Beginning Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Primer, 7th edition
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Overview
Continuing the Chain of Discovery and Understanding
Beginning Behavioral Research introduces students to the broad base and conceptual underpinnings of basic principles of ethical research with human participants from (a) the development of ideas and testable hypotheses, to (b) the selection of appropriate methods of measurement and data collection, to (c) the design and implementation of empirical research, to (d) the statistical analysis and interpretation of results, and finally, to (e) the reporting of findings and conclusions. The authors emphasize good research, empirical reasoning, and the continuity of psychological science in the continuing cycle of discovery and understanding.
The beginning in the title of this text is intended to have a double meaning. It not only describes the level of the material but also conveys the idea of a journey. For some students, the journey will be completed at the end of the course in which this text is used. For others, the journey will have just begun. In either case, students will have a deeper understanding of the applicability and limits of the scientific method. They will also have learned how to frame questions about the scientific results they read or hear about in the media in ways that will allow them to reach beyond other people’s conclusions or assertions and decide for themselves what is true.
Additional Learning Goals
Upon completing this book, students who are expected to conduct a research study should be able to:
 Craft a research idea that can be empirically tested
 Choose methods of data collection and measurement
 Develop a research proposal
 Design and implement the research study
 Approach the research data
 Test and evaluate hypotheses and explore the results
 Report the research project in the APA style
Published by Pearson (July 14th 2021)  Copyright © 2013
ISBN13: 9780137521166
Subject: Research Methods & Statistics
Category: Beginning Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Primer
Overview
In this Section:
 Brief Table of Contents
 Full Table of Contents
1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I GETTING STARTED
 Chapter 1 Behavioral Research and the Scientific Method
 Chapter 2 From Hunches to Testable Hypotheses
 Chapter 3 Ethical Considerations and Guidelines
PART II OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT
 Chapter 4 Methods of Systematic Observation
 Chapter 5 Methods for Looking Within Ourselves
 Chapter 6 Reliability and Validity in Measurement and Research
PART III DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
 Chapter 7 Randomized Experiments and Causal Inference
 Chapter 8 Nonrandomized Research and Causal Reasoning
 Chapter 9 Survey Research and Subject Recruitment
PART IV DESCRIBING DATA AND DRAWING INFERENCES
 Chapter 10 Summarizing the Data
 Chapter 11 Correlating Variables
 Chapter 12 Understanding p Values and Effect Size Indicators
PART V STATISTICAL TESTS
 Chapter 13 The Comparison of Two Conditions
 Chapter 14 Comparisons of More Than Two Conditions
 Chapter 15 The Analysis of Frequency Tables
Appendices
 Appendix A Reporting Your Research Results
 Appendix B Statistical Tables
 Appendix C Introduction to MetaAnalysis
2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Chapter 1: Behavioral Research and the Scientific Method
 Preview Questions
 Why Study Research Methods and Data Analysis?
 What Alternatives Are There to the Scientific Method?
 How Do Scientists Use Empirical Reasoning?
 How Is Empirical Reasoning Used in Behavioral Research?
 How Do Extraempirical Factors Come Into Play?
 What Does Behavioral Science Cover?
 How Does Research Go From Descriptive to Relational to Experimental?
 What Are the Characteristics of Good Researchers?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 2: From Hunches to Testable Hypotheses
 Preview Questions
 What Is Meant by a Cycle of Discovery and Justification?
 What Are HypothesisGenerating Heuristics?
 What Is the Potential Role of Serendipity
 How Can I Do a LiteratureSearch?
 How Should I Go About Defining Variables?
 What Identifies “Good” Theories and Working Hypotheses?
 What Is the Distinction Between an Independent Variable and Dependent Variable?
 What Belongs in My Research Proposal?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 3: Ethical Considerations and Guidelines
 Preview Questions
 How Do Ethical Guidelines in Research Function?
 What Is Informed Consent, and When Is It Used?
 How Are Ethics Reviews Done and Acted On?
 What Are Obstacles to the Rendering of “Full Justice”?
 How Can a “Relationship of Trust” Be Established?
 How Do Scientific Quality and Ethical Quality Intertwine?
 Is Deception in Research Ever Justified?
 What Is the Purpose of Debriefing, and How Is It Done?
 How Is Animal Research Governed by Ethical Rules?
 What Ethical Responsibilities Are There When Writing Up Research?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 4: Methods of Systematic Observation
 Preview Questions
 What Is Meant by Systematic Observation?
 How Do Researchers Simultaneously Participate and Observe?
 What Can Be Learned from Quantifying Observations?
 How Are Judgment Studies Done?
 How Does Content Analysis Work?
 How Are Situations Simulated in Controlled Settings?
 What Are Plausible Rival Hypotheses and the ThirdVariable Problem?
 What Is the Distinction Between Reactive and Nonreactive Observation?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 5: Methods for Looking Within Ourselves
 Preview Questions
 What Are the Uses and Limitations of SelfReport Measures?
 What Are OpenEnded and FixedChoice Items?
 How Are Personality and Projective Tests Used?
 What Is Meant By Measuring Implicit Attitudes?
 What Are Numerical, ForcedChoice, and Graphic Ratings?
 What Are Rating Errors, and How Are They Controlled?
 What Is the Semantic Differential Method?
 What Are Likert Scales and Thurstone Scales?
 How Are Items Prepared for a Questionnaire or an Interview?
 How Are FacetoFace and Telephone Interviews Done?
 How Are Behavioral Diaries Used in Research?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 6: Reliability and Validity in Measurement and Research
 Preview Questions
 What Is the Difference Between Validity and Reliability?
 What Are Random and Systematic Errors?
 What Is the Purpose of Retest and AlternateForm Reliability?
 What Is InternalConsistency Reliability, and How Is It Increased?
 What Is Acceptable TestRetest and InternalConsistency Reliability?
 How Is the Reliability of Judges Measured?
 How Is Reliability Related to Replication and External Validity?
 How Are Content and Criterion Validity Defined?
 How Is Construct Validity Assessed in Test Development?
 How Is Construct Validity Relevant to Experimental Design?
 What Is the Importance of StatisticalConclusion Validity and Internal Validity?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 7: Randomized Experiments and Causal Inference
 Preview Questions
 What Is the Purpose of Randomized Experiments?
 How Is Random Assignment Accomplished?
 What Are BetweenSubjects Designs?
 What Is the Formative Logic of Experimental Control
 What Are WithinSubjects Designs?
 What Are Factorial Designs?
 What Is Meant by Counterbalancing the Conditions?
 Why Is Causality Said To Be “Shrouded in Mystery”?
 How Do Scientists Logically Puzzle Out Efficient Causality?
 What Conditions Pose a Threat to Internal Validity?
 What Are Artifacts in Research?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 8: Nonrandomized Research and Causal Reasoning
 Preview Questions
 How Is Causal Reasoning Attempted in the Absence of Randomization?
 How Is the ThirdVariable Problem Relevant?
 What Is Meant By Subclassification on Propensity Scores?
 What Are TimeSeries Designs and “Found Experiments”?
 What WithinSubjects Designs Are Used in SingleCase Experiments?
 How Are Correlations Interpreted in CrossLagged Panel Designs?
 What Is the Purpose of Longitudinal Research Using Cohorts?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 9: Survey Research and Subject Recruitment
 Preview Questions
 What Are Opportunity and Probability Samples?
 What Is Meant by Bias and Instability in Survey Research?
 Why Do We Not Know “For Sure” the Bias in Sampling?
 How Is Simple Random Sampling Done?
 What Are Stratified Random Sampling and Area Probability Sampling?
 What Did the Literary Digest Case Teach Pollsters?
 What Are Point Estimates and Interval Estimates?
 What Are the Benefits of Stratification?
 How Is Nonresponse Bias Handled in Survey Research?
 What Are the Typical Characteristics of Volunteer Subjects?
 How Is Volunteer Bias in Opportunity Samples Managed?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 10: Summarizing the Data
 Preview Questions
 How Is Visual Integrity Ensured When Results Are Graphed?
 How Are Frequencies Displayed in Tables, Bar Graphs, and Line Graphs?
 How Do StemandLeaf Charts Work?
 How Are Percentiles Used to Summarize Part of a Batch?
 How Is an Exploratory Data Analysis Done?
 How Does Asymmetry Affect Measures of Central Tendency?
 How Do I Measure How “Spread Out” a Set of Scores Is?
 What Are Descriptive and Inferential Measures?
 How Do I Estimate a Confidence Interval Around a Population Mean?
 What Is Distinctive About the Normal Distribution?
 Why Are z Scores Called Standard Scores, and How Are They Used?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 11: Correlating Variables
 Preview Questions
 What Are Different Forms of Correlations?
 How Are Correlations Visualized in Scatter Plots?
 How Is a ProductMoment Correlation Calculated?
 How Is Dummy Coding Used in Correlation?
 When Is the Phi Coefficient Used?
 How Is a Correlation Calculated on Ranks?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 12: Understanding p Values and Effect Size Indicators
 Preview Questions
 Why Is It Important to Focus Not Just on p Values?
 What Is the Reasoning Behind Null Hypothesis Significance Testing?
 What Is the Distinction Between Type I and Type II Error?
 What Are OneTailed and TwoTailed p Values?
 What Is the Counternull Statistic?
 What Is the Purpose of Doing a Power Analysis?
 How Do I Estimate a Confidence Interval for an Effect Size Correlation?
 What Can Effect Sizes Tell Us of Practical Importance?
 What Does Killeen’s p_{rep} Tell Me?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 13: The Comparison of Two Conditions
 Preview Questions
 What Do SignaltoNoise Ratios Have to Do With t Tests?
 How Do I Compute an IndependentSample t Test?
 What Can a Table of p Values for t Teach Me?
 What Is an Effect Size Index for an IndependentSample t?
 How Do I Interpret Cohen’s d for Independent Groups?
 How Do I Compute Interval Estimates for Cohen’s d?
 How Can I Maximize the IndependentSample t?
 How Does a Paired t Test Differ From an IndependentSample t Test?
 What Is an Effect Size Index for a Paired t?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 14: Comparisons of More Than Two Conditions
 Preview Questions
 What Is Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and How Are F and t Related?
 How Is Variability Apportioned in a OneWay ANOVA?
 How Are ANOVA Summary Tables Set Up and Interpreted?
 How Can I Test for Simple Effects After an Omnibus F?
 How Is Variability Apportioned in a TwoWay ANOVA?
 How Do I Interpret Main and Interaction Effects?
 How Is a TwoWay ANOVA Computed and a Summary Table Set Up?
 What Are Contrasts, and How Do I Compute Them On More Than Two Groups?
 What Do r_{effect }_{size r}_{ alerting} and r_{contrast} Tell Me?
 How Are Contrasts on Multiple Repeated Measures Computed?
 How Are Latin Square Designs Analyzed?
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
 Chapter 15: The Analysis of Frequency Tables
 Preview Questions
 What Is the Purpose of ChiSquare (X^{2})?
 How Do I Compute 1df ChiSquares?
 How Do I Obtain the p Value, Effect Size, and Confidence Interval?
 What Is the Relationship Between 1df X^{2} and Phi?
 How Do I Deal With Tables Larger Than 2X2?
 How Is Standardizing the Margins Done, and What Can It Tell Me?
 What Is a Binomial EffectSize Display Used For?
 A Journey Begun
 Summary of Ideas
 Key Terms
 MultipleChoice Questions for Review
 Discussion Questions for Review
 Answers to Review Questions
Appendix A Reporting Your Research Results
 Research Reports in APA Style
 Getting Started
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Method
 Results
 Discussion
 References
 Footnotes
 Tables and Figures
 Appendix
 Writing and Revising
Appendix B Statistical Tables
 B.1. z Values and Their Associated OneTailed p Values
 B.2. t Values and Their Associated OneTailed and TwoTailed p Values
 B.3. F Values and Their Associated p Values
 B.4. r^{2} Values and Their Associated p Values
 B.5. r Values and Their Associated p Values
 B.6. Transformations of r to Fisher zr
 B.7. Transformations of Fisher zr to r
Appendix C Introduction to MetaAnalysis
 The Purpose of MetaAnalysis
 Some Pro and Con Arguments
 Comparing Two Effect Sizes
 Combining Two Effect Sizes
 Obtaining an Overall Significance Level
 DetectiveLike Probing of Reported Data
 The File Drawer Problem
Glossary of Terms
References
Name Index
Subject Index
Your questions answered
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