Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction

Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction, 9th edition

  • Jean Gillet, 
  • Charles A. Temple, 
  • Codruta N. Temple, 
  • Alan N. Crawford

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Overview

Understanding Reading Problems gives you a firm grasp of essential reading processes and the stages of literacy development. You'll come away with detailed procedures and techniques for assessing and teaching emergent literacy, as well as special considerations for children with special needs.

Published by Pearson (January 1st 2021) - Copyright © 2017

ISBN-13: 9780137411641

Subject: Literacy

Category: Reading Assessment-Diagnosis-Remediation

Table of contents

Brief Table of Contents
Preface - xiii
1. Reading and Its Assessment
2. Response to Intervention (RTI) and Struggling Readers
3. Assessing and Teaching Emergent Readers and Writers
4. Assessing and Teaching Beginning and Fledgling Readers and Writers
5. Teaching Developing Readers
6. Informal Assessments of Reading and Reading Levels
7. Assessing and Teaching Middle and Secondary School Readers and Writers
8. Assessing and Teaching Spelling and Writing
9. Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
10. Formal Measures
11. Factors Related to Reading Problems

Summary
References
Name Index
Subject Index

Detailed Table of Contents
Preface xiii
1. Reading and Its Assessment
Literacy Now: Framing the Issues
Why Does Reading Ability Matter?
How Do Different Groups of Students Perform on Literacy Tasks?
How Do English Language Learners Fare in Literacy?
How Do We View Learning to Read at Different Stages?
What Happens in the Emergent Literacy Stage?
What Happens in the Beginning Reading Stage?
What Happens in the Building Fluency Stage?
What Happens in the Developing Reading Stage?
What Happens in the Mature Reading and Disciplinary Reading Stage?
Old and New: No Child Left Behind and the Common Core State Standards
Reading Assessment
Why Do We Assess Readers and Writers?
Different Assessments for Different Phases of Instruction
Summary
References

2. Response to Intervention (RTI) and Struggling Readers
From a Discrepancy Model to Response to Intervention
The Origins of RTI
Response to Intervention (RTI)
Characteristics of RTI: What It Is, What It Isn’t
Recommended Principles of RTI from the International Reading Association
The Multi Tiered Structure of RTI
Approaches and Models for Implementing RTI
Interactive Strategies Approach (ISA)
Comprehensive Intervention Model (CIM)
Evidence Based Literacy Programs
The Role of Assessment in RTI
Members of the RTI Team and Their Roles
Classroom Teacher
Special Education Teacher
School Psychologist
Building Principal
Parents
RTI in Middle Schools and High Schools
Summary
References

3. Assessing and Teaching Emergent Readers and Writers
Emergent Literacy
Aspects of Emergent Literacy
Assessing Emerging Readers
Assessing Print Concepts
Alphabet Knowledge
The Concept of Word
Phonological Awareness
Oral Language Development
Widely Distributed Tests of Emergent Literacy
Teaching for Emergent Literacy
Teaching Print Orientation Concepts
Teaching the Alphabet
Teaching the Concept of Word
Teaching to Build Phonological Awareness
Teaching for Many Things at Onc
Reading Storybooks
Teaching to Nurture Vocabulary Development
Teaching Decontextualized Language
Emergent Literacy and the Common Core State Standards
Summary
References

4. Assessing and Teaching Beginning and Fledgling Readers and Writers
Components of Beginning and Fledgling Reading
Word Recognition
Reading Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension, the Ability to Derive Meaning from Text
Assessing Beginning and Fledgling Readers
Running Records
Running Records to Document Progress
Further Assessments of Beginning and Fledgling Readers
Instruction for Beginning and Fledgling Readers
Guided Reading
The Language Experience Approach
Working on Reading Skills
Writing
Word Study
Reading Aloud
Beginning and Fledgling Reading and the Common Core Standards
Summary
References

5. Teaching Developing Readers
Phonics and Word Knowledge for Developing Readers
Word Knowledge at Different Levels
Teaching Phonics
Word Study at More Advanced Levels
Guiding Word Study
Teaching Words with Shared Phonogram Patterns
Teaching Words with Grammatical Affixes and Derivational Affixes
Teaching Homophones and Homographs
Developing Sight Vocabulary
Dictated Stories and Language Experience
Support Reading: Echo Reading and Choral Reading
Developing Word Analysis Strategies
Using Context
Approaching Word Attack Strategically
Developing Reading Fluency
Modeling Fluent Oral Reading
Providing Oral Support for Reading
Providing Practice in Oral Reading
Repeated Reading for Fluency
Predictable Books, “Easy Readers,” and Other Easy Reading Fare
Developing Readers’ Vocabulary
Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge
Dissecting Children’s Vocabulary
Approaches to Teaching Vocabulary
Exercises for Second Grade and Up
Teaching the Use of Context Clues to Vocabulary
Developing Reading Comprehension
Strategies for the Phase of Anticipation
Strategies for the Phase of Building Knowledge
Strategies for the Phase of Consolidation
Close Reading
Six Close Readings
Developing Listening Comprehension
Summary
References

6. Informal Assessments of Reading and Reading Levels
Introduction
Informal Reading Inventories
Selecting a Commercial Informal Reading Inventory
Types of Text
Format and Instructions
Administering an Informal Reading Inventory
Scoring an Informal Reading Inventory
Scoring the Word Recognition Inventory
Interpreting an Informal Reading Inventory
Supplementing Informal Reading Inventories
Observations of Reading Behaviors and Strategies
Observing Readers
Recording Observation
Monitoring Types and Difficulty of Texts Read
Guided Reading Levels
Readability Estimates
Lexiles
Text Complexity
Qualitative Factors
Quantitative Factors
Reader and Task Considerations
Text Complexity and Reading Levels
Student Portfolios
Purposes of Portfolios
Kinds of Portfolios
What Goes into a Portfolio?
Organizing a Portfolio Program
Summary
References

7. Assessing and Teaching Middle and Secondary School Readers and Writers
The Reading and Writing Issues of Older Students
Why Should We Be Concerned About Older Students’ Reading and Writing Ability?
Responding to the Needs of Readers and Writers in Middle and Secondary Grades
Reading Strategies for Use across the Curriculum
Strategies for the Anticipation Phase
Strategies for the Building Knowledge Phase
Strategies for the Reflection Phase
Providing Close Support for Students’ Reading Development
Organizing Focused Strategic and Intensive Instruction
Assessing Readers for Focused Instruction
Planning Lessons for Readers with Disabilities
Teaching Strategies to Build Reading Competence
Introducing and Focusing Attention on New Vocabulary
Close Reading
Helping Older Students Write
Eleven Elements of Effective Adolescent Writing Instruction
Teaching Writing Strategies and Teaching the Writing Process Approach
Having Goals for Writing
Keyboarding Skill
Writing for Inquiry
Motivational and Emotional Issues of Adolescent Students with Reading Problems
Guiding Principles and Theories
Summary
References

8. Assessing and Teaching Spelling and Writing
Monitoring Spelling Progress and Problems
Developmental Spelling Stages
Nonalphabetic Stage
Early Emergent Stage
Later Emergent Stage
Letter Name Stage
Within Word Pattern Stage
Syllables and Affixes Stage
Derivational Constancy Stage
Documenting Spelling Progress
Word Knowledge Inventory
Developmental Spelling Analysis
The Gentry Spelling Grade Level Test
Focused Teaching of Spelling
Monitoring Writing Progress
Writing Samples
Writing Checklists
Six Traits Writing Evaluation
Writing Rubrics
Summary
References

9. Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
Introduction
Cultural Differences in the Mainstream Classroom
How Do Different Cultures Conceptualize Literacy?
How Do Communication Styles Differ among Cultures?
What Participation Structures Do Different Cultures Favor?
What Task Engagement Preferences Do People in Different Cultures Have?
How Is Discourse Organized in Different Cultures?
How Can Teachers Accommodate Cultural Differences in the Mainstream Classroom?
Linguistic Differences in the Mainstream Classroom
How Can Teachers Accommodate Nonstandard Dialects in the Mainstream Classroom?
How Does English Compare to Other Languages?
How Can Teachers Accommodate Linguistic Differences in the Mainstream Classroom?
How Do People Learn a Second Language?
How Can Teachers Support English Language Development in the Mainstream Classroom?
The Role of the First Language in Second Language and Literacy Development
How Can Teachers Include English Language Learners’ First Language
in the Mainstream Classroom?
Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
Summary
References

10. Formal Measures
Understanding Formal Measures
Characteristics of Tests
Reliability
Validity
Interpreting Test Results
Distributions of Test Scores
Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode
Measures of Dispersion: Range and Standard Deviation
Forms of Test Scores
Norm Referenced Tests
Achievement Tests
Diagnostic Tests
Criterion Referenced Tests
Goals and Objectives
Benchmarks and Rubrics
State Standards and Assessment
Summary
References

11. Factors Related to Reading Problems
Philosophical and Legal Issues Related to Students with Special Needs
Past Legislation Affecting Students with Special Needs
IDEA and NCLB
Response to Intervention and Special Education
Student Participation in General Education
Identifying Students with Special Needs
Assessment of Special Educational Needs
Intellectual Factors
Tests of Intelligence and Learning Aptitude
The Role of Experience
Language Minority Students
Physical Factors
Vision and Visual Problems
Hearing and Auditory Problems
Language Factors
Language Acquisition and Difficulties in Infancy and Early Childhood
Language Development and Difficulties in Preschool and Primary Grades
Language Development and Difficulties in Later Childhood
Special Learning Problems
Learning Disabilities
Dyslexia
Designing Individualized Interventions
Interventions for Phonological Awareness
Interventions for Improving Fluency
Interventions for Improving Comprehension
Summary
References

Name Index
Subject Index

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