Effect
Solubility and pH
Formation of Complex Ions
Amphoterism
17.6 Precipitation and Separation of Ions
Selective Precipitation of Ions
17.7 Qualitative Analysis for Metallic Elements
Chemistry and Life: Blood as a Buffered Solution
A Closer Look: Limitations of Solubility Products
Chemistry and Life: Tooth Decay and Fluoridation
A Closer Look: Lead Contamination in Drinking Water

18. Chemistry of the Environment
18.1 Earth's Atmosphere
Composition of the Atmosphere
Photochemical Reactions in the Atmosphere
Ozone in the Stratosphere
18.2 Human Activities and Earth's Atmosphere
The Ozone Layer and Its Depletion
Sulfur Compounds and Acid Rain
Nitrogen Oxides and Photochemical Smog
Greenhouse Gases: Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, and Climate
18.3 Earth's Water
The Global Water Cycle
Salt Water: Earth's Oceans and Seas
Freshwater and Groundwater
18.4 Human Activities and Water Quality
Dissolved Oxygen and Water Quality
Water Purification: Desalination
Water Purification: Municipal Treatment
18.5 Green Chemistry
Supercritical Solvents
Greener Reagents and Processes
A Closer Look: Other Greenhouse Gases
A Closer Look: The Ogallala Aquifer-A Shrinking Resource
A Closer Look: Fracking and Water Quality
Chemistry and Life: Ocean Acidification

19. Chemical Thermodynamics
19.1 Spontaneous Processes
Seeking a Criterion for Spontaneity
Reversible and Irreversible Processes
19.2 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Relationship between Entropy and Heat
S for Phase Changes
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
19.3 The Molecular Interpretation of Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics
Expansion of a Gas at the Molecular Level
Boltzmann's Equation and Microstates
Molecular Motions and Energy
Making Qualitative Predictions about S
The Third Law of Thermodynamics
19.4 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Temperature Variation of Entropy
Standard Molar Entropies
Calculating the Standard Entropy Change for a Reaction Entropy Changes in the Surroundings
19.5 Gibbs Free Energy
Standard Free Energy of Formation
19.6 Free Energy and Temperature
19.7 Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant
Free Energy under Nonstandard Conditions
Relationship between and K
A Closer Look: The Entropy Change When a Gas Expands Isothermally
Chemistry and Life: Entropy and Human Society
A Closer Look: What's "Free" About Free Energy?
Chemistry and Life: Driving Nonspontaneous Reactions: Coupling Reactions

20. Electrochemistry
20.1 Oxidation States and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
20.2 Balancing Redox Equations
Half-Reactions
Balancing Equations by the Method of Half-Reactions
Balancing Equations for Reactions Occurring in Basic Solution
20.3 Voltaic Cells
20.4 Cell Potentials Under Standard Conditions
Standard Reduction Potentials
Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
20.5 Free Energy and Redox Reactions
Emf, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant
20.6 Cell Potentials Under Nonstandard Conditions
The Nernst Equation
Concentration Cells
20.7 Batteries and Fuel Cells
Lead-Acid Battery
Alkaline Battery
Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries
Lithium-Ion Batteries
Hydrogen Fuel Cells
20.8 Corrosion
Corrosion of Iron (Rusting)
Preventing Corrosion of Iron
20.9 Electrolysis
Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis
A Closer Look: Electrical Work
Chemistry and Life: Heartbeats and Electrocardiography
Chemistry Put To Work: Batteries for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles
Chemistry Put To Work: Electrometallurgy of Aluminum

21. Nuclear Chemistry
21.1 Radioactivity and Nuclear Equations
Nuclear Equations
Types of Radioactive Decay
21.2 Patterns of Nuclear Stability
Neutron-to-Proton Ratio
Radioactive Decay Chains
Further Observations
21.3 Nuclear Transmutations
Accelerating Charged Particles
Reactions Involving Neutrons
Transuranium Elements
21.4 Rates of Radioactive Decay
Radiometric Dating
Calculations Based on Half-Life
21.5 Detection of Radioactivity
Radiotracers
21.6 Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions
Nuclear Binding Energies
21.7 Nuclear Power: Fission
Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear Waste
21.8 Nuclear Power: Fusion
21.9 Radiation in the Environment and Living Systems
Radiation Doses
Chemistry and Life: Medical Applications of Radiotracers
A Closer Look: The Dawning of the Nuclear Age
A Closer Look: Nuclear Synthesis of the Elements
Chemistry and Life: Radiation Therapy

22. Chemistry of the Nonmetals
22.1 Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions
22.2 Hydrogen
Isotopes of Hydrogen
Properties of Hydrogen
Production of Hydrogen
Uses of Hydrogen
Binary Hydrogen Compounds
22.3 Group 8A: The Noble Gases
Noble-Gas Compounds
22.4 Group 7A: The Halogens
Properties and Production of the Halogens
Uses of the Halogens
The Hydrogen Halides
Interhalogen Compounds
Oxyacids and Oxyanions
22.5 Oxygen
Properties of Oxygen
Production of Oxygen
Uses of Oxygen
Ozone
Oxides
Peroxides and Superoxides
22.6 The Other Group 6A Elements: S, Se, Te, and Po
Occurrence and Production of S, Se, and Te
Properties and Uses of Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium
Sulfides
Oxides, Oxyacids, and Oxyanions of Sulfur
22.7 Nitrogen
Properties of Nitrogen
Production and Uses of Nitrogen
Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen
Oxides and Oxyacids of Nitrogen
22.8 The Other Group 5A Elements: P, As, Sb, and Bi
Occurrence, Isolation, and Properties of Phosphorus
Phosphorus Halides
Oxy Compounds of Phosphorus
22.9 Carbon
Elemental Forms of Carbon
Oxides of Carbon
Carbonic Acid and Carbonates
Carbides
22.10 The Other Group 4A Elements: Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb
General Characteristics of the Group A Elements
Occurrence and Preparation of Silicon
Silicates
Glass
Silicones
22.11 Boron
A Closer Look: The Hydrogen Economy
Chemistry and Life: Nitroglycerin, Nitric Oxide, and Heart Disease
Chemistry and Life: Arsenic in Drinking Water
Chemistry Put To Work: Carbon Fibers and Composites

23. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
23.1 The Transition Metals
Physical Properties
Electron Configurations and Oxidation States
Magnetism
23.2 Transition-Metal Complexes
The Development of Coordination Chemistry: Werner's Theory
The Metal-Ligand Bond
Charges, Coordination Numbers, and Geometries
23.3 Common Ligands in Coordination Chemistry
Metals and Chelates in Living Systems
23.4 Nomenclature and Isomerism in Coordination Chemistry
Isomerism
Structural Isomerism
Stereoisomerism
23.5 Color and Magnetism in Coordination Chemistry
Color
Magnetism of Coordination Compounds
23.6 Crystal-field Theory
Electron Configurations in Octahedral Complexes
Tetrahedral and Square-Planar Complexes
Design an Experiment
A Closer Look: Entropy and the Chelate Effect
Chemistry and Life: The Battle for Iron in Living Systems
A Closer Look: Charge-Transfer Color

24. The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry
24.1 General Characteristics of Organic Molecules
The Structures of Organic Molecules
The Stability of Organic Compounds
Solubility and Acid-Base Properties of Organic Compounds
24.2 Introduction to Hydrocarbons
Structures of Alkanes
Structural Isomers
Nomenclature of Alkanes
Cycloalkanes
Reactions of Alkanes
24.3 Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Alkenes
Alkynes
Addition Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Stabilization of p Electrons by Delocalization
Substitution Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
24.4 Organic Functional Groups
Alcohols
Ethers
Aldehydes and Ketones
Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Amines and Amides
24.5 Chirality in Organic Chemistry
24.6 Introduction to Biochemistry
24.7 Proteins
Amino Acids
Polypeptides and Proteins
Protein Structure
24.8 Carbohydrates
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
24.9 Lipids
Fats
Phospholipids
24.10 Nucleic Acids
Design an Experiment
Chemistry Put To Work: Gasoline
A Closer Look: Mechanism of Addition Reactions
STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS: What Now?

Appendices
Mathematical Operations
Properties of Water
Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25 °C)
Aqueous Equilibrium Constants
Standard Reduction Potentials at 25 °C

Answers to Selected Exercises
Answers to Give It Some Thought
Answers to Go Figure
Answer to Selected Practice Exercises

Glossary

Your questions answered

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Pearson eText is an easy-to-use digital textbook available from Pearson+. Make it your own by adding notes and highlights. Download the Pearson+ mobile app to learn on the go, even offline. Listen on the go with our new audiobook feature, available for most titles.

When you choose a plan, you're signing up for a 4-month term. We will charge your payment method each month until your 4-month term has ended. After that, we'll automatically renew your subscription and charge you on a month-to-month basis unless you turn off auto-renewal in My account.

When you purchase a Pearson+ subscription, it will last a minimum of 4 months, and then automatically renew each month thereafter unless you turn off auto-renew in My account.

If you want to stop your subscription at the end of your 4-month term, simply turn off auto-renew from My account. To avoid the next payment charge, make sure you turn auto renewal off 1 day before the auto renewal date.

You can subscribe again after auto-renew has been turned off by purchasing another Pearson+ subscription.

We use your credit card to renew your subscription automatically. To make sure your learning is uninterrupted, please check your card details before your first monthly payment.

With a Multi Pearson+ subscription plan, you can download up to 5 titles on the Pearson+ app from My list on each of your authorized devices every month.

When you're using your Multi Pearson+ subscription plan in a browser, you can select and read from as many titles as you like.