Beginning Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Primer, 7th edition

  • Ralph L. Rosnow, 
  • Robert Rosenthal

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Overview

Beginning Behavioral Research introduces behavioral research methods with step-by-step guidance in planning an empirical study, analyzing and interpreting data, and reporting findings and conclusions -- to help you develop an understanding of the applicability and limits of the scientific method.

Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021) - Copyright © 2013

ISBN-13: 9780137521166

Subject: Research Methods & Statistics

Category: Beginning Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Primer

Table of contents

In this Section:

  1. Brief Table of Contents
  2. Full Table of Contents

1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I GETTING STARTED

  • Chapter 1 Behavioral Research and the Scientific Method
  • Chapter 2 From Hunches to Testable Hypotheses
  • Chapter 3 Ethical Considerations and Guidelines

PART II OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT

  • Chapter 4 Methods of Systematic Observation
  • Chapter 5 Methods for Looking Within Ourselves
  • Chapter 6 Reliability and Validity in Measurement and Research

PART III DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

  • Chapter 7 Randomized Experiments and Causal Inference
  • Chapter 8 Nonrandomized Research and Causal Reasoning
  • Chapter 9 Survey Research and Subject Recruitment

PART IV DESCRIBING DATA AND DRAWING INFERENCES

  • Chapter 10 Summarizing the Data
  • Chapter 11 Correlating Variables
  • Chapter 12 Understanding p Values and Effect Size Indicators

PART V STATISTICAL TESTS

  • Chapter 13 The Comparison of Two Conditions
  • Chapter 14 Comparisons of More Than Two Conditions
  • Chapter 15 The Analysis of Frequency Tables

Appendices

  • Appendix A Reporting Your Research Results
  • Appendix B Statistical Tables
  • Appendix C Introduction to Meta-Analysis

2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • Chapter 1: Behavioral Research and the Scientific Method
    • Preview Questions
    • Why Study Research Methods and Data Analysis?
    • What Alternatives Are There to the Scientific Method?
    • How Do Scientists Use Empirical Reasoning?
    • How Is Empirical Reasoning Used in Behavioral Research?
    • How Do Extraempirical Factors Come Into Play?
    • What Does Behavioral Science Cover?
    • How Does Research Go From Descriptive to Relational to Experimental?
    • What Are the Characteristics of Good Researchers?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 2: From Hunches to Testable Hypotheses
    • Preview Questions
    • What Is Meant by a Cycle of Discovery and Justification?
    • What Are Hypothesis-Generating Heuristics?
    • What Is the Potential Role of Serendipity
    • How Can I Do a LiteratureSearch?
    • How Should I Go About Defining Variables?
    • What Identifies “Good” Theories and Working Hypotheses?
    • What Is the Distinction Between an Independent Variable and Dependent Variable?
    • What Belongs in My Research Proposal?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 3: Ethical Considerations and Guidelines
    • Preview Questions
    • How Do Ethical Guidelines in Research Function?
    • What Is Informed Consent, and When Is It Used?
    • How Are Ethics Reviews Done and Acted On?
    • What Are Obstacles to the Rendering of “Full Justice”?
    • How Can a “Relationship of Trust” Be Established?
    • How Do Scientific Quality and Ethical Quality Intertwine?
    • Is Deception in Research Ever Justified?
    • What Is the Purpose of Debriefing, and How Is It Done?
    • How Is Animal Research Governed by Ethical Rules?
    • What Ethical Responsibilities Are There When Writing Up Research?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 4: Methods of Systematic Observation
    • Preview Questions
    • What Is Meant by Systematic Observation?
    • How Do Researchers Simultaneously Participate and Observe?
    • What Can Be Learned from Quantifying Observations?
    • How Are Judgment Studies Done?
    • How Does Content Analysis Work?
    • How Are Situations Simulated in Controlled Settings?
    • What Are Plausible Rival Hypotheses and the Third-Variable Problem?
    • What Is the Distinction Between Reactive and Nonreactive Observation?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 5: Methods for Looking Within Ourselves
    • Preview Questions
    • What Are the Uses and Limitations of Self-Report Measures?
    • What Are Open-Ended and Fixed-Choice Items?
    • How Are Personality and Projective Tests Used?
    • What Is Meant By Measuring Implicit Attitudes?
    • What Are Numerical, Forced-Choice, and Graphic Ratings?
    • What Are Rating Errors, and How Are They Controlled?
    • What Is the Semantic Differential Method?
    • What Are Likert Scales and Thurstone Scales?
    • How Are Items Prepared for a Questionnaire or an Interview?
    • How Are Face-to-Face and Telephone Interviews Done?
    • How Are Behavioral Diaries Used in Research?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 6: Reliability and Validity in Measurement and Research
    • Preview Questions
    • What Is the Difference Between Validity and Reliability?
    • What Are Random and Systematic Errors?
    • What Is the Purpose of Retest and Alternate-Form Reliability?
    • What Is Internal-Consistency Reliability, and How Is It Increased?
    • What Is Acceptable Test-Retest and Internal-Consistency Reliability?
    • How Is the Reliability of Judges Measured?
    • How Is Reliability Related to Replication and External Validity?
    • How Are Content and Criterion Validity Defined?
    • How Is Construct Validity Assessed in Test Development?
    • How Is Construct Validity Relevant to Experimental Design?
    • What Is the Importance of Statistical-Conclusion Validity and Internal Validity?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 7: Randomized Experiments and Causal Inference
    • Preview Questions
    • What Is the Purpose of Randomized Experiments?
    • How Is Random Assignment Accomplished?
    • What Are Between-Subjects Designs?
    • What Is the Formative Logic of Experimental Control
    • What Are Within-Subjects Designs?
    • What Are Factorial Designs?
    • What Is Meant by Counterbalancing the Conditions?
    • Why Is Causality Said To Be “Shrouded in Mystery”?
    • How Do Scientists Logically Puzzle Out Efficient Causality?
    • What Conditions Pose a Threat to Internal Validity?
    • What Are Artifacts in Research?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 8: Nonrandomized Research and Causal Reasoning
    • Preview Questions
    • How Is Causal Reasoning Attempted in the Absence of Randomization?
    • How Is the Third-Variable Problem Relevant?
    • What Is Meant By Subclassification on Propensity Scores?
    • What Are Time-Series Designs and “Found Experiments”?
    • What Within-Subjects Designs Are Used in Single-Case Experiments?
    • How Are Correlations Interpreted in Cross-Lagged Panel Designs?
    • What Is the Purpose of Longitudinal Research Using Cohorts?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 9: Survey Research and Subject Recruitment
    • Preview Questions
    • What Are Opportunity and Probability Samples?
    • What Is Meant by Bias and Instability in Survey Research?
    • Why Do We Not Know “For Sure” the Bias in Sampling?
    • How Is Simple Random Sampling Done?
    • What Are Stratified Random Sampling and Area Probability Sampling?
    • What Did the Literary Digest Case Teach Pollsters?
    • What Are Point Estimates and Interval Estimates?
    • What Are the Benefits of Stratification?
    • How Is Nonresponse Bias Handled in Survey Research?
    • What Are the Typical Characteristics of Volunteer Subjects?
    • How Is Volunteer Bias in Opportunity Samples Managed?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 10: Summarizing the Data
    • Preview Questions
    • How Is Visual Integrity Ensured When Results Are Graphed?
    • How Are Frequencies Displayed in Tables, Bar Graphs, and Line Graphs?
    • How Do Stem-and-Leaf Charts Work?
    • How Are Percentiles Used to Summarize Part of a Batch?
    • How Is an Exploratory Data Analysis Done?
    • How Does Asymmetry Affect Measures of Central Tendency?
    • How Do I Measure How “Spread Out” a Set of Scores Is?
    • What Are Descriptive and Inferential Measures?
    • How Do I Estimate a Confidence Interval Around a Population Mean?
    • What Is Distinctive About the Normal Distribution?
    • Why Are z Scores Called Standard Scores, and How Are They Used?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 11: Correlating Variables
    • Preview Questions
    • What Are Different Forms of Correlations?
    • How Are Correlations Visualized in Scatter Plots?
    • How Is a Product-Moment Correlation Calculated?
    • How Is Dummy Coding Used in Correlation?
    • When Is the Phi Coefficient Used?
    • How Is a Correlation Calculated on Ranks?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 12: Understanding p Values and Effect Size Indicators
    • Preview Questions
    • Why Is It Important to Focus Not Just on p Values?
    • What Is the Reasoning Behind Null Hypothesis Significance Testing?
    • What Is the Distinction Between Type I and Type II Error?
    • What Are One-Tailed and Two-Tailed p Values?
    • What Is the Counternull Statistic?
    • What Is the Purpose of Doing a Power Analysis?
    • How Do I Estimate a Confidence Interval for an Effect Size Correlation?
    • What Can Effect Sizes Tell Us of Practical Importance?
    • What Does Killeen’s prep Tell Me?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 13: The Comparison of Two Conditions
    • Preview Questions
    • What Do Signal-to-Noise Ratios Have to Do With t Tests?
    • How Do I Compute an Independent-Sample t Test?
    • What Can a Table of p Values for t Teach Me?
    • What Is an Effect Size Index for an Independent-Sample t?
    • How Do I Interpret Cohen’s d for Independent Groups?
    • How Do I Compute Interval Estimates for Cohen’s d?
    • How Can I Maximize the Independent-Sample t?
    • How Does a Paired t Test Differ From an Independent-Sample t Test?
    • What Is an Effect Size Index for a Paired t?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 14: Comparisons of More Than Two Conditions
    • Preview Questions
    • What Is Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and How Are F and t Related?
    • How Is Variability Apportioned in a One-Way ANOVA?
    • How Are ANOVA Summary Tables Set Up and Interpreted?
    • How Can I Test for Simple Effects After an Omnibus F?
    • How Is Variability Apportioned in a Two-Way ANOVA?
    • How Do I Interpret Main and Interaction Effects?
    • How Is a Two-Way ANOVA Computed and a Summary Table Set Up?
    • What Are Contrasts, and How Do I Compute Them On More Than Two Groups?
    • What Do reffect size r alerting and rcontrast Tell Me?
    • How Are Contrasts on Multiple Repeated Measures Computed?
    • How Are Latin Square Designs Analyzed?
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions
  • Chapter 15: The Analysis of Frequency Tables
    • Preview Questions
    • What Is the Purpose of Chi-Square (X2)?
    • How Do I Compute 1-df Chi-Squares?
    • How Do I Obtain the p Value, Effect Size, and Confidence Interval?
    • What Is the Relationship Between 1df X2 and Phi?
    • How Do I Deal With Tables Larger Than 2X2?
    • How Is Standardizing the Margins Done, and What Can It Tell Me?
    • What Is a Binomial Effect-Size Display Used For?
    • A Journey Begun
    • Summary of Ideas
    • Key Terms
    • Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
    • Discussion Questions for Review
    • Answers to Review Questions

Appendix A Reporting Your Research Results

  • Research Reports in APA Style
  • Getting Started
  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Method
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Footnotes
  • Tables and Figures
  • Appendix
  • Writing and Revising

Appendix B Statistical Tables

  • B.1. z Values and Their Associated One-Tailed p Values
  • B.2. t Values and Their Associated One-Tailed and Two-Tailed p Values
  • B.3. F Values and Their Associated p Values
  • B.4. r2 Values and Their Associated p Values
  • B.5. r Values and Their Associated p Values
  • B.6. Transformations of r to Fisher zr
  • B.7. Transformations of Fisher zr to r

Appendix C Introduction to Meta-Analysis

  • The Purpose of Meta-Analysis
  • Some Pro and Con Arguments
  • Comparing Two Effect Sizes
  • Combining Two Effect Sizes
  • Obtaining an Overall Significance Level
  • Detective-Like Probing of Reported Data
  • The File Drawer Problem

Glossary of Terms

References

Name Index

Subject Index

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