Expanding Family Life Cycle, The: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives

Expanding Family Life Cycle, The: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives, 5th edition

  • Monica McGoldrick, 
  • Nydia A. Garcia Preto, 
  • Betty A. Carter

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Overview

The Expanding Family Life Cycle takes a comprehensive look at ways to think about human development and the life cycle. This title also gives you a solid understanding of human development and the life cycle within the increasing racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity across the life cycle in the United States today.

Published by Pearson (December 11th 2020) - Copyright © 2016

ISBN-13: 9780205999699

Subject: Social Work & Human Services

Category: Practice in Social Work

Table of contents

Part 1 Perspectives on the Evolving Family Life Cycle

Chapter 1 OVERVIEW: THE LIFE CYCLE IN ITS CHANGING CONTEXT: INDIVIDUAL, FAMILY AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES

Monica McGoldrick, Nydia Garcia Preto & Betty Carter
The Family Life Cycle: A System Moving Through Time
The Changing Patterns of the Family Life Cycle

Dimensions of Human Development in the Context of the Family and Society

Developing a Self in Context: Belonging
Friendship Through the Life Cycle
Developing a Self in Context: Gender
The Connected Self: Beyond Autonomy and Self Determination

A Multi-Contextual Life Cycle Framework for Understanding Human Development

Anxiety, Symptom Development and Healing
The Socio-Cultural Context of Human Development
The Family Context of Human Development
The Individual Life Cycle in Context

Multi-Contextual Assessment
Case Illustration: The Aiello-Lopez Family
Conclusion

Figures-Genograms-
Figure 1.1: A Multi-Contextual Life Cycle Framework for Clinical Assessment
Figure 1.2: Multi-Contextual Framework for Clinical Assessment
Table 1.1: Phases of the Family Life Cycle
Table 1.2: The Individual Life Cycle in Context
Figure 1.3: Guidelines for a Multi-Contextual Life Cycle Assessment
Figure 1.4: The Aiello-Lopez Family

Chapter 2 WOMEN AND THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE

Monica McGoldrick
Women’s Changing Life Cycle Roles
Women and Education
Women and Work
Women in Families
Women in the Middle: Women and Caretaking
Women’s Exclusion From Power Under the Law and Societal Expectations
Women and Marriage
Mothers and Children
Adolescence
Stepmothers
Launching Children and Moving On
Older Families
Women and Their Friendship Networks
Women and Loss
Conclusion: Affirming Women Through the Life Cycle

Chapter 3 MEN AND THE LIFE CYCLE

Matthew R. Mock & Tim Baima
Introduction
Childhood and Adolescence
Men and Work
Men as Partners and Husbands
Fatherhood
Men in Later Life
Conclusion

Chapter 4 SOCIAL CLASS AND THE LIFE CYCLE

Jodie Kliman
Introduction
Intersections of Class and Other Factors
Understanding Social Class
Class Position and Families
Invisible class differences
Case Examples
Social Class and Families With Young Children
Social Class and Families With Older Children and Adolescents
Social Class and Families With Late Adolescents and Young Adults
Social Class and Families With Adults in Mid- and Later Life
Conclusions: Implications for Family Therapy
Figures-Genograms-
Figure 4.1: Sophie and Daniel’s Genogram
Figure 4.2: Ta’esha’s Genogram
Figure 4.3: Miguelito’s Genogram
Figure 4.4: Author’s Genogram

Chapter 5 THE LIFE CYCLE OF ECONOMICALLY FRAGILE FAMILIES

Paulette Moore Hines
Factors Affecting Multi-Stressed Families Throughout the Life Cycle
Racial-Cultural Discrimination
Female-Headed Households
High Unemployment/Underemployment
Uncertainty
Toxic Environments
Ongoing Trauma Exposure, Disruptions in Attachments, and Untimely Losses
Reliance on Institutional Supports
A Condensed Life Cycle
The Condensed Family Life Cycle: Assessment and Treatment

Stage 1: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

Key Assessment and Intervention Considerations

Stage 2: Coupling and Raising Children

Sustaining Intimate Relationships
Taking on Parental Roles
Realigning Relationships with Extended Family
Key Assessment and Intervention Considerations

Stage 3: Families in Later Life

Key Assessment and Intervention Considerations
Overarching Assessment and Treatment Considerations
Case Illustration
Avoiding Therapist Burn-Out

Conclusion

Chapter 6 SEXUALITY AND THE LIFE CYCLE
Tracey Laszloffy
Sexuality and Individual and Family Development
Boundaries
The Bergens: A Case of Rigid Boundaries
The Mishras: A Case of Loose Boundaries
Sexual Beliefs/Messages and Resulting Feelings/Behaviors
Intergenerational Patterns Related to Sex and Gender
Cultural Normas
Religion Sex and Sin
Social Class
Ethnic/Racial Background
Soeietal Organizing Principles
Sexuality Over the Life Cycle
Couplehood
Pregnancy
Young Children and Families
Adolescents and Families
Mid-Life
Families with Older Family Members
Case Study

Summary

Figure 6.1: Mahoney/Corelli family genogram
Table 6.1 Beliefs/Messages
Chapter 7 LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, AND TRANSGENDER INDIVIDUALS AND THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE

Deidre Ashton

Introduction
Current Status of LGBT Families in the United States
Access to Marriage
Family Growth
Diversity Among LGBT Families
Models of LGBT Identity Development
Lesbian and Gay Identity Development
Bisexual Identity Development
Transgender Identity Development
Coming Out
The Family Life Cycle
Leaving Home and Staying Connected: Launching and Single Adulthood
Coupling
Parenting: Families With Young Children
Parenting: Families With Adolescent Children
Families in Later Life
Conclusion

Chapter 8 SPIRITUALITY AND THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE

Sueli Petry
Spirituality and Religion in America
Family Life Cycle Theory and Application to Context of Spirituality
Children and Spirituality
Case Study–Anthony and Angelina: children’s spiritual beliefs may comfort or cause anxiety
Adolescence: Identity Development and Spirituality
Case Study–Joshua: adolescents challenge family beliefs
Early Adulthood: Time to Explore and Make Choices About Spiritual Beliefs
Case Study–Lorraine and Richard: interfaith couple’s counseling
Case Study–Ana and Luis: spirituality overcomes oppression
Middle-Age: Beliefs Reaffirmed
Case Study–Lucy: spirituality, spirits, and resiliency in the face of untimely loss
Older Adults: Aging and Facing Mortality
Case Study–Pearl: spirituality promotes dignity in the face of poverty and oppression
Case Study–Eleanor: unresolved spiritual issues and depression

Conclusion

Figures-Genograms-
Figure 8.1: Joshua’s Genogram
Figure 8.2: Lorraine and Richard’s Genogram
Figure 8.3: Ana and Luis’ Genogram
Figure 8.4: Lucy’s Genogram

Chapter 9 SIBLINGS AND THE LIFE CYCLE

Monica McGoldrick & Marlene Watson

The Importance of Sibling Relationships Through the Life Cycle
Age Spacing
Gender Differences
Culture, Class, Race and Ethnicity
Racial /Ethnic Identity of Siblings
Birth-Order Effects in Sibling Relationships
Life Cycle Issues in Families With Disabled Siblings
Sibling Positions and Parenting
Siblings and Adolescent Relationships
Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood
Sibling Positions and Marital Relationships
In-Laws, Step- and Half Siblings
Sibling Relationships in Midlife
Sibling Relationships After the Death of Parents
Rules of Thumb for Sibling Relationships Through the Life Cycle

Conclusions

Chapter 10 SINGLE ADULTS AND THE LIFE CYCLE
Kathy Berliner, Demaris Jacob, & Natalie Schwartzberg
Introduction
Setting the Clinical Stage
Marriage as Social Empowerment
Marriage And The Family Of Origin
Multigenerational Themes
Class And Culture
The Single Person’s Life Cycle
The Twenties: Establishing Adulthood
The Thirties: The Single Crisis
Tasks
Midlife: Developing Alternative Scripts

Later Life: Putting It All Together

References

CHAPTER 11 FRIENDSHIP AND THE LIFE CYCLE

Timothy Baima & Kiran Arora

Introduction

Trends Across The Life Cycle

Friendship in Childhood and Adolescence

Developmental Significance and Benefits of Friendship

Developmental Characteristics of Friendship in Childhood and Adolescence

Social Influences And Friendship Stability in Childhood and Adolescence

Adult Friendships

Characteristics of Adult Friendships

Friends and Resiliency

Gender and Adult Heterosexual Friendships

Heterosexual Couples and Friendships

Friendship and Divorce

Friendships in Later Life

Friendships Among Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People

Critical Themes of Friendship

Friendships and Family Relationships Complement One Another

Working on Relational Challenges in Friendships Improves Friendship Quality

Similarities Facilitate Friendship Bonds

Wholeness is Compromised in Order to Stabilize Friendship

Race is an Organizing Principle in Friendships

The Story of Our Friendship

Our Contexts

References

Chapter 12 MIGRATION AND THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE

Celia J. Falicov

A Social Constructionist View of the Life Cycle

MECA for Migration and Life Cycle Processes

MECA: Migration-Acculturation

Migration as a Developmental Process

Migration as Ambiguous Loss and Gain

Variations in the Experience of Traumatic Migration

Family Composition at Migration

Lack of Transitional Rituals

Transnationalism and Technologies of Communication

MECA: Ecological Context

Linguistic and Cultural Dissonance

Host Country Receptions and Community Insertions

Stresses of Racism

Double Consciousness as a Resilient Response

Silence, Poverty, Undocumented Status and Empowerment

MECA: Family Organization

Family Reorganization Due to Migration Changes

Generational Tensions and Family Reorganizations

CEFSA: Cultural Differences, Ecological Fears and Separation Anxiety

Gender Role Reorganizations in Couple Relationships

Family Separations and Reunifications

Truth or Lies

Transnational Therapies

MECA: Family Life Cycle

Cultural Change and Continuity in the Life Cycle

Age and Life Stage Implications for Migration

Religion and Spirituality

Pile-Up of Life Cycle Transitions in Transnational Contexts

Second Generation Transnational Exposure

The Immigrant’s Paradox

Conclusion

Table 12.1 Multidimensional Ecological Comparative Approach (MECA) Continuities and changes in immigrant family life cycle in cultural diversity and social justice processes.

Part 2 Life Cycle Transitions and Phases

Chapter 13 BECOMING AN ADULT: FINDING WAYS TO LOVE AND WORK

Richard H. Fulmer

Young Adulthood(s) in the New Century

Early Young Adulthood: Developmental Tasks

Work Tasks: Preparation Without Pay or Earning out of Necessity?

Relationship Tasks: Trying to Find Love in Lust

Early Young Adulthood: Ages 18 to 21

Later Young Adulthood, Ages 22 to 30: Trying to Consolidate Work and Family

Alcohol and drugs in later young adulthood

Family dynamics

Parents’ relationship

How financial support affects the relationship

Young adulthood “off the books”

Young adulthood for individuals with same-sex attractions

Young Adulthood for Men

Anticipation of Death

Barriers to Affiliation for Men

Affiliation: Can Fathers Help?

Young Adulthood for Women

Anticipation of Birth

Conclusion: Young Adulthood as a Transition for Three Generations

Chapter 14 BECOMING A COUPLE

Monica McGoldrick

Marriage in Our Times

Marriage: Sex, Love, Power, Money, and Administration

What makes Marital Adjustment More Difficult

Fusion and Intimacy

Gay and Lesbian Couples

The Wedding

Sexuality

Patterns With Extended Family

In-Laws

Sibling Issues in Couple Formation

Cultural Differences

Conclusion

Figure 14.1: Issues That Tend To Make Marital Adjustment More Difficult

Figure 14.2: Characteristics of Intimate Relationships

Chapter 15 BECOMING PARENTS: THE FAMILY WITH YOUNG CHILDREN

Monica McGoldrick, & Barbara Petkov, & Betty Carter

The Transition to Parenthood

Expectations Versus Reality

The Extended Family

Couple Relationships and Traditional Roles In The Parenthood Phase

Clinical Implications of Pull to Traditional Gender Roles

Child Care and The Work-Family Dilemma

Child-Rearing

Discipline

Single-Parenting

Teenage Parenting

Infertility

Adoption

Lesbian and Gay Parenting

Children with Disabilities

Child Abuse

Clinical Guidelines

The Evaluation

The Therapy

Shifting Among Levels of the System

Conclusion

Figures-Genograms-

Figure 15.1: Genogram of Gary and Sharon’s Family

Chapter 16 TRANSFORMATION OF THE FAMILY SYSTEM DURING ADOLESCENCE

Nydia Garcia Preto

Overview

Risk Behaviors and Prevention

Evolving One’s Identity: The Balance Between Self and Other: A Multicontextual Three Generational Perspective

A Multicontextual Three Generational View

Clinical Assessment

Conclusion

Chapter 17 FAMILIES AT MIDLIFE: LAUNCHING CHILDREN AND MOVING ON

Nydia Garcia Preto & Lynn Blacker

Overview: Midlife and Launching

Women and Men At Midlife

Facing Aging

Launching Children, and Redefining Relationships With Them

Renegotiating Relationships With Other Family Members And Friends

Accepting The Expansion Of The Family Through Marriage And Grandchildren

Renegotiating Couple Relationships

Divorce At Midlife

Renegotiating Relationships With Parents

The Death Of Parents

Conclusion

Chapter 18 FAMILIES IN LATER LIFE: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND RESILIENCE

Froma Walsh

The Graying of the Family

The Varying and Extended Family Life Course

From Ageism and Gerophobia to a Larger Vision of Later Life

The Vital Importance of Family Bonds

Later-Life Transitions and Challenges

Retirement

Grandparenthood

Chronic Illness and Family Caregiving

Dementias: The Long Good-Bye

Family Intervention Issues and Priorities

From Designated Caregiver to Caregiving Team

Placement Planning

End-of-life Challenges and Loss of Loved Ones

Cross-Generational Interplay of Life Cycle Issues

Successful Aging: Meaning and Connection

The Wisdom and Spirit of the Elders

The Significance of Relational Connections

Clinical Challenges and Opportunities: A Resilience-Oriented Approach

Facilitating Family Healing and Resilience

Looking Ahead

Expanding Our Developmental Lens

Chapter 19 DEATH, LOSS, AND THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE

Monica McGoldrick & Froma Walsh

Family Adaptation to Loss

1. Shared Acknowledgment of the Death and Loss

2. Shared Experience of the Loss

3. Reorganization of the Family System

4. Reinvestment in Other Relationships and Life Pursuits

Assessing Loss In Life Cycle Perspective

Timing: When In The Family’s Life Cycle The Death Occurred

Role and Relationships with The Deceased

The Socio-Economic, Ethnic, Gender, Religious, Political and Historical Context of the Death

The Manner of Death

The Family’s History of Loss

Family Relationships and Resources at Time of Death

Loss at Various Family Life Cycle Stages

New Couples

Families with Young Children

Families with Adolescents

Launching and Moving On: Young Adults and Parents at Mid-life

Families in Later Life

Death in Divorced and Remarried Families

Varied Life Course Challenges: Hidden and Stigmatized Losses

Diverse Cultural and Spiritual Beliefs and Practices

Conclusion

Chapter 20 DIVORCE: AN UNSCHEDULED FAMILY TRANSITION

Constance R. Ahrons

The Context of Divorce: Historical and Legal Perspectives

Demographics and the Probability of Divorce

Ethnic, Gender and Life Cycle Variations

The Social Context

Divorce as a Multidimensional Process

The Binuclear Family

Dual-Household Binuclear Families

Transitions of the Divorce Process

The Transitions Framework

Individual Cognition: The Decision

Family Metacognition: The Announcement

Betrayal and Blame

Loss

Systemic Separation: Dismantling the Nuclear Family

Orderly and Disorderly Separations

Legal Issues

Systemic Reorganization: The Binuclear Family

The Former Spouse Relationship

Co-Parenting Relationships

Establishing Boundaries

Family Redefinition: The Aftermath

Clinical Overview

Chapter 21 SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES: STRENGTHS, VULNERABILITIES, AND INTERVENTIONS

Carol M. Anderson & Maria Anderson

Single Parents and the Family Life Cycle

New Single-Parent Families With Young Children

Single-Parent Families With Older Children And Adolescents

Single Parenting In The Post—Child-Rearing Years

When Single-Parent Families Seek Help

Cases Of Single-Parent Families Seeking Help

Angela: Balancing A Need For Independence With The Need For Support

Daniel: A Committed Single-Parent Father Against All Odds

Mary: Divorced, Overwhelmed, And In Crisis

Kathleen: Independent With A Vengeance

Conclusions

Chapter 22 THE REMARRIAGE CYCLE: DIVORCED, MULTINUCLEAR AND RECOUPLED FAMILIES

Monica McGoldrick & Betty Carter

Introduction

The Divorce-Remarriage Cycle

Predictable Issues In Remarriage

Adjustment and Family Integration Issues with Stepparents and Stepchildren

The Stress of Money

Gays and Lesbians in Stepfamilies

Emotional Issues: Anger, Grief, Pseudomutuality, Loyalty Conflicts, Conflict and Cutoff

Remarriage at Various Phases of the Family Life Cycle

Spouses at the Same Life Cycle Phase

Stepfamilies and Young Children

Stepfamilies With Adolescents

The Impact of Remarriage in Later Life Cycle Phases

Clinical Intervention With Remarried Families

Triangle between the new spouses and an ex-spouse

Triangle involving a pseudomutual remarried couple, an ex-spouse, and a child or children

Triangle involving a remarried couple in conflict over the child/children of one of them

Triangle involving a pseudomutual remarried couple, his children, and her children

Triangle involving a parent, the biological children, and the stepchildren

Triangle involving remarried spouses and the parents of either 332

Clinical Guidelines

Case Illustration

Figures-Genograms-

Figure 22.1: Genogram of Josh and Susan

Table 22.1: The Developmental Tasks for Divorcing & Remarrying Families

Part 3 Clinical Dilemmas and Interventions

Chapter 23 CHRONIC ILLNESS AND THE LIFE CYCLE

John S. Rolland

The Dimension of Time

The Social Context of Illness and Disabilities

Psychosocial Typology of Illness

Onset

Course

Outcome

Incapacitation

Uncertainty

Time Phases of Illness

Clinical Implications

Interweaving of the Illness, Individual and Family Development

Phases of Child-Rearing and Postlaunching

Life Cycle Transition Phases

Life Structure-Maintaining Phases

Multigenerational Experiences with Illness, Loss and Crisis

Illness Type and Time Phase Issues

Replication of System Patterns

Life Cycle Coincidences Across Generations

Serious Chronic Mental Disorders

The New Era of Genetics

Conclusion

Figure 23.1 Three dimensional model: illness type, time phase, family functioning.

Figure 23.2: Interface of Chronic Illness and the Family

Figure 23.3: Time Line and Phase of Illness

Table 23.1: Categorization of Chronic Illnesses by Psychosocial Type

Chapter 24 ALCOHOL PROBLEMS AND THE LIFE CYCLE

Tracey A. Laszloffy

Definitions of Alcoholism

Scope of the Problem

Risk Factors/Vulnerabilities

Biology and genetics

Family of origin

Age

Attitudes and beliefs about alcohol

Psychiatric disorders

Social marginalization and devaluation

Understanding Alcoholism From a Family Life Cycle Perspective

Contextual Factors

The Launching and Leaving Phase

New Couplehood

Sober—intoxicated interaction patterns

Skewed boundaries

Poor communication and low problem solving

Overfunctioning/underfunctioning

Gay and Lesbian Couples

Relationship Violence

Pregnancy and New Parenthood

Parenthood and Young Children

Approaches to Parenting

Effect of Alcoholism on Children

Families With Adolescents

Midlife Change

Divorce

Aging and Later Life

Implications for Treatment

Case Study

The Burton family

Conclusion

Chapter 25 VIOLENCE AND THE LIFE CYCLE

Monica McGoldrick & Mary Anne Ross

Introduction

Violence Is Abuse of Power

The Experience of Violence is Different for Men and Women

Not Just A Family Legacy But A Social Legacy

Couples

Families With Children

Children Experiencing Physical Violence

Child Sexual Abuse

Intervention Begins With Education

Bullying and Cyber-Bullying

Families With Adolescents

Assessment

Intervention

Families at Midlife

Older Families

Conclusion

Figures-Genograms-

Figure 25.1: U.S. Government Definition of Domestic Violence

Chapter 26 CREATING MEANINGFUL RITUALS FOR NEW LIFE CYCLE TRANSITIONS

Evan Imber-Black

Creating Rituals as a Developmental Task for Couples

Contemporary Life Cycle Transitions

El Salvador and the Bronx

The Emergence of Symptoms

The house-cooling party

Therapeutic Rituals

The giving of gifts

Discussion of the Ritual

Healing Rituals

Setting fire to the past

Identity Redefinition Rituals

A mutual adoption celebration

Designing and Implementing Rituals for New Life Cycle Transitions

Conclusion

Chapter 27 THE THERAPIST AND THE FAMILY: THE INTERSECTION OF LIFE CYCLES

Steve Lerner

Dimensions of Similarity Between Therapist and Client

Brief Scenarios: Complex Therapist—Family Life Cycle Interactions

Families With Young Children: A Complex Intersection

She Nurtures/He Earns: The Therapist’s Transition Gets in the Way

Supervision

Supervisory feedback

Family of origin data

The Long-Term View: Working With One Family Over Successive Life Cycle Stages

Working With Loss: A Link Between Life Cycle Stages

Conclusion

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