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Living organisms use energy from the metabolism of food to
create an energy-rich molecule called adenosine triphosphate
(ATP). The ATP acts as an energy source for a variety of reactions
that the living organism must carry out to survive. ATP provides
energy through its hydrolysis, which can be symbolized as follows:
ATP(aq) + H2O(l ) ¡ ADP(aq) + Pi(aq) ΔGrxn ° = -30.5 kJ
where ADP represents adenosine diphosphate and Pi represents
an inorganic phosphate group (such as HPO42 - ).
b. The free energy obtained from the oxidation (reaction with
oxygen) of glucose (C6H12O6) to form carbon dioxide and
water can be used to re-form ATP by driving the given reaction in reverse. Calculate the standard free energy change for
the oxidation of glucose and estimate the maximum number
of moles of ATP that can be formed by the oxidation of one
mole of glucose.